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What Is Unique For The Field? Highlighting The Scientific Profile Of Industrial Ecology (Abstract #7)
Ralf Isenmann
The contribution deals with the research question: what is unique for the field? How can the scientific profile of industrial ecology be identified and made clear? Setting the boundaries is essential to any field of research and its scientific community and of relevance both, for theory building as well as for educational issues like university curricula, course syllabi, training tools, and development of instructional materials. This is true especially for emerging entities evolving from diverse intellectual roots like Industrial Ecology. The contribution is organised in two major parts: First, it is argued that the discussion about what is essential for industrial ecology has become a topic of increasing importance, inside the community and from an outside perspective. This ongoing process of reflection is traced with the help of current literature. Second, a concept based in philosophy of science is proposed to make clear what is essential in industrial ecology. Such a meta-perspective is seen helpful for clarifying industrial ecology's emerging scientific profile. In order to make the concept vivid as possible, insights from a document analysis are presented identifying what is prototypical for industrial ecology. The document analysis covers all oral and poster presentations along the workshops that were held during the international industrial ecology conferences in Leiden 2001, Ann Arbour 2003, Stockholm 2005, Toronto 2007 and Lisboa 2009. As a result, a basic unifying architecture of industrial ecology is presented. This archi-tecture facilitates communication and education. Further, it helps to organize the emerging body of theory of the field and it makes clear the scientific profile of industrial ecology compared to other disciplines, fields of research, academic branches, and schools of thought in the area of "Sustainability Sciences".
Small Developing Islands As Systems Of Sustainability: Towards Strategic Sustainable Development And Industrial Ecology In The Island Context (Abstract #22)
John N Telesford and Peter A Strachan
The application of industrial ecology in the island context has been successfully demonstrated in the manufacturing sector on islands. However, many developing islands worldwide and especially most in the Caribbean region have not focused on manufacturing for economic development, but on tourism; exploiting their natural assets of sea, sand and sun. The tourism industry can be compared to the petroleum industry in which natural resources are "exploited and commoditized". It is widely established that the rapid physical developments, for example hotels, required to accommodate stay over tourists have negatively impacted the environment. In this regard the vexing problem that exists at the environment/development nexus that impacts the sustainability of island systems is manifested. As such the main focus of this paper is to present an adapted framework on strategic sustainable development in the island context. An indepth literature review drawn from the doctoral thesis of the principle author will be discussed, with this work outlining that industrial ecology is applicable to the tourism sector, especially as it relates to resource (energy) and waste flows in the accommodation sub- sector. In summary, this paper will focus on Grenada, a small island that belongs to the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States and presents a novel case and framework. The paper will further develop the extant literature on industrial ecology and the island context from an entirely new position.
Potential Changes In Biomass Flows Due To India'S Biodiesel Policy: A Comparative Material Flow Analysis Of The Jatropha Curcas And Prosopis Juliflora Economies In Tamil Nadu, India (Abstract #41)
Jennifer Baka, Grishma Jain and Megha Shenoy
India's current biodiesel policy mandates the use of non-edible oilseed feedstocks grown exclusively on 'wastelands', the country's term for degraded and marginal lands. In recent years, the Government of India has heavily supported the use of Jatropha curcas as a biodiesel feedstock because of its alleged ability to thrive in marginal landscapes. However, India's wastelands are often rich in local biomass resources that support a host of livelihood and industrial activities. This poster will present a comparative material flow analysis of the biofuel and biomass economies in Virudhunagar District, Tamil Nadu. The South Indian state of Tamil Nadu has been one of the leading promoters of Jatropha biodiesel production and the areas targeted for Jatropha cultivation are densely covered with a local biomass resource, Prosopis juliflora. At present, Prosopis is used as a fuelwood by local villagers and as a feedstock for brick, charcoal, cement and electricity production. Our analysis will evaluate the resource flows of these two energy economies and assess the environmental tradeoffs of replacing Prosopis with Jatropha.
Linking Materials Flow Analysis With Environmental Impact Potential: Dynamic Consequences Of Technology Transition On Projected E-Waste In The U.S. (Abstract #46)
Carl Lam, Seong-Rin Lim and Julie Schoenung
Material composition changes caused by technology transition have significant implications on the evolution of environmental impact in electronic product systems over time. Considering technology transition, a methodology is presented for quantifying the temporal behavior of ecological and human health toxicity potential from select metals for electronic waste (e-waste) by linking to results of a dynamic materials flow model. Case study examples are derived from two electronic product cohorts including computers (laptops and desktops) and televisions (cathode-ray tubes (CRTs), flat panel liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and plasma displays) based on the U.S. market. A forecast of national end-of-life (EoL) unit generation up to the year 2030 is conducted from logistic curve fitting of the per capita penetration rate of installed-base stocks in unison with product lifespan calibration by utilizing annual sales data. Assuming Fisher-Pry technology substitution, U.S. sales of laptops is expected to overtake 70% of the computer market by 2018; results for televisions indicate that LCDs and plasma displays have already currently outperformed CRT sales, which are now in continued decline. Projected annual EoL units generated are characterized with the environmental assessment tool, USETox, to determine the temporal toxicity potential attributed to product technology transition in different U.S. waste management scenarios (landfill or incineration). To some extent, effects of dematerialization, for example, reduced metal content in laptops over conventional desktops, provides some positive benefits on toxicity potential categories. However, dynamic analysis indicates that, seen as a whole, the emerging EoL quantities due to growing sales of specific product units will offset these positive gains in environmental performance from reducing hazardous materials at the product-level. Results from this study can help manufacturers and government understand the timing with which electronic products will expect to emerge at EoL and also to help strategize pollution prevention measures targeting the environmental release of high impact potential materials from disposed electronics.
Integrative Framework And Model For Quantitative Sustainability Analysis Of Renewable Energy Systems (Abstract #57)
Anthony Halog, Yosef Barita sar Manik and Binod Neupane
Climate change and sustainable energy development are intertwined issues, which are of significant importance to government policy and corporate decision makers. However, addressing their impacts and interrelationships require transformative, integrative, life cycle oriented, novel framework and interdisciplinary approaches to shift our human actions and behaviors towards sustaining our current and future generations' development. We have initially developed an integrated life cycle sustainability analysis (LCSA) framework to aid in understanding the complexity and sustainability of emerging energy supply systems. This will advance the use of quantitative and computational methods, and IE models and tools for LCSA of bioenergy supply chain. We model a bioenergy supply chain as a complex system to understand the holistic development of evolving bioenergy sector. This research addresses a topic of current importance that is analytically challenging due to multiple data sources and uncertainties in assessing life cycle sustainability impacts of developing bioenergy systems. The project is not only designed to develop an interactive integrative tool for LCSA, but also to provide a platform in communicating scientific uncertainty in sustainability decision making context. The integral scale of theoretical scientific research combined with fieldwork and experimental data gathering to reveal theory and practical knowledge and the driving forces, to testing various biofuel production scenarios are unique in this endeavor. The systems perspective methodological framework can assist in building public confidence in renewable energy technologies, resource management, decision making and support for investment decisions in the infrastructures needed to facilitate emerging energy systems. The model and tool can be used to train students to think "outside-the-box" and in a holistic manner in pursuing one vision - Global Sustainability. The preliminary work of this project will be presented in the conference.
Emission Inventory Of Greenhouse Gas And Sulfur Dioxide For Thermal Power In China (Abstract #62)
Sha Chen, Li-juan Ren and Shui-yuan Cheng
Based on the theory and framework of life cycle assessment and methodology of IPCC, 1 kWh electric power being Selected as the functional unit, the inventory of the greenhouse gas and sulfur dioxide for the thermal electric generation in China was accomplished. The system boundary included the fossil fuels combustion, the smoke treatment control, and power transmission. The emissions of CO2?CH4?N2O and SO2 for the unit power supply in 2007 were respectively obtained: CO2 1.11 kg/kWh, CH4 1.22E-05 kg/kWh, N2O 1.73E-05 kg/kWh, SO2 5.05E-03 kg/kWh. In addition, compared to the life cycle emission inventory of the thermal electric generation in 2002,it was showed that the SO2 emission intensity decreased nearly 10% , and the CH4?N2O emission intensity also decreased. On the other hand, the CO2 emission intensity increased nearly 10% compared to 2002. The GHG emission reduction in r the thermal electric generation will face the challenge in future. Keywords: thermal power; greenhouse gas; sulfur dioxide; emission inventory Acknowledgements: The research is sponsored by the Eleventh Five-year National Science & Technology Support Programme (NO.2008BAK42B02)and by the fund of Air Pollution Control and Innovative Technical Team (number: PHR201007105)
An Application Of Life Cycle Analysis As Green Marketing Tool For Agriculture Production: The Case Of Extra Virgin Olive Oil In Val Di Cornia, Italy (Abstract #66)
Fabio Iraldo, Francesco Testa, Irene Bartolozzi and Valentina Toschi
Life cycle analysis can be usefully applied as a sound tool for assessing the environmental impacts of agriculture productions and the hot spots of the whole chain. Olive oil production is a typical activity of the Mediterranean area and increasing attention is being paid to its valorisation through the application of LCA as a green marketing tool (i.e., the release of the PCR document for virgin olive oil in April 2010, for the EPD certification) as well as to environmental performance improvement of local production [Avraamides, 2008]. In this case study, LCA was chosen as tool for evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the average production of 1 L of extravirgin olive oil in Val di Cornia, a rural area in the south of Tuscany, Italy. The analysis, carried out in the framework of the Eu-funded Project ECCELSA, has directly involved a large number of olive growers and, as a consequence, a representative sample of local production and foreground primary data were obtained. The background system data were, instead, collected from relevant literature and datasets. The system boundaries were identified for a 'cradle to gate' analysis and included an agricultural stage and an oil extraction stage. Data for different steps of the two stages are collected through separate questionnaires and are relative to raw materials, energy and water consumption, waste production and recycling, transportation. The environmental impact assessment step focuses on the main potential impact categories such as GWP, OdP, acidification potential. Use of resources, energy and water, are also evaluated. The results of LCA are used to define the environmental requirements of a local product brand allowing to combine eco-friendly productions and competitive advantages for local producers. This represents a pilot experience for a certification scheme that is being developed by the national government together with several Regional authorities.
A Mfa-Based Diagnosis Method For Industrial Ecosystem Health (Abstract #75)
Xiaoqing Shi and Jianxin Yang
Industrial ecosystem health is the basis of urban sustainable development. Knowledge of health status is crucial in maintaining the health. Existing assessment methods often focus on a complex indicator system that includes social, economic and environmental factors or a single index, so their ability to provide diagnosis information for decision-makers is limited. Industrial ecosystem functions need to be supported by sound material cycle between natural and urban ecosystems. Therefore, material flow can reflect the health of industrial ecosystem. This paper analyzes the material flows for industrial ecosystem, explores the relationship for material flows between industrial ecosystem and natural ecosystem, and identifies the main problems of the material flows. A material flow model is established using this relationship, and a MFA based diagnosis method is proposed for industrial ecosystem health. The diagnosis method will help decision-makers to identify problems on resources utilization and waste discharge and to formulate strategies to resolve these problems for healthy urban development. The case study illustrates the diagnosis for a paper industry in a China city. The results show that the paper industrial ecosystem is unhealthy, the healthy rate of resource use is 78%, the healthy rate of pollution emission is 71%; the healthy rate of waste recycling is 6%. The paper analyzes the each problem in detail. The diagnosis results let decision makers to know that the main health problems and help them to make the feasible strategies to resolve the problems. Our method provides a valid and feasible means for maintaining industrial ecosystem health. The diagnosis method is flexible and the diagnosis criteria are valid. The approach contributes to urban sustainable development. Future research should focus on perfecting the standards and establishing databases for the resource utilization and waste discharge of industrial ecosystem.
Small Scale In-Situ Bioremediation Of Diesel Contaminated Soil - Screening Life Cycle Assessment Of Environmental Performance (Abstract #82)
Joseph Akambih, Anders Jonsson and Morgan Fröling
Spillage of diesel oil and other petroleum products is a commonly creating need for site remediation of contaminated soils. In Sweden the most common remediation action is excavation of the contaminated soil and off site biological treatment by composting. However, a number of small sites spread out in rural areas end up low on priority lists, and will not be attended to within foreseeable future if ever. For such areas a low cost, easy to apply remediation techniques would be of interest. Enhanced bioremediation of diesel contaminants in soil by whey addition has been demonstrated in lab scale. Whey is a by-product from cheese production. A first pilot remediation trial on an actual site in Gäddede, County of Jämtland, was started the summer of 2010. With this site as a case study a screening life cycle assessment model has been set up. The goal of the study was to investigate the environmental performance of the whey method, to benchmark the whey method toward the excavation and composting practice and to identify environmental hot spots in the whey treatment life cycle. The study aims at establishing if further work should be put into developing the method, or if the environmental performance is such that the whey method should be abandoned. It should be noted that even with a slightly worse environmental performance compared to other remediation alternatives whey treatment could still be of interest, since the small scale sites in rural areas we talk about here otherwise most often would not be attended to. Results from the screening life cycle assessment indicate a rather good environmental performance of the whey method, partly depending on impact category considered. For the whey method, impacts from farming activities in the milk production chain allocated to the whey give significant contributions.
Economic Geography Applications For Eco-Industrial Development (Abstract #99)
Peter Lowitt
The field of economic geography has broad implications for the field of eco-industrial development and industrial symbiosis. Economic geography can be used to analyze why some eco-industrial projects succeed and others fail. The importance of face to face knowledge transfer and tacit knowledge transfer go a long way to explain some of our field's successful projects. Economic geography is often used to examine efforts to generate innovation in the field of economic development. Industrial symbiosis/eco-industrial development efforts are, at this point in time, innovative by their nature and the use of lessons from the field of economic geography of relevance to our shared field of study.
Bilateral Industrial Symbiosis (Bis): An Option For Disposing Of Manufacturing Waste In The State Of New South Wales, Australia (Abstract #108)
Robin Branson
New South Wales (NSW) has the most stringent regulations of any Australian state and territory with regard to disposing of waste at landfill. They include a landfill levy of approximately AUD $60/tonne (in 2010) which is legislated to increase to approximately AUD $150/tonne by 2015. The regulator's reasoning is that if dumping is made sufficiently costly, generators will find a use for their waste. A study in 2010 indicates the likelihood of this result occurring systematically in practice is remote. Manufacturing in NSW is geographically dispersed. It is contrasted with structures typically associated with industrial symbiosis and the case is made for considering Bilateral Industrial Symbiosis (BIS) as a strategy for dealing with waste. The difference between conventional recycling and BIS is described and shown to be significant. The 'drivers' for BIS are outlined but the critical findings of the study relate to the 'operational' capacity of manufacturers to instigate BIS themselves and to the issue of an external infrastructure (such as NISP in the UK). The conclusions are that few manufacturers in NSW have the capacity and the inclination to instigate BIS, ad hoc, for themselves. There is no external infrastructure that could facilitate BIS on behalf of generators and no prospect of any being developed in the foreseeable future. The likelihood is remote of ad hoc initiatives becoming sufficiently widespread to constitute a systematic approach. Without the capacity to instigate BIS themselves or access to an effective external infrastructure, manufacturers face options which are limited to continuing the status quo, illegal disposal and relocating operations to another jurisdiction or overseas, none of which are intended by the regulator. The general conclusions drawn from this research are that government regulations and the existence of a competent external infrastructure are the two principal determinants of viable systematic BIS in practice.
Rate Load Life Cycle Assessment Methodology And Its Application To Evaluate Carrying Capacity Of Environmental Impacts Of Product (Abstract #110)
Dharma Raj K.C and Kun Mo Lee
Conventional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method, though it has been used widely, does not explicitly consider time. Hence, a new LCA methodology has been recently developed to overcome the deficiency of conventional LCA methodology. This method incorporates a time dimension into the life cycle inventory analysis and; thus, life cycle impact assessment phases, which rectifies the problem of inconsistency at the temporal boundary during the normalization step. This paper briefly describes the issues related to carrying capacity and life cycle aspects of products; furthermore, it aims to implement temporal aspects of product life cycle for the evaluation of environmental load which affects the carrying capacity. Of the several environmental impacts, acidification has been taken as an example to analyze the effects on carrying capacity due to the rate load input flow and cumulative load. It is found that when the rate load discharge of pollutants is higher, it could then easily cross the threshold limit causing a serious environmental impact. Estimation of the rate load input flow is more essential than that of the cumulative load to evaluate the critical limits and thresholds of a sensitive area over a certain period.
Material Flows Associated With The Mining Activities (Abstract #125)
Shinsuke Murakami, Akihiro Takahashi, Chiharu Tokoro and Tsuyoshi Adachi
Recent resource boom eventually forces us to promote more sustainable resource use. This concept includes not only the amount of resource consumption but also the environmental impacts associated with our resource use. In this paper, the life of mine will be analyzed from the viewpoint of material flow analysis, and the following two points are emphasized. First point is the flows after the closure. AMD (Acid Mine Drainage) is one of the perpetual pollution problems in the industry. Even though we do not have many operating mines in Japan, we have many abandoned mines, which have this problem. In many cases, the acidic water is neutralized and the sludge must be disposed in the final disposal site. This means that the AMD from abandoned mines will cause the excavation even after the mine closure. Japanese abandoned mines are studied. The most important finding is that the AMD issues for a mine seems continue for long, and the aggregated amount of the caused excavation will be huge. Second point is TMR (Total Material Requirement.) We, industrial ecologists often hire this indicator to measure our activities of natural resource extraction. Even though the indicator is useful for the purpose, the value significantly varies among the mines. In order to analyze the variance of the TMR among the mines, the mine database, especially the data of wastes, is analyzed. In short, we found out that the mining method affects significantly. The amount of wastes per metal produced in underground mines usually smaller than that of surface mines. Considering we will have to mine deeper mines with lower grades, and the forecasting the future flows seems important.
Approach To Establish Relevant Sustainability Assessment Parameters In Product Development (Abstract #126)
Gunilla Clancy, Morgan Fröling and Magdalena Swanström
Since companies need to develop more sustainable products to stay in business in the long term, there is a demand for ways to assess and compare product sustainability already in product development. This is attended to in the WooDi research project which aims at developing a wood based material to replace a petroleum based one in an incontinence diaper while ensuring a more sustainable product. Acknowledging the vast number of choices made in product development and their potentially large effect on the sustainability impact of the resulting product leads to the conclusion that assessment of product sustainability should be made throughout the process and be used to guide development. To gain a deeper understanding of the requirements and barriers in assessing product sustainability and guiding product development towards a more sustainable product, several workshops and seminars were carried out in the WooDi project, in parallel to literature surveys. Based on what was found in relevant literature, most oftenly lists of predetermined parameters are being used without critical reflection on their importance in light of the specific situation. Additionally there is a lack of parameters describing the sustainability impacts of a shift from fossil to biomass resources in a life cycle perspective, e.g. related to competition for resources. As a result, an approach was developed for establishing relevant product sustainability parameters, where the parameters are intended to guide product development as well as to be a base for a sustainability comparison of a new product with a current product. This approach emphasises the need of bringing in the product development team members' diverse knowledge and experiences as vital for a successful result. Practical experience of using the proposed framework throughout a project is still needed for evaluating it and identifying its limits. The presentation reports on the developed approach and on efforts to define what should be meant by 'sustainable product' in the specific case.
Industrial Ecology'S Babel Tower: Multidisciplinary, A Strength Or A Weakness? (Abstract #133)
Guillaume Junqua, Catherine Gonzalez, Miguel Lopez-Ferber and Juliette Cerceau
It is now taken for granted that the technical approach of industrial ecology based on the analysis of substance, material and energy flows may learn a lot from a multidisciplinary approach based, for instance, on the analysis of environmental, informational and socioeconomic flows. This assessment opens a large field of research focused on the description and understanding of what are the environmental and socioeconomic conditions favorable to the emerging, improving and stabilization of industrial ecology. Therefore, the main issue remains the scattering of the industrial ecology field: Industrial ecology is discussed from multiple points of views over scientific literature (from technical preoccupations to socioeconomic approaches) and is the subject of many different operational implementations in territories (from spontaneous initiatives to governmental strategies). Does this scattering contribute to blur industrial ecology as a legitimate scientific field, thus, to curb the implementation of industrial ecology principles? Or, on the contrary, is this scattering a lever for the industrial ecology development? In other words, must industrial ecology find a way to rebuild its Babel tower? Is it possible and even desirable? This reflexive work questions industrial ecology as a multidisciplinary field. It queries the apparent mutual incomprehension between "social" and "technical sciences", on the one hand, and between theoretical and operational issues, on the other hand. Based on a series of interviews with experts of different disciplines (biology, sociology, chemistry, environmental evaluation, etc.) and operational actors of different territories, it will try to enlighten the wealth contained in an iterative construction of a shared sense of industrial ecology.
Toward A Sociological Approach Of Industrial Ecology In Harbor Area: Depart, A French Applied Research Program (Abstract #134)
Nicolas Mat, Guillaume Junqua, Miguel Lopez-Ferber and Juliette Cerceau
Harbor territories constitute hubs between the sea and their hinterland, thus, gates for major material, waste and energy flows. As areas of high economic interests, they concentrate strategic issues, exacerbating social and political relations involved between stakeholders. They appear as suitable laboratories for investigating how industrial ecology can become a solution for waste management issues. In addition, in France, several institutions invested in harbour territorial development share common waste management issues such as dredged materials or construction wastes. Flows, social network, waste management awareness. Conditions are gathered to give birth to industrial symbiosis. But, the question is what kind of industrial ecology approach may transform these favorable conditions into sustainable and operational development? Do attempts to impose eco-industrial development lead to more sustainable development than digging up spontaneous innovative approach of waste management, incorporating - though unconsciously - industrial ecology's principles? Laureate of a call project lead by the French environmental agency ADEME, the DEPART project takes place in these theoretical and operational context. The methodological guideline argues that a deep integration of technical and sociological approaches of industrial ecology is one of the conditions of success and durability for a sustainable waste management. As a result, the DEPART project proposes a pragmatic approach: understanding needs and expectations of harbor territorial stakeholders, it develops tools in order to reap the fruits of pre-existing eco-industrial relationships and thus, stimulate and catalyze new industrial ecology perspectives. To guarantee the pertinence of developed tools, the DEPART methodologies are tested on experimental territories (Harbor areas of Lyon (CNR), Fos-sur-Mer (GPMM) and of Le Havre (CODAH)).
Emissions And Energy Demand In The Chinese Steel Sector - A Stock-Driven Approach (Abstract #138)
Stefan Pauliuk, Tao Wang and Daniel B. Muller
The iron and steel industry is the single largest industrial emitter of CO2, presently contributing about 25% to industrial carbon emissions particularly due to coke consumption in primary steel production. Future total emissions are mainly dependent on demand for steel, availability of scrap for recycling, and technological change in primary production (example: the ULCOS project). China accounted for more than 45% of the global production of steel in 2009, most of this being primary steel. When assessing the future potential for emission reduction of the Chinese steel industry, the main challenge is to find robust estimates on both final demand for steel products and supply of old scrap for recycling. We propose a stock-driven approach to forecast future iron stocks and flows in China. Our basic assumption is that China will accomplish an industrialization process by using services of a (per capita) iron stock of similar size as those that have been built up in industrialized countries so far. In the US for example, in-use stock has saturated at about 10 tons per capita. Our results suggest that until about 2040, the in-use stock of steel will be built up, supplied by primary production. Scrap flows will rise due to increased demolition activities but only in the second half of the 21st century, secondary steel may contribute more than 50 % to the total steel production. Since steel demand for the next 2-3 decades is expected to be supplied mainly be the recently erected facilities in China, we expect emission reduction to be marginal during these years. Only once the in-use stock has matured, domestic demand could reduce and secondary production on large scale could significantly reduce the carbon footprint of the Chinese steel industry.
Promoting Sustainable Decisions In Weapon System Design: Lessons Learned When Developing A Lcia Methodology For Defense Acquisition (Abstract #161)
Craig Cammarata, Kelly Scanlon and Shannon Siart
Domestic and foreign policies (i.e., EO 13514, REACH and RoHS) have placed pressure on the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to implement more sustainable practices for weapon system acquisition. As part of its sustainability efforts, the DoD seeks to use Life Cycle Thinking (LCT) to ensure that decisions regarding weapon system design consider potential impacts to human health and the environment across the system's life cycle. To guide this effort, commonly-used Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods and the components of those methods (e.g., impact categories, metrics, characterization factors, weighting mechanisms) were reviewed and summarized with regard to their applicability to DoD's LCT efforts. Gaps identified included the absence of assessment methods for quantifying potential impacts to worker health and site-specific weighting mechanisms. This presentation will highlight the current progress toward resolving these challenges and the unique considerations that large government institutions, such as the DoD, face when embracing LCT. Potential solutions to resolving these challenges and improving the system design process will be discussed.
Industrial Activity And Resource Exchange Patterns In Industrial Symbiosis' Networks (Abstract #163)
Ines Costa and Paulo Ferrao
Industrial symbiosis (IS) has been defined in the Industrial Ecology (IE) literature as a business strategy based on the cooperation between companies that present dissimilar industrial activities, in an attempt to improve their overall economic and environmental performance. The majority, if not all, the synergies identified throughout the literature involve the exchange of waste/by-product resources in substitution of a raw material or the transfer of residual energy (e.g. process steam) between companies. Since the case study about the IS network in Kalundborg first appeared in scientific publications, researchers have attempted to compile information on existing IS networks, mainly by establishing online directories (e.g. the Wiki initiative from TU Delft). However, such tools are always dependent of users finding the webpage and entering or submitting the necessary data. Furthermore, some data - such as quantities of resource flows exchanged, or distances traveled - is usually not shared. Since this data collection is not made in a systematic manner, or classified using a common nomenclature, it becomes difficult to analyze emergent patterns across IS networks. This paper seeks to contribute to the closure of this particular research gap, by describing and discussing data patterns in industrial activity and resource exchanges emerging from IS networks across the world. Data of IS business-to-business synergies was collected from the scientific literature and coded into a database - named DISC - using a defined set of nomenclatures. And from a practitioner's point of view, the applications of this pattern analysis can be useful in facilitating the identification of "usual suspects" in particular contexts.
Impact Of Lifetime Data On Life Cycle Assessment Results: Focus On Residential Buildings And Building Products (Abstract #167)
Can Aktas and Melissa Bilec
Many life cycle assessment (LCA) studies do not adequately address the actual lifetime of buildings and building products, but rather assume a typical value (e.g., 50 years for building lifetime). The actual lifetime may depend on many factors other than technical specifications, resulting in a significant difference between the actual lifetime and the design lifetime. For products, the importance of actual lifetime is magnified when comparing two different products for the same application, or in situations where the product being studied is a subset of a larger system that is being analyzed, as in the case of buildings. The goal of this study is to determine the impact of lifetime data on residential building LCA results. Including accurate lifetime data into LCA allows a better understanding of a products environmental impact that would ultimately enhance the accuracy of LCA results. Average lifetime of residential buildings in the U.S. have been calculated by using a statistical approach and was found to be close to 60 years. Environmental impacts of interior renovation have been calculated by using a residential model based on median U.S. residential building size. Distributions were preferred over deterministic values for variables. A Monte Carlo simulation method was employed to determine uncertainty in results. Sensitivity analyses indicate that building lifetime has the largest influence on renovation impacts, and that product lifetime and product emissions have equal importance. Therefore, choosing an arbitrary lifetime for buildings and building products introduces a noteworthy amount of error into building LCA. The potential impact of lifetime data is expected to increase especially as the relative importance of materials use increases due to growing number of low-energy buildings that have lower use phase impacts.
Updated U.S. Normalization References For Lca Studies And Its Application (Abstract #168)
Junbeum Kim, Yi Yang, Junghan Bae and Sangwon Suh
System boundary, regional variability and temporal specification have been the main foci of uncertainty discussion in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), while normalization step received relatively little attention. Normalization is a step connecting characterization and weighting within the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA), which translates Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) results into more comprehensible and comparable metrics. Normalization References (NRs) are the characterized results of a reference system, which is typically a nation or a region. Normalization is widely practiced in LCA-based decision support and policy analysis including environmentally preferable purchasing programs. Compilation of NRs demands significant effort and time as well as intimate knowledge on data availability and quality. For that reason, only one set of NRs published in 2006 is available in the U.S., which has been adopted by various studies and policy analyses. In this study, completeness of the previous NRs are assessed, where significant data gaps are identified. Filled up the data gaps increases NRs for 'human health cancer' 'human health non-cancer', 'ecotoxicity', and 'eutrophication' by 639,328%, 106,677%, 6,233% and 101%, respectively. Such changes may alter or even reverse the outcome of an LCA study. We applied the previous and the updated NRs for conventional gasoline and corn ethanol LCAs to demonstrate that NRs play a decisive role in decision-support and that NRs may well be the largest source of errors in LCA studies. The updated normalization references are made publicly available.
Tracking The Metal Of The Goblins: Cobalt'S Cycle Of Use (Abstract #178)
Ermelinda Harper, Goksin Kavlak and Thomas Graedel
Cobalt is a vital element in important technological applications (e.g., aircraft) across the globe. This property, coupled with cobalt's major changing end-use application in batteries, makes it compelling to study and quantify the cycle of its use for the major countries fabricating cobalt and for Earth as a whole. Its cycle of use for 2005 was established. Together, China, Japan, the United States accounted for approximately 65% of cobalt fabricated and manufactured into end-use products (a total of 37 Gg (thousand metric ton) of cobalt). Trade of up to eight refined products and 39 finished products was considered. China exported about 4 Gg Co in finished products, primarily in cobalt-bearing batteries and consumer electronics with cobalt-bearing batteries. The United States and Japan imported about 5000 and 300 Mg Co in finished products, respectively. A time residence model allowed calculations of in-use stock accumulation and recycled and landfilled flows. China had the largest accumulation of in-use stock at some 5.6 Gg Co, of which almost half was comprised of consumer battery stock. Slightly less than half of the stock accumulation in the United States was also in consumer batteries (with a total in-use stock accumulation of about 3 Gg Co). Greater than half of the stock accumulation in the United States was estimated to be in aircraft, rocket, and gas turbine engines, whereas the remaining stock accumulation in China was divided almost equally among aircraft, rocket, and gas turbine engines, and magnets. The largest amounts of cobalt landfilled in China, the United States, and the planet was the "chemical and other uses" category, followed by batteries for the globe and the United States, and hard materials for China. Japan's largest landfilled flow was in consumer batteries, followed by chemical and other uses.
Comparison Of Organic And Conventional Farming Systems: Case Study On Taiwanese Rice Cultivation (Abstract #199)
Hung-Chun Lin and Yasuhiro Fukushima
In recent years, food quality and environmental issues attract more and more attentions. For example in Taiwan, business related to organic food and agriculture has made a vigorous development. It is expected that organic agriculture leads to advantages in human health such as 1) elimination of synthetic chemical residue on food, and 2) improved nutrition, as well as environmental ones such as 3) reductions in fossil resource use, 4) less pollutions of ground water, and 5) improvements in soil quality and biodiversity. Influences in 6) greenhouse gases emission is yet unclear. However, it is still not clear by how much organic farming method could benefit the environment and health of people in Taiwan in all above aspects. In 2009, Taiwanese farmers produced 1.3 million tons of rice using 255 thousand hectares of rice field. This activity provides the 23 million Taiwanese citizens with the major portion of their starch demand. At the same time, rice paddy is known as one of the most important emission sources of greenhouse gasses and other pollutants, and a major consumer of freshwater, which is a scarce resource on the island. It is important to know how the trend of organic agriculture could reduce those impacts comparing with conventional agriculture in Taiwan. The objective of this study is to analyze these two farming methods in sustainability aspects as named above. Together with the environmental and health indicators, financial flow, and labor demand, are investigated. Differences in the workers' time spend on the farm, and contribution of different amount of fertilizer and pesticide use is highlighted.
Evaluation Of Energy Recovery From Food Processing Waste And Wastewater Using Comparative Life Cycle Assessment - Case Study On Local Tofu Industry (Abstract #202)
YeeShee Tan and Yasuhiro Fukushima
Waste and wastewater from local food industries that often has high chemical oxygen demand adversely impact the environment if emitted directly. Recent advancements in energy recovery using biological technologies such as hydrogen fermentation or anaerobic digestion could potentially reduce environmental impacts and generate renewable energy simultaneously. This study aims at organizing a collection of methods to synthesize better strategies to utilize or deal with food processing waste/wastewater and evaluate its reliability as a source of energy. In this study, a framework of comparative life cycle assessment for energy recovery from food waste/wastewater is proposed. In the constructed framework, at least two alternative processes; 1) evaluated process, i.e. energy recovery from food processing waste/wastewater and 2) reference process, i.e. energy production by reference mechanism plus conventional waste/wastewater treatment processes, is compared by its potential environmental impact. A case study on evaluation of tofu waste and wastewater is conducted under the proposed framework from greenhouse gas emission point of view. Tofu dreg and wastewater samples were taken from a typical small Tofu factory in Tainan City. The samples are analyzed to obtain the parameters in the evaluation. Using the developed framework, the conceptual design of the evaluated process is synthesized, i.e. combination of hydrogen dark fermentation and anaerobic digestion. As a result, by setting the functional unit as the treatment of waste and wastewater from production of 1 kg of tofu (i.e. 1.5L of wastewater and 3.03kg of waste, i.e. dreg) and the amount of chemicals used as energy sources that produced by the waste/wastewater from production of 1kg of tofu (i.e. 4.47L-H2 and 0.23L-CH4 from the evaluated energy recovery processes), 2.67 kg-CO2 eq. can be reduced by the waste-to-energy processes.
Sustainable Lean Policies For Real Estate Business Organisations (Abstract #209)
Tuuli Elviira Luoma
Comparing lean thinking, a management philosophy originated in Japan, to traditional Western thinking, many divergences can be found. Organizations that have grown and evolved in Western parts of the world most likely have formed their basic assumptions and policies according to the general Western thinking. On the other hand, organizations that have done business in lean culture have a different mindset. Changes in schemes are required in order to implement a lean transformation in organizations that are used to observe situations through the Western perspective. In this paper it is described how lean philosophy was translated into sustainable lean policies in non-lean real estate business organizations. The sustainable lean policies were formed in four North European case studies. In the cases the improvement potential of the business processes was revealed and described by using the techniques and principles of lean management. After the improvement potential was identified, sustainable lean policies for the real estate business organizations were formed. Lean management was used as a platform to gain new insight for case organizations. The results indicate that there are similarities in the improvement potential of the companies because the waste types in the business processes are similar. However, the sustainable lean principles were dissimilar because they were tailored according to the key business area(s) of the organizations and according to the end customers' expectations on service value.
Scenario Analysis Of Anthropogenic Phosphorus Pollution In Local Surface Water In Chaohu City, China (Abstract #213)
Junkui Shi and Zengwei Yuan
Eutrophication, caused by excessive inputs of nutrients into natural water sources as a result of anthropogenic processes, is occurring throughout the world. As phosphorus has been identified as a key growth-limiting nutrient in most lakes and reservoirs, phosphorus-based control measures and management schemes for eutrophication have been developed worldwide. Hence the quantification of phosphorus flows from socioeconomic system to surface water is essential for the selection of appropriate management measures. In this study, substance flow analysis (SFA) is applied to develop an analytical model of anthropogenic phosphorus flows for the socioeconomic system of Chaohu City, China. We divide the studied system into five major subsystems: phosphorous chemical industry, agriculture, animal feeding, human consumption, and waste management. Thus quantitative analysis of phosphorus flows between/in each subsystem is obtained. Based on the analysis, three different scenarios were designed to predict phosphorus pollution in local surface water in 2020. Our results show that the estimated amount of phosphorus discharged into local surface water in 2008 is 544.22 t, which primarily originates from agriculture (391.99 t, 72.03%), followed by large-scale farming (55.70 t, 10.23%), rural consumption (56.81 t, 10.44%), urban consumption (30.42 t, 5.59%) and waste management (9.30 t, 1.71%). And during the time from 2008 to 2020, intensive application of fertilizers and high water loss in agricultural practices are identified as the main sources of phosphorus loads in local surface water. In conclusion, analyses of phosphorus metabolism at a local scale are of great importance to identify and hence focus management efforts on reducing pollution in local surface water.
A Multi-Scale Integrated Analysis Of Societal Metabolism And Its Regional Disparity In China (Abstract #216)
Ji Han and Hiroki Tanikawa
In the 21st century, how to achieve a sustainable development has become one of the most important focuses in the worldwide scope. On the other hand, regional inequality has also been challenged the equity and justice, which potentially affects the nation-wide sustainability. As an effective way assessing the pattern of social evolution and sustainability, firstly a multi-scale integrated analysis of societal metabolism (MSIASM) is conducted in China's 8 regions involving 6 major industrial sectors during the period of 1978-2008. Through the analysis of time allocation of human activity and energy consumption, we investigate the historical trajectory and regional characteristics of societal metabolism in China. Secondly, a Theil index method is adopted to measure the regional disparity concerning the energy metabolic intensity. We differentiate the inter- and intra-regional inequalities under a country-region-province hierarchical structure for China. Thirdly, shift and share analysis is applied to diagnose the factors causing the regional disparity in energy metabolism and provide implications for regional sustainable development.
Potentials And Barriers To The Industrial Symbiosis Development In Aalborg, Denmark (Abstract #226)
Alexandra Maria Almasi, Cecilia Soque, Christoffer Kirk Strandgaard and Romain Sacchi
Industrial symbiosis allows efficient use of by-products and energy in order to reduce impacts of an industrial area on the environment. This research deals with the prerequisites to apply the practical industrial ecology principles. The objective is to highlight already-existing potentials and barriers to the development of an industrial symbiotic system in an existing industrial area located in Aalborg, Denmark. By adopting a systemic approach through an abduction-based method of the Kalundborg industrial symbiosis case, the research reveals several fostering mechanisms as key elements in a model on how to start industrial symbiosis. This model is then completed with case descriptions of three other eco-industrial parks depicted in the scientific literature. The tailored model advocates the importance of integrating physical, organizational and social dimensions in the analysis. It particularly shows the relevance of mechanisms such as economic viability, willingness or physical proximity between partners. Applying the model to the industrial area of Aalborg indicates the existence of several physical potentials, and the possibility to improve awareness in order to reach willingness among stakeholders. This work reckons that stakeholders should embrace an approach towards social and organizational aspects. Therefore, it is found that the physical dimension of such system, relating to the technical feasibility of synergies, only comes as an achievement of the interactional and social work previously accomplished. These findings highlight the importance of overcoming social barriers in order to empower actors to introduce new techniques of waste reuse. The research ends in suggesting solutions to build solid social grounds needed to initiate the first steps towards industrial symbiosis.
Co2 Mitigation Options In China'S Power Sector (Abstract #230)
Guangling Zhao, Per Christensen and Søren Løkke
This paper presents the potential of CO2 emission reduction in Chinese power system and assesses the approaches for CO2 emission reduction that could be introduced into Chinese power system. The potential is expressed by the following 2 factors: the abilityto reduce CO2 emissions through clean coal technology (CCT) and the ability to integrate renewable energy (hydropower, wind, biomass) and nuclear into the power system so it becomes more sustainable . In 2007, electricity production amounted to 3246 TWh. The vast majority was produced by thermal power plants, accounting for 82.9 %. 15.0 % was produced by hydropower, 1.9% was produced by nuclear, and 0.2 % was produced by wind and other renewable sources. Due to pressure from the national and the international level, the Chinese government has now taken measures to reduce CO2 emission. The power sector, as the largest CO2-emitter, has been getting more and more attention, resulting in the closing down of small coal power plants and the increasing investment in more renewable power generation plants and clean coal technology. Based on the target of 12th five-year plan, the future power generation will probably still be dominated by coal power,hydropower nuclear, and wind power although renewables will be more dominant in the future, mixed with other options like energy savings, cogeneration and carbon sequestration. Different scenarios for the electricity system from 2010 to 2030 are explored. These will consider different realistic scenarios including mixtures of advanced technologies. The scenarios will address also the adequate mix of institutions, rules, taxes and so on. The business- as-usual strategy as layed out in the 12th five-year plans will be contrasted with scenarios reflecting worst- and best-cases based on appropriate mixes of technologies.
The Ecodesign Of Urban Environments At Different Spatial Scales (Abstract #232)
Ramon Farreny, Jordi Oliver-Solà, Raul Garcia-Lozano, Xavier Gabarrell and Joan Rieradevall
Designing sustainable cities seems to be the best solution for facing the global environmental problems that our society has created. With this aim, new approaches and tools for a better urban design and planning are necessary. This paper presents the methodology of ecodesign adapted to urban systems and applies it and checks its feasibility at different scales in three case studies from a Mediterranean context: (1) a neighbourhood in the city of Barcelona, which occupies 32.6 hectares and will host 2120 dwellings; (2) a waste collection point facility as an example of a project at the building scale (125m2 built area); and (3) a solar-powered street light as an example of a piece of urban furniture. All these projects have involved interdisciplinary teams and have incorporated environmental criteria along the whole life cycle of the products. The designed systems will be implemented in the near future. The results of these projects are presented, as well as the practical constraints and opportunities faced along the process of urban ecodesign at the different scales. In addition, a set of key methodological and conceptual ideas that should be considered along the ecodesign of sustainable urban systems is obtained. Among the methodological ones, it worth highlighting the need to integrate objective quantitative tools such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Material and Energy Flow Accounting (MEFA) in order to guide the ecodesign process and define the best strategies; and the role of the interdisciplinary design team and that of a system of indicators. Regarding the key conceptual ideas, land use mixticity, a high-density in the built-up area and the desire of resources' self-sufficiency are stressed, and need to be present since the conceptual stages of ecodesign. In conclusion, ecodesign presents itself as one of the key tools in the move towards more sustainable cities.
The Evaluation Of Stakeholders' Satisfaction In Eco-Industrial Parks (Abstract #234)
Hua Shang
The development of eco-industrial and new path of industrialization is the essential way to realize the sustainable development in a country. The eco-industrial parks involved the subject of profit in each processing, which is called stakeholder, the degree of coordination between stakeholders determines the coordination of management, and if each stakeholders realize their target value in the process for himself, his satisfaction in the system will be very high, as a result, he will actively participate in this process, and will contribute to the development of the system. Therefore, it became an important research topic for management of the park how to achieve a high degree of the stakeholders' satisfaction in eco-industrial parks. For realizing the effective cooperation and symbiosis of each stakeholder, providing basis for decision making of the coordination, healthy and sustainable development of eco-economic system, this paper measures and analyzes the satisfaction in the developing process of eco-industrial park stakeholders from their aspect.The evaluation index system of the stakeholder's satisfaction in Eco-industrial parks is built in this paper, and the weights of index are determined by the combination of G1 and entropy methods. Based on the fuzzy mathematics principle, the stakeholder's satisfaction evaluation model is set up, followed by the Dalian DDZ as an empirical study. The results show that the overall satisfaction lever in this park is relatively high, and the order of the five stakeholder's satisfaction is: the market, the community residents, the government, the venous business, and the other business.
Appling Life Cycle Management (Lcm) Tools In A Medium Company: The Novamont'S Experience (Abstract #238)
Francesco Razza and Francesco Degli Innocenti
While there is a consensus on sustainable development principles, their implementation is one of the biggest challenges of our era. All of us are called to "do more with less", especially in supply chains. Novamont is active in the sector of bio-plastics and known worldwide for Mater-Bi, a family of biodegradable materials containing renewable constituents. Since its establishment, Novamont has adopted specific industrial strategies to link environment, agriculture and business. Novamont applies the Environmental Management Systems (EMS) and the Life Cycle Thinking (LCT) concept. Several certifications have been obtained (i.e. ISO 14001, ISO 9001 and OHSAS 18001, EPD, OK Compost, OK Biodegradable SOIL, OK Compost Home by Vinçotte; certifications of biodegradability by DIN-CERTCO, IPP, BPI and BPS). The LCT approach is applied in product development and all Mater-Bi materials and applications are analysed with the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) methodology since 1998. The paper describes the Life Cycle Management (LCM) tools that are being implemented by Novamont so as to improve Novamont's supply chain sustainability. The LCM tools can be summarized as follows: - Biorefinery project - Green procurement & cooperation with raw materials suppliers - Environmental management system - Process improvement and new technologies - Eco-design - Build awareness along Novamont's supply chain In this paper the Novamont's experience in the field of LCM implementation is shown with "real-life" examples. Novamont believes that LCM applied in supply chains is a necessity for improving sustainability.
Factors Influencing House-Owners To Adopt Environmentally Improved On-Site Sewage Systems (Abstract #245)
Are Vallin and Sverker Molander
How can large-scale adoption of new technologies that lead to decreasing environmental pressure on the ecosystem be described and analyzed by help of models of influences on the behavior of actors? Here the case of on-site sewage systems (sewage treatment systems for one or a few households) represents a more general problem situation where decreasing environmental loads depend on the adoption of more environmentally benign technologies made by actors using, providing, controlling the regulations, or in other ways influencing the change of technology. In this case the specific on-site sewage systems and the actions of house-owners are studied. The research includes the identification and quantification of relative strength of influences that make the actors controlling the technology at the interface between technosphere and ecosphere actually change their behavior and adopt the technologies. We argue that one possible and valuable approach, driven by observations, to get this knowledge is a Bayesian modeling approach using influence diagrams. We present results from the first modeling efforts based on an initial interview study in three Swedish municipalities to find categories of influences, and a subsequent questionnaire to 3500 Swedish house-owners to get quantitative data that can be used to model the decision situation in the case of on-site sewage systems. The case of actors around on-site sewage systems is particularly interesting since it contains decision situations with few economic incentives for the individual. Instead, other influencing factors such as regulatory arrangements are important. Increasing the knowledge about this kind of influences on house-owners would likely improve the chances of making policy interventions that work, and actually lead to improved environmental performance of on-site sewage systems.
A Cascading System For Extending The Carbon Storage Effect Of Wood And Derived Timber Products (Abstract #252)
Martina Hesse and Jutta Geldermann
In light of climate change and scarcity of fossil resources renewable raw materials become increasingly important. The most significant greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide which has a rising concentration in atmosphere mainly due to the burning of fossil fuels. Forests are considerable carbon sinks as they withdraw emitted atmospheric carbon dioxide via photosynthesis. The carbon storage period can be extended by a material use of wood and derived timber products: the storage effect of forests is continued in wooden products. Rising energy demands are provoking rivalries between material and energetic recovery of wood biomass, although these types of application do not inevitably have to be in conflict with each other. A serial connection of multiple material applications with a final energetic use describes the idea of cascading biomass resources. The multiple usage of timber products in connection to re- and upcycling loops raises resource efficiency and leads to an extended carbon sink effect of forests. On base of German timber production carbon storage potential by cascading usage patterns is estimated. Recent changes in German silviculture guidelines enhance the proportion of deciduous trees. Feedstock amounts are deduced from modified yield forecasts considering future changes in assortments of wood species in connection to scenario-based assumptions of the competing direct energetic use. Cascading intensity is represented by scenarios varying substitution quota, standard of technology and recycling rate. Fluctuations in quality and quantity at the supply side of the wood market are accommodated by a dynamization of the material flow analysis. The aim is to quantify the additional carbon sink effect of cascade resource use by using the software tool Umberto. Knowledge of these information can influence consumer behavior. Therefore results can be used for consumer sensitizing, especially in marketing of long-term carbon-fixing products like construction wood.
Investigating The Challenges And Potential Solutions For The Implementation Of A Compostable Waste Stream For Compostable Biopolymers (Abstract #255)
Kristen Ostermann, Nicholas Stamatakis, Melissa Bilec and Amy Landis
Life cycle analysis research that has been done concerning biopolymers has focused on cradle to gate impacts but some of these biopolymers are designed to have unique end of life options. For compostable biopolymers the full benefit from using such materials may not be realized until the product is composted, instead of the more common end of life options of landfilling and recycling. To be able to evaluate the possibility of a composting as an end of life option several avenues need to be investigated, including consumer to participation. To begin to tackle the problem of the unknown impacts of introducing compostable biopolymers into a market place that does not readily support a compostable waste stream we started at disposal. Since the best application of compostable biopolymers is potentially serviceware and packaging, or items designed for one time use, the use phase impacts are minimal. Therefore, our research effectively begins where many others leave off: at consumer disposal, which we investigated through two different avenues: the willingness to pay for the additional waste stream and the ability of the consumer to sort their own waste. The willingness of consumers to pay an additional amount for their waste to be composted was evaluated since there is currently a financial burden placed upon businesses that chose to send waste to a compost facility instead of landfilling. The ability of the consumer to adequately sort their garbage is essential to determining what waste stream compostable biopolymers will be placed in practice. Results show that 65% of respondents would be willing to pay for a ten percent surcharge on their purchase to help cover the costs of composting. The waste audit revealed that over 50% of the compostable material was placed in the trash.
Gaining Competitiveness From Sustainability: An Overview Of City Practices (Abstract #256)
Yang Yu and Liu Zhu
Half of the world's population dwell in cities, consuming 67% of total energy and emitting 71% of carbon dioxide. That's why politicians and academia promote energy efficiency and carbon emission reduction in cities, making a city sustainable. As the focus of sustainability, city must develop with the economic increase,resource economize and emission decrease .Fortunately, cities across the world are practicing the concept of "Reduce, Reuse and Recycle". Boston witnessed the retrofit of public house and use saved money to support welfare for low income citizens; Sau Paulo and Hong Kong introduced smart power and water meter to help water efficiency; Bogota and Delhi introduced BRT while London introduced traffic jam fee to reduce traffic jam, promote public transport and improve traffic efficiency; Tokyo and Taipei brought in integrated municipal solid waste management, from categorizing, collecting to energy recovery. At the first glance, one may find confused about the "random" sustainability topics chosen by mayors and urban planners. But after studying these city practices closely, the author drew a matrix concerning both development stage of city and resource constraint degree and the city practices are clear in the matrix. Modeling the matrix is not just for understanding why a city goes for one particular practice rather than another. It's a tool to help mayors, city planners and academia figure out what is urgent and important move that a city should take to be sustainability and also competitive. As well, when topic is decided, which policies should be taken out to achieve the goal.
The Adoption Of Green Supply Chain Practices In The Caribbean - The Case Of Trinidad And Tobago (Abstract #257)
Suzana Russell and Giselle Lewis
Supply chain management has become an important competitive approach for organizations and it is critical to balance the efforts to reduce costs and innovate, while at the same time maintaining good environmental (ecological) performance. As such, green supply chain management (GSCM) has emerged as an increasingly widely-diffused practice among companies seeking to balance their competitive requirements, while simultaneously improving their environmental performance. This study seeks to assess current green supply chain practices among manufacturers in Trinidad and Tobago. In particular, this study examines the level of awareness of the concept of green supply chain management, the practices among manufacturers, and the barriers preventing the adoption of green supply chain practices. The twin-island of Trinidad and Tobago is used as the case study as it is the most industrialised country and the hub of manufacturing activities in the Anglophone Caribbean. The findings from our survey of manufacturing companies indicate that even though the majority of companies claim awareness of the concept and meaning of GSCM, the level of adoption of green supply chain practices is low. Moreover, the potential for harnessing economic and environmental opportunities from engaging in green supply chain practices is still largely untapped. Manufacturers cite many reasons for their lack of engagement in green supply chain practices such as: a lack of knowledge; a lack of funding to support the requisite investments; and the likelihood that investments may not yield the desired benefits. The study also identifies potential roles for the government, manufacturing/trade associations and academia in addressing the need for greater emphasis on green supply chain management in the region.
An Analysis On Possibility Of Eco-Conscious Development For An Industrial Estate In Thailand (Abstract #261)
Noboru Yoshida, Tsuyoshi Morishita and So Sasaki
Eco-industrial development has now been one of most important issues at industrial estates and parks in Asian countries. Amata Nakorn Industrial Estate in Chonburi Province is the country's largest industrial area in the Eastern Seaboard in Thailand. There are more than 500 factories which produces automotive, electronics, consumer goods, and so on. Japanese-affiliated firms consist of half of them. While not a few firms are conscious of their environmental performance, there is little idea and information about eco-industrial development in the estate as a whole. Therefore an analysis was attempted to explore the possibility of eco-industrial development in the industrial estate in Thailand. As a result of material flow analysis based on interview surveys and the manifest data, it is clarified that industrial waste of more than 500 thousand tons was generated and more than 65 thousand tons were directly dumped into landfill sites per year. Then several ideas were proposed to promote eco-industrial development including collaboration with cement industries, biomass power generation, etc., and it was indicated that more than half of the waste can be recycled of all direct landfill disposal amount, and it could give contribution on considerable reduction of the carbon footprint. We also discussed about software infrastructure which stimulates the eco-conscious estate development.
Ecological Transition Of Coal-Based Chemical System In Ningxia Autonomous Region In China (Abstract #375)
Haijia Shi and Lei Shi
The coal chemical industry of China is entering a high speed developing stage, especially in main coal production areas. New coal utilization technologies continue to appear and have been applied to industrial production in these years. It would be beneficial to recycle unused waste and energy in the fast-changing industry by establishing symbiotic relationships between coal chemical enterprises and reactors. By taking the coal industry in Ningxia Autonomous Region as a study case, industrial symbiosis systems of coal chemical industry are described on different geographic scales in different development stages. Features of symbiosis systems in enterprises, industry parks and the region are compared and the scale effect is confirmed to be an important factor in the process of establishing new symbiotic relationships. The development features of the evolutionary process of the symbiosis systems on different scales are compared and the appearance of three technologies: coarse benzene processing, coal tar deep processing, and coke oven gas utilization technologies have significant effects on the structures of the symbiosis systems. And then the evolutionary metabolism of the systems is discussed. At last the optimizations of the symbiosis systems on three geographic scales proposals are put forward.
Life Cycle Assessment For Evaluation Of Environmental Impact And Performance Enhancement Of An Industrial Waste Incineration Plant (Abstract #409)
Shishir Kumar Behera, Kyeong-Ho Kim, Min Choul Kim, Man Je Han and Hung-Suck Park
Incineration of industrial wastes, among other technologies, is still a debated issue. Life cycle assessment was used to quantify the environmental impacts of an industrial waste incineration plant. The detailed life cycle inventory of gate-to-grave material inputs and emissions was compiled based on the data collected from a local industrial waste incineration plant, and two other databases; viz. Ecoinvent and PASS software developed by Ministry of Knowledge economy, South Korea. The functional unit is defined as 1 ton of industrial waste incinerated and the system boundary included the incineration plant as well as ash landfilling. The environmental impacts were evaluated by gradual addition of unit processes for air pollution control using six potential impact categories namely abiotic depletion potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, and photochemical oxidation potential. Separate estimation of direct and indirect emissions showed that with the gradual addition of unit processes, direct emission reduces but indirect emission increases with a net reduction of overall emission. However, industrial symbiosis through steam networking, the auxiliary function, resulted in a great reduction of environmental impact. This indicated that appropriate location of waste incinerator contributes significantly towards the reduction of overall environmental impact due to waste incineration.
Re-Defining The Concept Of Waste For Closed-Loop Material Economies (Abstract #508)
Jooyoung Park and Marian Chertow
This study presents an alternative interpretation of waste that is more compatible with ideas from industrial ecology about sustainable resource management. Current definitions of waste do not encourage forming closed-loop material flows. In addition, management systems that classify materials in only two bins, waste and non-waste, miss this opportunity since the divide between waste and non-waste is vague. These problems are reflected in the main debates raised throughout the evolution of the European Commission's Waste Framework Directive as well as in the inconsistency observed in establishing end-of-waste criteria across different countries. In contrast, this study proposes to combine waste and resource/product management into one regime, which is termed: "integrated material management." Under this framework, all materials are considered to be potential resources until shown otherwise. What actually determines the realized value of a particular material is the extent of accumulated knowledge and developed practice about how to use it. In particular, two types of innovation are required to transform under-utilized materials into fully-utilized resources: mindset innovation and technological innovation. In connection with these two types of innovation, we make two suggestions to re-define the concept of waste. One is related to constructing a new nomenclature system for several types of material that we ambiguously called waste. The other is to devise a new indicator, "reuse potential," to measure the nature of materials in a continuous scale between "waste-like materials" and "resource-like materials," instead of dividing them as either resource or waste.
Nordic Strategic Adaptation Research: Introducing Nord-Star (Abstract #537)
Brynhildur Davidsdottir and Michael Goodsite
Over the past five years, Nordic research on climate impacts, mitigation and adaptation has advanced significantly, including assessments of country specific mitigation opportunities, analyzes of vulnerabilities to climate change and the process of adaptation in addition to policy development and analyses. Although adaptation and mitigation are linked, they are usually dealt with in separate policy domains, as manifested in the structure of the working groups of the IPCC, where working group 2 deals with adaptation and working group 3 focuses on mitigation efforts. Researchers have increasingly argued for the convergence of these domains so as to avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation. Research has shown the potential for creating synergies and institutional links between the two strategies, in a way that enhances overall response capacity to climate change. One of the key challenges of climate action is then to ensure that adaptation and mitigation action is complementary and does not impede on each other's objectives. This presentation will introduce the Norden funded research project NORD-STAR. The aim of NORD-STAR is to lead to better decision-making and strategy development by linking adaptation and mitigation and using climate visualization techniques to bridge the gap between science and policy. The project has three focal areas; (1) socio ecological transitions with a focus on land-based adaptation and mitigation strategies; (2) socio-technological transitions with a focus on the development of energy system scenarios across Nordic regions to quantify the potential for adaptive and low carbon energy systems; (3) to develop and apply interactive visualization tools for the integrated analysis of links between natural and societal aspects of climate change, addressing societal, economic and environmental challenges for Nordic adaptation and mitigation strategies.
Energy Saving From A Roof Top Greenhouse In A Public Building Of Barcelona, Spain (Abstract #612)
Ileana Ceron, Jordi Oliver-Sola, Carles Martinez, Esther Sanye, Lluis Grau, Juan Ignacio Montero and Joan Rieradevall
In recent years the cities exert enormous pressure on the natural environment destroying ecosystems, green areas, biodiversity and consuming resources. Current food model is produced and processed through a linear urban metabolism, which involves the use of water, waste, GHG emissions and energy costs during its life cycle greenhouse. One way to reduce the ecological footprint is integrating these agricultural areas to the city. This study proposes the approximation of horticultural products to consumers through construction of greenhouses on the roofs of buildings. The main objective of the study is to assess the energy savings from this strategy in a public building located in the city of Barcelona, Spain. This assessment focuses on the study of the roof thermal performance and its effects on the building internal climate. Once characterised the different structural systems and materials of the building and greenhouse, three evaluation scenarios were defined: (1) The existing roof structural system (steel and plywood). (2) The new roof structural system (mortar, concrete, polystyrene, air chamber and plywood). (3) The Implementation of a roof top greenhouse with the new roof structural system. Those scenarios were modelled in the "DesignBuilder" energy simulation program. DesignBuilder uses the EnergyPlus dynamic simulation process to generate performance data . Climate data and thermal characteristics of the materials were introduced in the program. Preliminary results indicate a 37% saving on scenario three compared to scenario one. In terms of energy saving the influence of the new structural system was greater than that of the greenhouse. Additional benefits from the greenhouse could be provided to all areas of the building if the greenhouse and the building were connected; this would allow the interchange of energy fluxes and further energy savings.
Initial Sustainability Assessment Of Palm Oil-Based Biodiesel: A Case Study In Indonesia (Abstract #655)
Yosef Manik and Anthony Halog
In recent years, there is a strong practical interest in the biodiesel extracted from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) as a source of liquid transportation fuel. In pursuing the sustainable development of Indonesia's palm oil derived biodiesel supply chain, we have analyzed its environmental impacts using life-cycle assessment (LCA) approach while considering current practice in Indonesia as baseline scenario. The methodology was performed based on ISO-14040 framework using secondary data published in recent publications and found in databases. Unit processes analyzed include land preparation, cultivation, oil mill, refinery, transesterification up to biodiesel utilization in passenger car. From the life-cycle impact analysis (LCIA) results, it is depicted that palm oil-derived biodiesel has significant impacts in global warming potential and eco-toxicity potential. The most significant process contributing to global warming is the conversion of forest land, production of fertilization used in palm oil cultivation, methane emission in anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent and energy use in various processes. It is also found that the land use change from forest into palm oil plantation is the most critical contributor in overall greenhouse gas emission in life cycle of palm oil-based biodiesel. The use of herbicides and pesticides in plantations that emit glyphosate and cyphermeterin to the air and agricultural soil significantly contribute to ecotoxicity potential. The life cycle inventory (LCI) results further indicate that a massive amount of water resource is consumed in palm oil biodiesel production, which has potential implication to Indonesia's freshwater supply in due time.
Environmental Informatics And Industrial Ecology - Analysis Of Environmental Ict Applications Supporting Eco-Industrial Developments (Abstract #8)
Ralf Isenmann
The contribution provides insights of an empirical study analyzing environmental ICT applications for eco-industrial development examples. This requires - among others - at least: an inventory of eco-industrial development examples identified in the current industrial ecology literature and - no less important - a concept to group the vast number of environmental ICT applications currently in use or being developed for supporting eco-industrial development examples, so far. Using content analysis as a sound research methodology, the Journal of Industrial Ecology (JIE) is analyzed and examples of eco-industrial developments are identified, worldwide. The JIE is the official journal of the International Society for Industrial Ecology (ISIE). The content analysis includes peer-reviewed papers being published from 1997 - 2010. Further to the resulting inventory of eco-industrial developments, the role of environmental ICT applications is investigated in a more detailed fashion and software tools currently in use or being developed are described. The aim of this contribution is to investigate the state of the art of environmental ICT applications and to describe their potential benefits and future trends. A particular focus is to advance the use of software tools supporting eco-industrial developments, especially: how these tools could be further developed from more or less isolated environmental ICT applications and standalone environmental management information systems (EMIS) in single companies to an integral ICT infrastructure enabling inter-organisational exchange of environmental information, and how to take into account and then implement the certain requirements and specific needs of companies and other stakeholders involved in long-term eco-industrial developments. As a larger goal, the contribution is an attempt to bring together the ICT-driven field of Environmental Informatics and the environmental-focused area of Industrial Ecology. Although the two fields share a number of common features, institutional co-operation and joint research could be improved, still. Progression in environmental ICT applications enable an array of unique capabilities to be employed for industrial ecology applications, especially for the management of: physically exchanging materials, energy, water, and by-products, sharing other resources like infrastructure or human resources and other forms of social capital, and no less important relationships.
Renewable Energy And Electric Vehicle Incorporation Into The Smart Grid (Abstract #194)
Lee Clemon, Nicholas Surface, Christopher Depcik, Jon Mattson, Bryan Strecker, Andrew Moore and Len Necefer
Social, market, and governmental pressures have spurred further interest in developing electric vehicles, increasing the use of renewable energy, and implementing a smart grid. At the single building scale the detailed interactions between the listed technologies become significant. Specifically, this paper focuses on dynamically managing solar and wind energy with electric vehicles to maintain normal operation within a home or single building electrical system. The smart grid design allows for adjustability between using renewable energy and central grid generation. The electric vehicle is used as additional energy storage. Important efficiency losses and effective real-time management are identified.
End-Of-Life Management Of Glass Packaging In Trinidad And Tobago (Abstract #260)
Suzana Russell
The manufacture of glass uses significant amount of energy in the extraction and transportation of the raw materials, and also during processing as the main raw materials have to be heated together to very high temperatures. Glass is 100% recyclable so it can be recycled endlessly with no loss in quality or purity. Recycled glass or 'cullet' can account for up to 70% of the input raw materials used in the production of every new glass container. Incorporating cullet in the production of new glass not only reduces energy consumption and associated carbon dioxide emissions, but also reduces the demand for virgin raw material as well as the quantity of glass to landfill. This paper examines the present end-of-life management practices with respect to glass packaging on the small twin-island republic of Trinidad and Tobago, which is the most heavily industrialized island and the sole manufacturer of glass packaging in the Anglophone Caribbean. The study uses a material flow approach to map the flow of glass packaging in the economy. The findings indicate that less than 10% of post-consumer glass packaging is presently being recovered and reused. Different methods for improving cullet recovery on the island are presented and analysed. These include the provision of curbside receptacles and bottle banks, community and workplace recycling and bottle deposit schemes. The paper concludes by discussing what role the government should play as an enabler of sustainable end-of-life management in small-island developing economies.
Input-Output Analysis For Infrastructure Ecology (Abstract #283)
Fernando D'Annunzio and Ming Xu
Infrastructure systems (e.g., water, sewage, power, gas, transportation, etc) are critical for the built environment to function properly to fulfill the societal needs. These infrastructure systems are highly interdependent with each other in complex ways. Changes in one particular infrastructure will have impacts on other infrastructure systems through direct and indirect interdependencies. The impact resulting from such infrastructure interdependency is not always taken into account in industrial ecology. Here we extend the concept of ecology to characterize infrastructure interdependency in the sense that infrastructure systems are not examined individually but as an interlinked system, or 'infrastructure ecology'. This research explores the interdependency among critical urban infrastructure systems including water, power, gas, transportation, etc. Such infrastructure interdependency is established using the foundations of Input-Output Analysis (IOA). An infrastructure input-output matrix for the US is constructed to reflect direct interdependencies among selected critical infrastructure systems. The most recent data available are used to define these interactions. The scope of this research accounts for the interdependencies among studied infrastructure systems in the US at the national scale on a yearly basis. The analytical framework defined in this research can be applied for understanding the interdependencies of selected infrastructure systems at regional and local scales, particularly in urban settings. This infrastructure input-output analysis framework will be able to serve as an impact assessment tool for future urban infrastructure development.
Life Cycle Assessment In Early R&D - Combining Technical Optimisation With Life Cycle Impact Assessment (Abstract #285)
Eva Zschieschang, Oliver Goerke, Peter Pfeifer, Andreas Patyk and Liselotte Schebek
New technologies in the field of decentralised small and/or mobile applications (e.g. consumer electronics) are characterised by a shorter lifetime, utilisation of multiple rare earth metals and huge production numbers. Due to the awareness of environmental impacts of these technologies during their life cycle, the optimisation of their design seems absolutely essential to obtain a more sustainable technology. Hence, the question arises how to combine technical optimisation in early R&D with Life Cycle Assessment? Micro process technology is based on chemical and physical phenomena occurring inside volumes of less than 1 mm in diameter, usually carried out in continuous flow mode. General advantages are enhanced material yield and energy efficiency in chemical processes by improved heat and mass transfer. The field of micro process technology covers developments which might substitute existing processes as well as enabling new technologies which will lead to ample changes in markets or even societal conditions. Using the example of a micro structured reactor for gas to liquid fuel conversion in early R&D, a new methodology for combining technical optimisation with Life Cycle Impact Assessment was developed. As a result, this approach allows early evaluation of different possible micro reactor designs with respect to their ecological impact using Life Cycle Assessment. Further advantages of this methodology are the identification of improvable and non-improvable technical parameters regarding environmental impact, the easy integration in other LCAs and the transfer of this methodology to other micro process technology applications.
Characterizing The U.S. Anthropogenic Aluminium Cycle: The Robustness And Uncertainty Of A Material Flow Analysis (Abstract #286)
Gang Liu and Daniel Muller
There are growing interests and efforts to characterize material/substance flows of metals including aluminium at on spatial levels from cities to the planet in the past few years. However, most of the previous studies were either focused on one or some stages of the life cycle, or with little consideration of international trade. Also many studies were carried out in an aggregated level due to data gaps and all the consequent uncertainties were not well addressed. This paper aims to give a picture of the U.S. anthropogenic aluminium cycle in 2006 in a very detailed level and discuss the robustness and uncertainty of the use of MFA approach. Some main results go as follows: (i) Although assumptions are not avoidable, the MFA model helps to understand the entire system in a good order of magnitude; (ii) The international trade of commodities has dominating role in the whole cycle, and the net import of aluminium in final products is 1.4 million tons; (iii) Virtually all data input for the MFA are subject to uncertainty, either systematic or random. Generally data on early life stages is relatively easy to acquire and of good quality, whereas data for manufacturing, use stages, and waste management is much less well characterized both in data quality and quantity; (iv) Around 60% of the U.S. aluminium production in 2006 is from secondary route, but only 22% is from post-consumer scrap; and the internal use of new scrap is even more than the use in remelters. (v) The Monte Carlo simulation results showed that our data of aluminium content in manufactured products seems to be reasonably accurate. Further efforts should be put in the investigation on those indentified critical products, as the first ten important products counts almost 80% in total both for import and export.
Forecasting For Sustainable E-Waste Management Policies: A National Survey Analysis For Obsolete Tvs (Abstract #288)
Natalia Milovantseva and Jean-Daniel M. Saphores
The increasing popularity of consumer electronics continues to present tough challenges for policy makers concerned with the risks for human health and the environment of improperly disposing of electronic waste (e-waste). In 2007, the EPA estimates that approximately 26.9 million TVs were discarded in the US alone, yet only 18 percent by weight was recycled; unfortunately, these numbers are very uncertain. Discarded cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs contain large amounts of lead but flat panel TVs contain some mercury and present new recycling challenges. It is important for public policy to get better estimates of the number of TVs currently in storage and of the quantity of potentially toxic materials they contain. This paper relies on count models to analyze the data from a national survey (n=3165) of US households. Our models estimate the number and the size of obsolete TVs stored by US households using a set of behavioral, socio-economic and demographic variables, and we then approximate the volumes of potentially toxic materials they contain. Our findings provide information to support future state and national policy formulations on sustainable e-waste management.
Closing Data Gaps In Lci Based On Environmental Ioa: A Case Study For The German Building Sector (Abstract #295)
Bodo Mueller and Liselotte Schebek
LCA is used in the area of Sustainable Building to assess the full life cycle of buildings, covering impacts from performance of buildings as well as from construction materials. In Germany as in other countries, several data bases and planning tools including data for environmental impacts of construction materials exist. However, a recent survey on a data base provided by the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development revealed, that only for 42% of the building materials considered as basic for the assessment of buildings data sets were available. To overcome the problem of missing data, we developed an IO-based approach to derive LCI data sets for the building sector of Germany. It is based on the German Input-output accounts from which consist of 71 sectors, and on the German environmental accounts (Umweltökonomische Gesamtrechung) which provides emission factors on seven airbound compounds. Due to the fact that each of the 71 sectors contains diverse products, an approach for disaggregating of sector-related emissions had to be developed. For validation of the generated IO-data sets, a comparison with the corresponding data sets of 106 building materials from the ecoinvent-database was performed. For several building products, differences in the order of more than one magnitude occur. Using statistical methods, clusters for different types of building products were analyzed in order to identify reasons for deviations. Results and consequences for application of IO-based LCI will be discussed in detail.
Ecological, Water And Carbon Footprints Calculated By Multiregional Input-Output Model - Some Results (Abstract #296)
Jan Weinzettel, Kjartan Steen-Olsen, Edgar Hertwich, Alessandro Galli and Ertug Ercin
Ecological, water and carbon footprints are considered to be a good approach how to assess environmental sustainability from different angles. In his presentation, Kjartan Steen-Olsen will focus on a common accounting framework for these footprints when multiregional input output model is applied in their calculation. In this poster we will present national footprints calculated by the multiregional input output model which we have developed in cooperation with the Global Footprint Network and the University of Twente within the OPEN:EU project.
Virtually Bringing People Closer Together With Technology (Abstract #298)
Kyo Suh, Timothy Smith and Michelle Linhoff
Increasing numbers of people are managing their social networks on mobile information and communication technology (ICT) platforms. This study materializes these virtual relationships by leveraging spatially-specific and networked informational flows for sharing excess capacity to reduce environmental impacts associated with vehicle dependent, sparsely populated urban sprawl communities. In this paper, we develop a concept of "virtual density," created by socially-networked mobile ICT platforms, and explore its potential in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A package delivery system (individual door to door delivery from online purchases) was selected to apply this concept. Specifically, three systems are compared through simulation to estimate total system delivery distance and GHG emissions: the current door-to-door delivery system (CDS), a designated pickup location system (PLS), and a socially networked PLS (SPLS). Results indicate that SPLS can reduce distance mileage by approximately up to 95% regardless of regional housing density comparing to CDS. PLS can also reduce distance mileage by 65% and 56% in urban and suburban areas, respectively.
Methods For Quantifying Metal Stocks In City Infrastructure (Abstract #306)
Annica Carlsson, Bjorn Berglund, Joakim Krook, Per Frändegård and Mats Eklund
Metal flows related to human activities have been studied for decades within the research field of industrial ecology applying the methodology of material flow analysis. Initially, the focus was on identifying sources of environmental pollution. Over time the in-use stock of metals accumulated in society attracted increased interest. This emerging area of research is largely driven by resource availability concerns, exploring the potential of using new, alternative sources for metal extraction in the future. Large technical systems serving the everyday needs of people, such as water supply, power grids or communication networks exemplify city infrastructure rich in accumulated metals. Management of these systems can play an important role regarding quantification of urban metal resource stocks. Especially in identifying parts of the metals stocks in hibernation, i.e. available for urban mining. However, the stock of metals available for urban mining is not a key parameter for those companies or local authorities that own and/or operates the city infrastructure. From this follows that parts of these systems over time may have been taken out of practice without being collected for recovery. Nonetheless, geographical information systems (GIS) that are commonly used for operational statistics of these systems can be strong tool in MFA for identifying metal stocks available for urban mining. This paper presents the methodology for identifying and accounting metal stocks available for urban mining that is applied in an ongoing research project on assessing the economic and environmental potential for urban mining in Sweden. Based on data such as; the total length of the underground infrastructure system; parts of the system no longer in use; dimension of power cables, communication cables and water tubes etc., material composition (e.g. share of copper tubes, plastics etc.,) year of construction; data on co-location with other system; the potential for urban mining can be analyzed.
The Ghg Protocol Road Test: The Carbon Footprint Of Maclean'S Magazine As A Case Study (Abstract #311)
Annemarie Kerkhof, Hicham Elhalaby and Immee Chee Wah
Carbon footprint (CF) standards can help businesses and governments to measure and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Several CF standards have been developed or are under development, including PAS 2050, ISO 14067 and the GHG protocol. The 'GHG Protocol - Product accounting and reporting standard' of the WRI/ WBCSD was tested in a "road test" in 2010. As one of the sixty-two companies participating in the road test Rogers Communications Inc. quantified the carbon footprint of Maclean's magazine. The initial goal of the study was to increase insight into the GHG emissions of the different phases in the magazine's life cycle, and to help Rogers in making informed choices that could eventually lead to a reduction in the CF. Additionally, experience was gained with the standard. The case study handles for example several issues relevant for paper products, including land-use-change, carbon uptake, methane emissions from landfills, recycling, and so on. Product-specific data were collected by Rogers and its suppliers, like energy use for pulp and paper processing and news production. For data that are not specific for the magazine, like electricity generation and recycling rates, statistical databases and the Ecoinvent 2.2 database were used. The results show that the cradle-to-grave carbon footprint of one average Maclean's magazine (weight: 0.152 kg) produced and delivered to the client in 2009 is 0.26 kg CO2 equivalents. 35.6% coming from raw material acquisition and preprocessing, 20.7% from production, 24.9% from distribution, 0.39% from use and transport to end-of-life and 18.4% from disposal. The carbon footprint reflects specific Canadian conditions, such as the use of hydropower and large transport distances. The experience with the GHG protocol was very positive in general. Some clarifications were however needed with regard to land-use change, data quality assessment and end-of-life allocation.
Logistics And Transportation Analysis And Quantification Of Forest Biomass From The U.S. To Europe. A Supply And Demand Interaction (Abstract #325)
Guillermo Velarde, Adrian Pirraglia and Daniel Saloni
Global demand for energy is expected to increase more than 25 percent in the next quarter-century and the increasing demand for renewable energy will generate a global demand for multiple "green" energy sources. Lignocellulosic feedstocks have been proposed as part of the solution because it has been suggested that more than 1 billion tonnes of biomass could be sustainably harvested in the U.S. Some concerns are foreseen because issues such as population growth and increased standards of living will affect the availability of land for biomass to bioenergy production. The interconnectivity of the markets worldwide will generate similar situation offshore and in the case of Europe it is suggested that the demand for biomass will be greater than the local supply. This situation will generate a biomass deficit and promote imports from other regions in the world. The uneven distribution of biomass and sources of utilization will require major transportation alternatives and improvements to make the supply chain more efficient. This project seeks to quantify the future needs of logistics and transportation in the supply-demand interactions between the U.S. and Europe in terms of woody biomass for bioenergy. For this purpose, future estimations of energy demand will be used as well as projections for the amount of "green" energy to be utilized by each region. Current process and conversion parameters will also be used to determine the mass balance required between each region. Transportation systems, distances and paths to be used in this study will be based on the current available and standard alternatives. Results from this study will allow the development of an appropriate logistics and transportation system for the biomass/bioenergy industry. Findings will also provide an insight in the future U.S. capability to become a major supplier of biomass for bioenergy.
Initial Global Cycles For Ten Rare Earth Elements (Abstract #327)
Xiaoyue Du and Thomas Graedel
The rare earth elements (REEs) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties, which make them indispensible for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. However, knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in future availability of the resources. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supply vulnerable to short and long term disruption. We have applied the principles of material flow analysis to derive the world's first quantitative life cycles for ten REE metals: La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, and Y, for the year 2007. Prompt scrap is recycled from magnet manufacturing only, not from other products. Ce and Nd in-use stocks were the highest of the ten elements during the analysis period 1995 to 2007, and the in-use stocks of most REEs show a significant accumulation in use in the modern society. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of the REE elements.
Construction Of Reuse Network For The Drainage Of Civil Wastewater Treatment Facility Using Reverse Osmosis Method (Abstract #340)
In-Gyung Jung
Pohang city which is located at the southeastern part of the S. Korea is an industrial city focused on iron & steelmaking. The water supply this city needs is about 485,000tons/day including 250,000tons/day industrial water for the steel complex in the proximity of the city. Presently, these demands are supplied with Hyungsan-river, near lakes and far located Imhan-dam. However, the expansion of the steel complex expect increase of the water demand to 700,000 tons/day by the year 2020 and it is difficult to have additional water supply. To resolve this problem, a process using reverse osmosis technology is developed to reuse 100,000 tons/day from 230,000 tons/day of drainage from Pohang municipal waste water treatment facility. The results show that the reused water satisfies the quality and costs. Now, about 105 million US dollars are prepared for the process and the negotiation for the detailed design is under going with the government. After finishing the negotiation, construction will start on july 2011 and end on may 2013. The new facility will provide cheap and high quality water to the consumers in the complex and the pollutions to the Young-il bay by waste water will be diminished also. Above all, this technology provides substitute water resources and stable water supply to the area.
Quantifying The Anthropogenic Phosphorus Flows In Chao Lake Watershed (Abstract #351)
Zengwei Yuan, Huijun Wu and Jun Bi
Mitigation of the eutrophication of lakes caused by excessive phosphorus (P) from human activities requires understanding of the amounts and linkages of P through inputs and outputs of the different parts of the socioeconomic system. Basing on substance flow analysis (SFA), the study presents challenges in developing a static P flow analysis model in the socioeconomic system of lake watershed. Then identify and quantify the anthropogenic P flows in Chaohu Watershed in 2008. The study also presents and compares the results by using bottom-up approach and top-down approach. The data and parameters, required for the reliable calculation of P flows in the study, are obtained from surveys, published literature, official statistic databases and expert opinion. Main findings include the following: (1) P losses to water of Chaohu Watershed in 2008 are 46730.48 t (based on bottom-up approach) or 62442.03 t (based on top-down approach); (2) Feixi County which mostly impacts the water environment drains 10670.5 t P to surrounding water; (3) both the P losses to water in the crop farming subsystem and large-scale breeding subsystem are larger than other subsystems; (4) the import exceeds export enough in Chaohu Watershed is 71895.62 t P, which is mainly attributed to the huge imports of raw materials for P-chemical industries and feeds for large-scale breeding; (5) the P utilization efficiency of Chaohu Watershed is very low which is only 27.39%. The results of this SFA lay the basis for further analysis, which in turn can offer insight into improving the water quality of the lake and ecological management efficiency.
A Database Of Lifespan Information Of Vehicles, Electrical And Electronic Equipment, Buildings And Infrastructures (Abstract #369)
Masahiro Oguchi, Shinsuke Murakami, Tomohiro Tasaki, Ichiro Daigo and Seiji Hashimoto
Lifespan of commodities is essential information for material stock and flow accounting in a dynamic system. By reviewing reported lifespan information of commodities in literatures, we created a database of lifespan information named LiVES (Lifespan database for Vehicles, Equipment, and Structures) and published it through a web-based system. LiVES includes approximately 1300 records of various kinds of commodities including motor vehicles, electrical and electronic equipment, buildings and infrastructures from 65 literatures from 16 countries, that were reviewed by March 31, 2009. Each record has 12 fields: (1) data ID, (2) commodity name, type, and properties, (3) commodity classification (basically consistent with ISIC and CPC classifications), (4) lifespan definition, (5) value and its type (average or median) as well as the other parameter(s) of the distribution, (6) sample type for estimation (i.e., production-year-based or discard-year-based), (7) non-parametric or parametric (if the latter, the distribution function types included), (8) country and region, (9) year of estimation, (10) details of sampling (i.e., methodologies [census, random, stratified], sample sizes, survey methods), (11) estimation methodology details, and (12) literature information. LiVES is available at http://www.nies.go.jp/lifespan/ and the website also calls for users to report additional information. Contribution of users will be expected for further enhancement of the database. We also defined and categorized lifespan definition, estimation methodologies, and so on. Lifespan definition greatly varied by literature and there were three frequently-used definitions: domestic total lifespan, domestic service lifespan, and possession span. We found in the literatures that four different methodologies were employed for estimating actual lifespan distribution. We compared average lifespan estimated from each methodology, and the result suggested that any of the methodologies can be selected for estimation as far as representative sample data is available.
Governance For 3R Policy Implementation In Asia: Case Studies Of Selected Asian Countries And Regions (Abstract #370)
Yasuhiko Hotta, Shiko Hayashi, Lewis Akenji, Janya Sang-Arun and Chika Aoki-Suzuki
Developing Asia faces huge challenges for implementing integrated waste management and the 3Rs often without institutional and human capacity including proper development of legal system, role sharing of central and local governmental organizations, and budget allocation. Under such conditions, it is significant to implement the 3Rs and waste-related policies in step-wise and efficient manner in accordance to challenges faced by different level of policy development. International cooperation is expected to play a significant role to support developing Asia to meet such challenges. For example, Japan and UN organizations have supported several developing Asian countries to develop national strategy to prioritize 3R policy. However, it is more important to promote the steady implementation of such policies. Along this recognition, IGES has conducted case studies on governance for implementing 3R policies in selected Asian countries and regions; Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia, Philippines, Viet Nam, and Thailand. Focusing on mechanisms and policy tools to enhance collaboration between central and local governments, the paper examines challenges and opportunities for improved implementation of waste management and 3R policies in developing Asia. The paper will try to identify step-wise approaches for different level of policy development and governance structure.
Design Strategies For Sustainable Development. A Case Study Of The Packaging Industry In Singapore (Abstract #371)
Flavia Tenuta and Christian Boucharenc
In the current scenario, where everything must be planed and projected, Industrial Design comes as a powerful tool allowing people to mould their objects, services, environment and consequently the society itself. This study shows some of the existing Industrial Design Strategies for Sustainable Development taking place in Singapore by investigating into representative cases from the Packaging industry. On account of the growing amount of waste in Singapore and its limited land, the government has developed a special plan for solid waste management, which includes special measures regarding the reduction of domestic waste. In Singapore, about one third of total domestic waste in 2009 was packaging waste. Therefore, several of these initiatives are directly related to the packaging industry which allowed us to observe and analyse the Industrial Design responses to some of these programs on its early stages. Regarding the packaging industry in Singapore, the case study methodology was used in the analysis of two different contexts: multinationals and local companies in Singapore. Specific strategies within each of these contexts are identified and analysed, and finally a comparison between them is presented. The outcomes of this study include a critical analysis of the design tools and methods being used by the Packaging Industry in Singapore towards sustainable development; an analysis of some of the products developed by these companies within the given context; as well as a profile of the packaging industry of Singapore regarding sustainable development initiatives with respect to local and global scenarios.
Life Cycle Assessment Of Tio2 Coatings On Facade Systems (Abstract #376)
Nagapooja Seeba
Life cycle assessment of TiO2 coatingson facade systems: The use of Titanium dioxide TiO2 nano-particles as coating for concrete facades has received considerable attention in recent years as these coatings have self-cleaning properties and can trap and absorb organic and inorganic pollutants by a photocatalytic process. Despite these promising benefits, the promotion of TiO2 coatings based on these factors does not provide a complete evaluation of this technology and may omit critical environmental factors that should be considered in sustainable material selection decision-making process. The objective of this research is to determine the life-cycle assessment of TiO2 coating technology in building facade systems. To achieve this objective, a life cycle inventory (LCI) that quantifies the energy and emissions of TiO2 coatings from cradle to grave was developed. This included energy consumption during extraction of ilmenite or rutile, manufacture of TiO2 and nano-particle production, cooling energy savings by high reflectivity maintenance during summer, energy savings from the elimination of pressure washing and the energy used in disposal. Some of the factors that were taken into account for this evaluation are the street canyon effect, heat island effect, wind speed and heat transfer through building facades in summer months. Based on this inventory, a life cycle impact assessment of TiO2 coatings for concrete facades will be performed using EcoIndicator-95 and SimaPro impact assessment models.
Methodology For Prospective Exposure Assessment Of Engineered Nanoparticles Based On Life Cycle Scenarios (Abstract #383)
Henning Wigger and Arnim von Gleich
The increasing usage of engineered nanoparticles in consumer products increases the probability of exposure to workers, consumers and the environment. Little is known about (eco )toxicological hazards as well as fate and behavior during the life cycle (Borm et al., 2006, Tiede et al., 2008). Risk is a function of exposure and hazard (German Risk Commission 2003). Exposure assessment is of the same relevance as hazard assessment (Butt et al. 2009). Nevertheless current research strategies seem to focus more on possible hazards (Hansen et al. 2008). A reason for this phenomenon may be that conventional exposure assessment is complex and can only take place, when the release of substances has already occurred. The precautionary principle, however, requests prospective approaches in hazard as well as in exposure assessment especially in the case of nanoparticles. The problems of prospective approaches to encounter these challenges are evident, facing the knowledge limits at an early stage of fast developing innovation and the burden of uncertainty. The presented bottom-up approach focuses on the life cycle of current and future consumer products and their applications. This could be a useful alternative to current researches. The presentation is dealing with the challenges of prospective exposure assessment and how to overcome these. The main objective is to develop a feasible approach for prospective quantification of exposure by using life cycle scenarios for products to estimate emission points (single and diffuse) and quantities. This approach is exemplified by nano-Ag and nano-Fe particles, which are studied in the interdisciplinary Graduate School nanoToxCom funded by the Hans-Böckler-Foundation. Moreover, the results of exposure probability, starting points and release quantities contribute to a further assessment of fate and behavior. Finally, it could be possible to estimate a predicted environmental concentration and possibly relate it to a predicted no effect concentration. The derivation of 'hot spots' and necessary measures can allow a minimization of exposure by designing processes, materials and products.
Relationship Between Conductivity And Dissolved Solids In Treated Industrial Wastewater For Reuse (Abstract #389)
Duk Gyu Han and Mun Il Kim
In this study, the relationship between electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) in treated industrial wastewater was determined. EC measurement is sometimes the only practical method for the inspection of TDS variation; therefore, developing this relationship would be very helpful for company-to-company wastewater reuse. A treated industrial wastewater quality from milk processing plant was checked at different points, up to the effluent discharge points. As a result the ratio of TDS to EC was found to be in the range of 0.58 - 0.67, with a mean value of 0.64 with a very strong relationship at the effluent point. Even though the results were from only one kind of industry, this conversion factor could be used to estimate TDS from EC measurements of a similar industrial wastewater and a guide of further research for direct use of a treated industrial wastewater to the other industrial process water, since this research is for the first time trial for company-to-company wastewater reuse. Keywords: Electrical conductivity; Dissolved solids; Industrial wastewater; Water reclamation; Coefficient of regression
Life Cycle Analysis Of Bio-Fuelled Combined Heat And Power Plants: Centralized Versus Decentralized Deployment Strategies (Abstract #392)
Geoffrey Guest
Norway, as many countries, has realized the need to extensively plan their renewable energy future sooner than later. Combined heat and power (CHP) via gasification of forest residues is one technology that is expected to aid Norway in achieving a desired doubling of bioenergy production by 2020. In order to assess the environmental impacts to determine the most suitable CHP size a unit process based attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed, where three scales of CHP were compared over ten environmental impact categories- micro (0.1 MWe); small (1 MWe); and medium (50 MWe) scale. The functional units used were 1 MJ of electricity and 1 MJ of district heating delivered to the end-user, and therefore, the environmental impacts from distribution of electricity and hot water to the consumer were also considered. This study focuses on a regional perspective situated in middle-Norway's Nord- and Sør-Trøndelag counties. Overall the unit based environmental impacts between the scales of CHP were quite mixed and within the same magnitude. The results also suggested that an optimal small scale may be the best environmental option. The CHP systems had a global warming potential ranging from 2.4-2.8 g CO2eq/MJth district heating and 8.9-10.5 g CO2eq/MJel electricity to end-user.
Correlation Between Facts And Success Feelings Of An Industrial Symbiosis Consultant And Its Clients (Abstract #393)
Patricia Le Moënner, Cyril Adoue and Florian Julien-Saint-Amand
For five years, Systèmes Durables has been pursuing industrial symbiosis projects, mainly in France. Having first-source information on a pool of over ten different studies, our team decided to analyze our experiences to extract knowledge to improve the success probability of ongoing and new projects. We have decided to examine projects from the success feeling perspective of either Systèmes Durables or its client. These indications are valued from a range zero to ten. We then reported over ten parameters such as need for collect, fieldwork practice, collect delegation, local support, governance aspects, time dimension, etc. Our first analysis exhibits strong correlation between Systèmes Durables satisfaction and two factors which are data quality and local implication. For clients, strong correlation relates to fieldwork practice and achievement of contextual interviews. Among the results, it is also interesting to notice that correlation is weak between available time for study and success feeling for both Systèmes Durables and its client. At this early stage, we asserted ourselves the success feeling of each client based on observations and on what they told us during and after project. To confirm results it would be valuable to precisely ask them their own answer to the question. Also, today some projects are not yet fully completed and new ones are starting. They are bond to feed this analysis data base and potentially confirm or modify the results. We believe this type of success feeling review is important as it nourishes pleasure and motivation. These two are keys for industrial symbiosis consultant and its client. Being able to understand and maximize success feeling of the partners could be useful in promoting industrial symbiosis development.
Analysis Of Economic Instruments For Sustainable Materials Management (Abstract #411)
Satoshi Kojima, Yasuhiko Hotta and Takashi Yano
Increasing material demands, especially in developing Asia, is anticipated to amplify risks of global resource and environmental crisis. From the stand point of developing Asia, it is important to manage material consumption and waste generation without harming the development of infrastructure and product needs for poverty alleviation. Although there is a rising global effort to promote resource efficiency and material recycling to meet the challenge of booming resource demand, further effort to control material demands through effective policy is vital to promote sustainable development. Based on this recognition, this paper examines macro-policy tools for controlling material demands and consumption. Firstly, we review the existing economic instruments for sustainable materials management for targeting different stage of material life cycle, i.e. resource input, production process and products, and waste generation. Secondly, we examine policy implications of these instruments using a CGE model, with focusing on ferrous products and scrap steel. We select virgin materials tax for controlling resource input, extended producer responsibility (EPR) for process and products, and volume-based waste fee for industrial wastes generation. Then, we evaluate effectiveness of these policy instruments in reducing resource demands with less negative, or ideally positive, economic and social impacts. This paper presents a part of a policy study of environmental economics funded by Ministry of the Environment of Japan.
Tft-Lcd Tv Carbon-Footprint Case Study In Taiwan (Abstract #415)
Chia-Ho Lee, Ya-Chieh Chen and Hsei-Ching Hsu
Life cycle analysis was applied in to evaluate goods and services GHG emission, which is the term of "Carbon footprint" . The Life cycle inventory of CFP, included cradle-to-grave, evaluate GHG emission in extracting, producing, manufacturing, using, recycling and disposal. The CFP Result not only a tool for enterprise to communicated with customer and consumer but also a good way to choose eco-friendly products through Carbon footprint label for consumer. The functional unit for this estimation was defined as 32inch TFT-LCD TV, which weight was 14.82 kg. The production flow included array, cell, color filter, module, and TV set. Primary data in the case was included tier 1 supplier(138 category of component) and four internal manufacturing factory. The secondary data was assessed from eco-invent, ETH, and DoITPro , that base on Taiwan database. The result of GHG emission on manufacturing, using, and recycling was 503.6, 747, and -9.65 respectively. This was the first Carbon footprint case by TFT-LCD TV that was certified by independent third party.
Quantifying Environmental Performance Of Industrial Symbiosis In The Biofuel Industry (Abstract #419)
Michael Martin, Jorge Fonseca, Niclas Svensson and Anton Helgstrand
In the theories of industrial ecology, industries collaborate to create mutual benefits by the sharing of material and energy in what is called "industrial symbiosis." These exchanges of by-products and utilities, i.e. synergies, are often assumed to offer many benefits for the environmental and economical performance, though quantification of the performance is rare. In the production of biofuels, i.e. biodiesel, biogas and bioethanol, synergies between the production processes may occur, e.g. between the production of biogas and ethanol. Some of these synergies have been investigated in this study to outline and present the environmental performance of integrated scenarios between a hypothetical biogas and bioethanol facility located in the Östergötland region of Sweden, including 1) a default scenario with two stand-alone facilities, 2) integrated biogas production from all stillage and 3) use of biogas for ethanol processes in place of propane. All calculations and environmental performance results have been computed using given data, and some from the EcoInvent database when necessary, in the life cycle assessment software, SimaPro. The impacts associated with industrial symbiosis activities have been quantified in the biofuel industry through the investigation of different by-product synergies. The results obtained demonstrate that the environmental impacts from the integration of the biogas and ethanol plants through by-product exchanges may have significant environmental improvements as well as risk for problem shifting due to the reduction of fossil energy and less raw material consumption. The use of digestate as biofertilzer leads to significant improvements of the performance of the system since chemical fertilizer is substituted. On the other hand, biogas production from ethanol stillage results in less animal fodder production to replace other fodder sources, e.g. soy meal.
Teaching Complex Adaptive Systems Theory And Agent Based Modeling To Ie Students (Abstract #426)
Igor Nikolic
IE deals with systems that are almost without exception Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS); they involve geological, chemical and biological cycles and socio-technical systems. CAS theory allows for a coherent understanding of systems wherein a variety of actors interact in parallel without centralized control or coordination. While IE has renewed its interest in CAS as a useful perspective, IE _teaching_ often lacks this deeply integrative view. Without a CAS perspective it is difficult for students to really appreciate the systems view at the core of IE. This paper presents an OpenCourseWare course (http://ocw.tudelft.nl/courses/tpm-minors-and-electives/agent-based-modeling-of -complex-adaptive-systems-basic/course-home/ ) on CAS and Agent Based Modeling (ABM) aimed at MSc level Industrial Ecology students. The course provides a theoretical grounding and practical ABM skills needed to explore CAS in three parts. The first two discuss CAS theory intertwined with hands-on experience with ABM. Students modify existing ABMs exploring complexity. In the third part this knowledge is applied to an independently created ABM. The importance of teaching CAS to IE students is reflected in course exit statements such as "IE aims to deal with the context, system and the wider implications of interconnected processes that ...(my previous education)... was lacking so much. I see the concepts presented at the course as a perspective fully agreeing with IE and in general how I look at the world around me. ... I find it hard not to think of some complex system property in relation to anything I observe in everyday life and my studies." The paper will discuss the course setup, the implementation through the wiki and OpenCourseWare platforms, modeling and simulation packages used, and reflect on the experience gained and feedback received while teaching to IE and other MSc students.
The Iron Capital Formation In China'S Transportation Systems (Abstract #427)
Tao Wang and Seiji Hashimoto
A dynamic material stocks and flows model was employed to investigate the evolution and trends of China's road and rail transportation systems and their use of iron and steel. As of 2005 the iron stocks embodied in transportation infrastructure and vehicles in China have climbed to 242 million metric tons (or 186 kg/cap): Nearly 75 kg/cap can be found in highways, 31 kg/cap in railways, 18 kg/cap in passenger cars, 37 kg/cap in trucks, and 11 kg/cap in railway vehicles. By analyzing scenarios through 2050, we estimate that the possession of motor vehicles per thousand people in China may catch up the level in Western European countries and Japan. The annual production and sales of motor vehicles are anticipated to reach as high as 40 million. The iron stocks in motor and railway vehicles may increase by some 10 to 18 times from 2005 to 2050. The adoption of lightweight vehicles and the application of lighter and more efficient materials (e.g., high-strength steel, aluminium, and plastics) may decrease about one-third of this material demand. The iron stocks in highways and railways may more than double by 2050. Express highway and high-speed railways, which have a large fraction of length built upon bridges to save limited land in China, are notably steel intensive. The simulation results indicate a strong drop of steel demand flows by highways and railways in the coming one to two decades, because most of the construction work is expected to be completed by 2020.
A Modular Approach To Life Cycle Assessment Of Biorefinery (Abstract #428)
Othman Mrani and Liselotte Schebek
LCA generally compares products and services as to their environmental performance. If it comes to the assessment of novel technologies, however, systems innovation may be encountered which makes it difficult to chose the adequate product or service and the functional unit for comparison of "new" and "old" technology. Biorefinery, i.e. the substitution of fossil resources by renewables, may be seen as such a innovation. This is specifically true as to the manufacturing of chemicals: future biobased chemical production will - like present day's chemistry - be based on highly interconnected processes and process networks: therefore not simply one petrol-based product will be substituted by one biobased product, but major changes in production routes and their interlinkages will be introduced. For an LCA based assessment of possible concepts for future biorefinery, a modular approach seems appropriate. We propose a further specification of the sector of chemicals based on the definition of certain stages of the value chain where the same intermediate product can be produced by different technologies: as such stages, we chose the levels of platform chemicals, buildings blocks, and intermediates products. Each of these levels may be characterized by their feedstock, their specific production process and their products; stages may be combined flexible to derive possible routes for final products. As a first attempt to use this approach, we have carried out a LCA on succinic acid which is one building block expected to be produced in future bio-based chemistry. Regarding the wide range of applications, LCA of succinic acid seems interesting in itsself, but also of high interest as a first step for to Consequentional LCA of future biorefinery concepts. Results of assessment are presented as well as a discussion on possible integration in production networks and a comparison to today' production routes.
Understanding The Evolution Of Greenports: Agent-Based Model Of Horticulture Innovation And Innovators (Abstract #429)
J. Kasmire, Igor Nikolic and Gerard Dijkema
Horticulture is one of the pillars of the Dutch economy and the Greenport Westland-Oostland, located in the Netherlands, is one of the world's largest horticulture clusters. It features some 4200 hectares of greenhouses run by approximately 200 independent growers, a large auction, as well as technology, engineering, utility and service companies dedicated to the sector. Featuring many symbiotic and synergistic relations in the sector, today's horticulture innovations have already achieved remarkable productivity increases through the use of natural gas for heating, lighting and CO2. Further transitions toward sustainable energy sources, including heat/cold storage and deep-geothermal heat sources, are currently under way. However, there is a need to better understand the processes of technology diffusion in this industrial cluster to aid the stakeholders in retaining their competitive advantage. This paper presents the experimental results of a series of agent based model of the greenhouse horticulture sector in the Netherlands, that simulate the actions of greenhouse growers. The greenhouse grower must learn how to operate their greenhouses by evaluating their repertoire of technologies, exchanging information with other growers about their technological evaluations and purchasing new technologies to augment, expand or replace their existing selection. The interactions of greenhouse growers and the flow of information between them lead to emergent patterns, including diversity, adaption and complexity, in the technologies adopted and developed by the community. These emergent patterns indicate that technological innovations appear, diffuse and develop according to evolutionary mechanisms. As such, technological development is not goal oriented, does not often provide the expected short term benefits, and results in far more "failures" than "successes", although it does provide hard to measure benefits such as increased knowledge availability. As an evolving system, the reality of technology, innovation and transitions may require new approaches to management that work with, rather than against, the properties of evolving systems. Horticulture cluster background, model and results will be presented and implications for regional industrial management are discussed.
Novel Business Model In Small- And Medium-Sized Enterprises Based On Comprehensive Assessment (Abstract #432)
Yasunori Kikuchi and Masahiko Hirao
At LCM by industrial decision makers, several evaluation indices should be addressed by assessment methodologies including monetary and non-monetary issues such as occupational, neighborhood risk, and global environmental impact. At the same time, industrial LCM must address the constraints on emission control, local safety, and product quality originating from regulations and the requirements from supply chain. To enhance the practicability of LCM as a business procedure, the visualization of required activities and the development of supporting system integrating available knowledge on LCM are strongly needed. This paper presents a method of implementing LCM into practice based on business model, which visualizes the activities required for industrial LCM with the relationships between available technology and constraints. Based on the proposed business model, risk assessment (RA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) can be comprehensively connected with conventional performance indices such as quality, cost, and delivery. In this study, the proposed business model was applied into the environmental management by small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in metal parts manufacturers where various chemical substances have been utilized as process chemicals. Industrial LCM requires the interdisciplinary application of scientific and engineering knowledge with in-depth understanding of process function and constraints within a supply-chain. Business modeling approach enables a systematic and effective discussion on required activities and supporting mechanism for appropriate LCM by industrial decision makers. A case study demonstrated an implementation of such LCM into SMEs by developing a software system based on proposed business model. The developed software system includes not only assessment mechanisms, but also process design ones, where evaluation indices are related with decision parameters such as the changes of operation or the installation of devices. This system enables decision-makers to review available technologies under own process conditions and select an economically-viable one.
Value Chain Analysis Of Different Types Of Distribution Packaging For Fresh Fish Fillets (Abstract #441)
Mie Vold, Ole Jorgen Hanssen and Erik Svanes
Optimization towards more sustainable distribution solutions are important topics in Norway and Europe. Several research projects have shown that it is important to consider the packaging system from a holistic point of view, where the whole value chain is included. More material intensive packaging systems might be more sustainable if this leads to less loss of product through the value chain. It is also important to consider how the effectiveness of packaging systems can be improved, through maximizing the volume of product in relation to total pallet volume. Sea food is one of the most important export products from Norway. During the past years relatively more fish have been distributed as filets, and it is a long term strategy to distribute as much as possible as filets. Packaging research in Norway has thus been focused on development of new solutions for sea food distribution. Through common projects financed by the Norwegian Research Council, new packaging solutions have been developed, tested and optimized. Important drivers for innovation have been to develop solutions that are less voluminous, less material intensive, more effective in the packing process, utilize transport capacity better and are easier to recycle after use and still preserve high quality and low product loss. In parallel, the traditional packaging solutions have also been improved, to meet competition from new solutions. For fresh products, time to market is a critical factor in distribution, and new solutions have also been developed to increase the shelf life of fresh seafood products. This presentation will focus on methods for and experiences from comparison of packaging systems and distribution of fish filets. The comparison includes life cycle data for processes, production of packaging materials, impacts on transport, converting to final packaging solutions and treatment of packaging waste resources are included (material, economic and energy data).
Urban Mining Goes Rural (Abstract #450)
Joakim Krook, Mats Eklund, Annica Carlsson, Per Frändegård and Niclas Svensson
Large technical systems serving the everyday needs of people, such as water supply systems, power grids or communication networks are rich in metals. Over time, parts of these systems have been taken out of use without being collected for waste management. Such hibernating metal stocks, still remaining in their original urban location but disconnected from the networks, constitute resources potentially accessible for recovery. Previous research has estimated that several hundred thousand tonnes of copper and aluminum is currently situated in disconnected parts of the Swedish power and telecommunication grids. Such hibernating cables are virtually always located under ground, both in cities (e.g. low-voltage power grids and access communication grids) and rural areas (e.g. regional power grids and transport communication networks). This study aims at taking a first step towards analyzing the economic feasibility of mining hibernating metals directly from their location in the built environment. In doing so, we quantify the costs and benefits related to extracting disconnected power and communication cables in Sweden, taking into account influencing technical, institutional and market conditions. In a city environment, the results show that revenues that could be obtained from hibernating cables are not even close to outweighing the costs of extracting them by conventional excavation. This is despite the fact that present metal prices are relatively high. In rural areas, however, cable extraction seems straightforwardly profitable, especially for disconnected copper cables belonging to the transport communication network. Excavation in a rural area only renders about 1/5 of the corresponding costs occurring in a city. Such regional grids also generally involve significantly higher metal concentrations. It is concluded however that the viability of urban mining is not only a matter of pure economics. Several key challenges for facilitating such initiatives are therefore outlined and discussed during the presentation.
Evaluation Of Process- And Input-Output-Based Inventories For Environmental Assessment Of Production And Consumption Activities (Abstract #462)
Guillaume Majeau-Bettez, Anders Hammer Strømman and Edgar G Hertwich
Process-based life cycle assessment (LCA) and environmentally extended input-output analysis (IO) both make it possible to account for the direct and indirect environmental impacts of the life cycles of commodities and services. While LCA is generally recognized as being more vulnerable to truncation error and inconsistent system boundary definitions, IO is criticized as being too aggregated and insufficiently specific for product level assessments. Overcoming partly these shortcomings, hybrid LCA-IO methodologies have been developed in recent years, though they yet have to penetrate mainstream practice. Little quantitative knowledge is available concerning the actual magnitude and characteristics of truncation errors or aggregation uncertainties in LCA and IO. The majority of studies that quantitatively treat these issues base themselves on case studies. Few studies have analyzed whole datasets to evaluate their level of complementarity, completeness and specificity. In this study, an LCA and an IO database were linked and jointly analyzed. The IO dataset was used to evaluate its LCA counterpart for completeness, and vice versa for aggregation. It was found that the importance of the representation of the different economic sectors within the LCA dataset did not generally match their life cycle environmental importance, and that some sectors of the economy were totally ignored, leading to the concept of "database truncation bias". This challenges the assumption, implicit in conventional LCA practice, that process-based datasets can appropriately describe the background technosphere. The levels of specificity of the descriptions of the different economic sectors were found to be complementary between LCA and IO databases, bringing further argument in favor of their hybridization. While our analysis points to definite shortcomings of conventional LCA and IO, it also highlights hindrances and limitations to their ad hoc hybridization. We thus argue in favor of a more integrated hybrid framework for the elaboration of inventories and databases.
Planning System Of Eco-Industrial Developments For Low Carbon Urban Districts (Abstract #466)
Tsuyoshi Fujita, Xudong Chen and Satoshi Ohnishi
Environmentally efficient industrial system is considered as crucial components for low carbon cities and society, particularly in Asia where industrial development still provide increasing portions of GHGs emissions of cities and regions. Eco-industrial developments with their symbiotic circulation technologies of energy and resource among industrial and with urban sectors are expected as the key innovation to reduce the carbon emission without renovating industrial structures or gigantic hardware investments. While experiences of eco-industrial developments are accumulated around the world, environmental efficient technologies and circular social systems have been applied coping with the local economic, social and environmental characteristics. Based on the quantitative analysis of Japanese eco-town facilities, planning support system is developed to provide suitable packages of environmental technologies and social systems for developing Asian industrial regions. After reviewing the progress of Asian eco-industrial developments particularly focusing the comparative development in China and Japan, quantitative database are established for recycling and co-generation industrial systems for twenty types of waste categories. Strategic planning system for alternative technology and policy packages are developed with preliminary technology effect assessment and customization process of recycle technologies and policy schemes, which are called as re-engineering. Evaluation systems for the effects of technologies in combination with social policies are established by compiling GIS analysis with LCA methodologies. Finally demonstrative application of the system into Chinese city, Shenyang with eight million populations, is provided as well as the tentative evaluation of eco-industrial development projects.
Extraction Of Mma And Aluminum Oxide From Artificial Marble Waste And Recycling Network (Abstract #468)
Hyung-Sun Yoon and Sung-Hoon Yang
Yeosu National Industrial Complex is the largest petrochemical complex in Korea, which supply a great amount of production and export. The annual artificial marble production is about 150,000tons in Korea by LG CHEM, CHEIL INDUSTRIES, Hanwha L&C and Du Pont etc. In the case of Yeosu National Industrial Complex, there are 15~20% of waste(about 30,000tons/year) generated from the artificial marble production by scrap and dust. The aim is to optimize a extraction process of MMA and aluminum oxide from artificial marble wastes, and minimize waste generation by recycling a valuable resource and to setup recycling network. It caused secondary air pollution or soil contamination and wasteful valuable resources like MMA and aluminum oxide recoverable from artificial marbles, since a great deal of artificial marble wastes have been disposed by incineration and landfill. Therefore, artificial marble wastes recover into MMA and aluminum oxide that use tiles, ceramics, fireproof materials, artificial marbles and so on by pulverization, pyrolysis, water-oil separation, distillation processes. It was carried out by kinetic measurements of thermal degradation of artificial marble. We found the optimal pyrolysis temperature of pyrolysis process for maximum yield of aluminum oxide and optimal operating condition of distillation for maximum yield of MMA. In these conditions we can setup a basic design for a commercial plant. Based on the kinetic experiments, we select optimal pyrolysis temperature from 350? to 400?. After calcination, we can obtain 95% aluminum oxide. Also we select T=60? and P=500mmHg as optimal operation conditions. After oil-water separation and batch distillation, we can obtain the solution which contains more than 96% MMA with less 1.5% water. We can expect the sales of 2,100 million won by selling MMA and aluminum oxide recovered and reducing the cost for waste treatment(20ton/day).
An Analysis Of The Growth Of Industrial Ecology: Scope And Depth Of The Field (Abstract #472)
J. Kasmire, Alfredas Chmieliauskas and Gerard Dijkema
Noble Savage, an unsupervised text analysis tool, reveals the way words change meaning over time in a given body of text. This paper presents the results of Noble Savage applied to the collected Journal of Industrial Ecology articles (volume 1 - present). The analysis reveals how key words in the field have shifted, expanded or contracted from the original meanings as this relatively new scientific field grew in size and importance. As sustainability and complexity science has developed, so too has Industrial Ecology, moving from an initial focus on the recycling, efficiency and waste reduction issues of materials, energy and production, to a more ambitious discipline that now includes economics, human behavior, product stewardship and environmental policy. Industrial Ecology articles continue to use many of the same words, but given the more inclusive approach to subject matter, these do not have always have the same meanings that they used to. In addition to new or altered meanings for traditional industrial ecology words, many new words have entered the industrial ecology vocabulary. This shows that the field as a whole is not only growing in size, but also in the range of topics considered, in the complexity of topics addressed, and in the depth of focus given to the topics under study. Noble Savage provides an analysis of the growth of the field and a visual representation of that analysis that goes beyond a simple calculation of the number or size of articles published. Instead, Noble Savage examines the changes in the meanings of key terminology to reveal how the field of industrial ecology has developed, expanded and matured, and it allows identification of emerging areas of interest and scientific exploration in Industrial Ecology.
The Water Footprint Of Wine Production In Portugal: A Case Study On Vinho Verde (Abstract #473)
Leandro Pina, Ana Dias, Belmira Neto, Luis Arroja and Paula Quinteiro
The water footprint (WF) of a product is the sum of all water consumed along the product life cycle. The calculation of the WF of agro-industrial products is important as they are widely known as having a significant footprint on water resources. The WF is disaggregated into three components: green, blue and grey. The green water is the rainwater consumed through crop evapotranspiration. The blue water is appropriated from surface and groundlevel resources. The grey water is the volume of freshwater needed to assimilate the pollutant load to freshwater quality standards. The objective of this study was to calculate the WF of a specific Portuguese wine: the vinho verde. The WF is calculated for the activities taking place during the viticulture and the wine production process. The data, from 2009, were provided by a Portuguese company (Aveleda) responsible for 16% of the annual wine production. The WF is calculated to be 438 liters of water per 0,75 liters of wine. The green and grey water accounted for the WF with, respectively, 88% and 12%. The green water is exclusively associated with the viticulture and the grey WF is mainly caused during the wine production process.The blue water is negligible, for the system analysed, because currently viticulture is not irrigated.. The viticulture is responsible for about 90% of the WF due mainly to the green water consumption. Therefore the WF of vinho verde depends mainly on the climate and soil conditions and crop properties. These are not controlled by the wine producing company. We conclude that a reduction of the WF may be achieved throughout the reduction of the pollutant load in the wastewater caused during the wine production phase. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is performed to evaluate the effects on the WF of the changes in uncertain and significant data.
From Petrochemical Complex To Greenchemical Complex: Some Ideas To Get Over The Crisis By Industrial Symbiosis (Abstract #481)
Roberto Gessa, Andrea Cecchin, Guido Bordignon and Giorgio Conti
The crisis of the current industrial system model can be resolved, in our view, with a new symbiotic approach finalized to close material cycles and to optimize the energy efficiency. Our case study is focused on the petrochemical complex situated in the Venice Lagoon area, in the North-East of Italy. The old heavy industrial system crisis open new alternative scenarios like switching to a greenchemical development with possible positive impacts on social, economic and environmental systems. We propose a biorefinery where the input would be the agriculture and forestry waste and byproducts from wood and furniture local industries or microalgae from a power plant now in construction. The output would be fine chemicals for cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical companies, green energy, biofuels and district heating. This development scheme would be able to absorb the specialized workers (and knowledge) from the old chemical complex, preserving the social and economic local context. Finally, the advantage for the environment is clear when changing from petrochemical to greenchemical model and implementing industrial symbiosis.
Symbiosis Network For Energy Supplies In Local Residents Using Surplus Heat (Abstract #493)
Yong Woo Kim, Jeong Hoon Im, Ha Na Yu, Do Hyun Park, Ji Won Kim, Choon Whan Shin and Gea Jae Joo
One company's by-product becomes an important resource to one or several of the other companies in the Industrial Symbiosis network. The outcome is reduced consumption of resources and a significant reduction in environmental strain. Cooperation generates better results and makes it possible for each enterprise to increase production without necessarily to increase the use of energy, water and new raw materials. EIPs may take numerous forms to suit the specific needs of the regions in which they are located and the characteristics of businesses within the parks. Likewise, the conditions under which these EIPs are established are equally various and may be influenced by a number of factors, including support from national regional, or local governments, presence and involvement of a coordinating body, industry regulations, and the willingness of companies to participate in such a project. One of business model is symbiosis of companies between local residents in the industrial complex by energy supplies. Busan Fashion Center, located Shinpyung-Changlim industrial Complex, has the cogeneration plant that utilizes the CFBC process that enables the burning of economical solid fuel. Along with the growth of member companies, peak steam has increased to ensure a stable power supply. The 50T/H gas boiler and a 100T/H donkey boiler (LNG) were built and serviced so far. Unfortunately the textile industry has decreased in Korea, boiler service has also decreased, especially at night. Busan Fashion Center has vented the rest steam of 30% above at night to maintain others company. Near to Busan Fashion Center about 1.4km, there are 5,000 households live in an apartment. When surplus heat from Busan Fashion Center is provided to local residents. We can save 1,515TOE/yr of fuel and 3,188tCO2.
Energy Costs Associated To The Expansion Of Cities. Case Study Of A Spanish City (Abstract #585)
Alicia Valero, Pau Galiana and Antonio Valero
This study presents through an example, the energy implications associated to the rapid expansion of cities. The sustainable model of compact cities very typical for South-European countries is evolving into a sprawling one and is radically changing transportation habits. A clear example of this situation is the Spanish city of Zaragoza, which has increased its surface by 119% in just one decade. This has occurred partly due to the celebration of the 2008 International Exposition (with the paradoxical Motto: Water and sustainable development). Through a LCA approach, all issues relating to the evolution of transportation in Zaragoza have been assessed: namely, the energy embedded in vehicles, in civil infrastructures such as motorways, parking places, semaphores or lighting and the energy associated to the transportation itself. The results are alarming. Greenhouse emissions associated to transport have increased by 173% in a decade. This is a clear indicator of the deficient urban planning that is taking place in many European cities. As conclusion, the study proposes a consequent set of recommendations for keeping cities sustainable, without constraining their prosperity.
Thermodynamic Efficiencies Of Corn Based Bio-Ethanol And Solar Energy As Transportation Fuels (Abstract #803)
Christopher Gino and Eric Williams
While many renewable energy technologies are not currently economically competitive and in some cases involve environmental tradeoffs, technological progress is expected to improve economic and environmental performance. Technological progress is however notoriously difficult to forecast. The approach taken here (to help account for future progress) is to compare current efficiencies of a technology with its thermodynamic limit in its idealized form. For example, a single junction silicon photovoltaic cell will never convert more than 30% of radiant sunlight to useable energy. In this analysis we study and compare first and second law efficiencies of corn based ethanol and electricity generated from Photovoltaic Cells used as transportation fuels. The first law efficiency refers to the ratio of energy transfer achieved by a device/system to the overall energy input into that device/system. The second law efficiency refers to the ratio of useful work transferred by a device/system to the maximum possible work usefully transferable for the same function y any device/system. The overall bio-ethanol production and use chain is simplified into photosynthesis (in corn), fermentation, distillation, and combustion in a typical automobile engine. The PV electricity production and use chain is simplified into solar energy generation, distribution, storage, and actual use in the engine. The current efficiencies are found based on data previously observed for the key stages of electricity and bio-ethanol production and use. Theoretical efficiencies are developed based on thermodynamic analyses. Results are that the theoretical and current efficiencies of solar powered electrical vehicles are far higher than those of corn-based ethanol: the low solar energy capture efficiency of terrestrial crops was a major constraint.
Wind Power As A Case Study For Improving Lca Meta-Analyses (Abstract #807)
Lindsay Price and Alissa Kendall
Life cycle assessments (LCA) of renewable energy can help guide decision making and investment strategies for sustainable power system. In this work, we review wind power LCAs and find a lack of reporting transparency, which makes it difficult to identify patterns across studies via meta-analyses. While others (e.g. Lenzen 2001) have previously identified this shortcoming, no clear proposals for improving transparency in wind power LCAs have been offered or adopted. Here, building on the work of Rousseaux (2001), we propose such a reporting system, emphasizing transparency, completeness, and data quality. Using this framework, we assessed the existing wind power LCA literature. We found that many studies were not suitable for inclusion in a meta analysis because of incompatible or vaguely reported system boundaries, so meta-analysis was only possible on a greatly reduced data set. Results are reported. By improving transparency and standardizing methods across studies, the proposed reporting system will ensure that real differences caused by technology performance will not be confused with differences introduced by methodological variation or system boundaries. References: Lenzen M, Munksgaard J. Renewable Energy 2001;26(3):339-62 Rousseaux P, et.al. Int J LCA 2001; 6(5):299-306
Environmental Metrology And Implementation Of Industrial Ecology: Benefits And Limits Of Monitoring Tools For The Management Of Water Resources (Abstract #135)
Guillaume Junqua, Catherine Gonzalez and Juliette Cerceau
Industrial ecology remains mostly a macro approach of substance, material and energy flows based on pre-existing data collected from territorial and socioeconomic stakeholders. Incertitude linked to these data may curb the local implementation of industrial ecology. The improvement and diffusion of industrial ecology would benefit a lot of the use of different monitoring tools in order to ameliorate the characterization of materials and substances flows and stocks. Parametric and non parametric measurements can be released, and laboratories or on site tools can be deployed. The choice of the measurements to collect and thus, the choice of monitoring tools to use depend on the purpose of the industrial ecology approach. Theoretical and operational objectives have a strong influence on data quality which can be used in an industrial ecology framework. In industrial ecology, the main objectives may be: -qualitative and quantitative characterization of wastes, co-products and their variability, -verification of the conformity of news recycled products, in relation with norms and guidelines, -qualitative and quantitative characterization of effluents, in order to control and reduce their emissions, -efficient process control, taking account of data acquired by these previous steps, -integration of these tools in a larger strategic planning for an environmental, safety and sanitary reporting and management of a geographical area (industrial area, town, region), including the identification and reduction of diffuse and point sources of pollution. These objectives can allow to define the measurements which must be released, as well as monitoring tools among their specificities (lab, on site, reliability, robustness, detection and quantification levels,.) Thus, this poster proposes a methodology to choose monitoring tools for the management of water resources in an industrial ecology framework. Then, an example will be showed.
E-Waste Management In Trinidad And Tobago - Consumers' Willingness To Recycle Mobile Phones And Computers (Abstract #259)
Suzana Russell and Cherisse Ferreira
The management of electronic waste (or e-waste) is a major concern and the issue is currently being discussed and debated at various levels of government and in the media. E-waste is one of the fastest growing waste streams, increasing at a level of around 3-5% per annum - approximately 3 times faster than other individual waste streams. The end-of-life management of e-waste is of critical importance from public health and environmental perspectives as many of the components in electronic products are toxic. Presently, large quantities of e-waste are generated and inappropriately disposed of in Trinidad and Tobago, as there are no policies governing the end-of-life management of this waste stream. In order to implement effective strategies and policies for e-waste management, it is first important to understand consumers' behaviors and attitudes towards e-waste recycling. This paper investigates the attitude of consumers in Trinidad and Tobago towards e-waste streams and their willingness to participate in recycling programs for mobile phones and computers. The findings from our survey indicate that the main factors impacting consumers' willingness to recycle are availability of curbside recycling and distance to drop-off recycling centers. The majority of participants in the study also indicate that they would expect some level of monetary compensation, up to 10% of the value of the product, for their e-waste. This study will help to inform public policy and future discourse on which e-waste recycling options are preferred by consumers in Trinidad and Tobago.
Design, Verification And Validation Of A Model That Measures Environmental Image In Companies Implementing Green Building, By Means Of Fuzzy Logic For Decision-Making Purposes (Abstract #326)
Adrian Pirraglia, Guillermo Velarde and Daniel Saloni
The building industry represents an important part of the economy of the U.S., by having a significant supply chain role, involving tons of materials, enormous transportation systems, and huge capital investments. For this industry, optimizing the usage of resources is critical for their success in a constantly changing market. This is especially important when talking about industrial facilities, which accounts within the biggest existent buildings. Green Building represents an important strategy that manufacturing companies are implementing in their facilities, to differentiate themselves from competitors. It focuses efforts on significantly reducing materials and resources usage during construction and life-cycle of buildings, as seen by the LEED certification system. Companies in search for continuous improvement are starting to implement this philosophy in their facilities. With several recent factories built under this philosophy, there is a need to evaluate how companies can be compared to leaders that already implemented Green Building. The objective of this project is to develop a model that allows obtaining an Environmental Improvement Index (EIIGB) that represents an environmental image level of a company as compared to leading manufacturers implementing Green Building. Results indicated that improvements in two out of the three variables considered allow companies to achieve high image levels, and considerably high improvements are needed to increase the EIIGB when companies are improving one variable. The Environmental Improvement Index developed it's a valuable planning and decision-making tool for manufacturing companies pursuing a better environmental image compared to leaders in the industry.
Comparative Study On End-Of-Life Vehicles (Elv) Recycling System Between Japan And China Based On Regime-Actor Analysis (Abstract #391)
Gao Yang
With the economic development in Asian countries in recent years, the resources consumption increased rapidly; especially the vehicle industry has consumed a great amount of resources. The vehicle industry in China, as one of the key industries, has achieved a remarkable development, and made a great contribution to the economic growth of China. The resources consumption particularly in vehicle industry has increased greatly along with the increasing in production and possession of vehicles, so it is necessary to construct an appropriate ELV processing system. According to the opinion of the resource constraints and the material circulation, comparing the flow of ELV recycling in China with that implemented in Japan, this paper demonstrated the characteristics of ELV recycling in China and elicited the implication from Japan's ELV recycling experience. Referring to the flow of ELV recycling, the paper analyzed not only the input, processing and output separately but also the function of the regime and the actor of ELV. One of the characteristics of the paper is that using the approach of comparing the Japan's regime and actor with China's to study the flow of ELV recycling in China. The paper conducted a study on how much effect the Japan's ELV recycling system has on China's and discussed the problem and related countermeasures. The paper also discussed how the structure of recycling industry promoted the recycle activities and the cooperation between companies, whether the current structure of recycling industry is efficient and compared the problems of recycling activities with that in other industries. Finally, according to the opinion of the material recycling, this paper also pointed out that the nation and the local government are needed to be in one united body and it is necessary to analysis both regime and actor for the constructing of the circle society.
From Chaos To Sustainability? Rethinking Land Management Of Industrial Activities By An Eco-Industrial Approach: An Attempt In The North-East Of Italy (Abstract #477)
Andrea Cecchin
Treviso County (in the North-East of Italy) has a surface of 2500 Km2, a population of 850.000 inhabitants and it is composed of 95 Municipalities. To date 1077 industrial areas are been identified, with an unsustainable average of around 11 industrial areas per Municipality. The County Administration has decided to select 100 industrial sites (called "strategic areas") to activate a path of conversion based on the eco-industrial principles. Such areas will be the only ones allowed to develop in the future: they will be the elements for a new territorial system with an eco-efficiency approach. The areas selection has been carried out trying to reduce the global environmental impact and exploiting the competitive elements produced by the local system. The second phase of the project involved a multidisciplinary work team arranged and formed by a specific training on eco-industrial approaches and solutions. Subsequently, a representative industrial area has been selected within the top 100; in this area an analysis work has been started to identify the best solutions for improving the sustainability as well as boosting a wider eco-industrial development across the region.
Actors' Behaviour Matter - Organising Green Product Chains (Abstract #478)
Birgit Brunklaus
The industry in general and products are facing some major challenges in the coming years, such as consumer demands and scale of industrial systems, reduction of waste and climate change. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has emerged as a key method for environmental assessment of products, processes and technologies, and all material flows through society. The project includes the development of an Actor Based LCA methodology with focus on actors and their behaviour. Here recent results from a literature study and case studies from the building chain and the food chain are presented. Previous results show that environmental improvements can only be reached by changes of the chain as a whole e.g. changes in storage, transport or waste behaviour. Results also show that relationships between the actors of the life cycle may enable, or hinder, environmental improvement towards green chains as a whole. Future studies in the food industry will include questions on environmental organising of product chains: What is environmentally better - small scale or large scale chains, efficient supply chain or efficient chain as a whole?
Seven Forms Of Integration In Energy Systems (Abstract #488)
Kas Hemmes and Zoi Aftzoglou
The challenges the world is facing with relation to energy supply, sustainability and climate change are huge. However the question arises whether or not our present organization of R&D funding is appropriate for dealing with those huge challenges. The call for innovation and breakthroughs in science and technology is loud, but we tend to forget about innovation and breakthroughs in the way we organize institutions and R&D funding to reach those objectives. In this paper an attempt is made to systematically analyze the different forms of integration that can be applied to design and develop new energy systems, as well as the potential breakthroughs it might generate and the changes in R&D policy that are needed to facilitate this integrated approach. Six forms of integration are to be distinguished: 1. Integration of components into a system, 2. Integration of energy sources into Multi-Source Multi-Product energy systems, 3. Integration of industries into eco-parks. [industrial ecology], 4. Integration of new technology into existing technology, 5. Integration of sectors, 6. Integration of functions. 7. Integration of (Brundtland) sustainability with energy systems. Examples of each form of integration are given. It is argued that a more open definition of energy research topics is needed and that exploring the above named forms of integration would be more appropriate to increase the chances of success for real breakthroughs and paradigm shifts that are absolutely necessary to meet the demands imposed on our present and future energy systems.
Lca Of Norwegian Agricultural Systems (Abstract #499)
Anne-Grete Roer, Ottar Michelsen and Anders Hammer Strømman
Norwegian agricultural systems differ in several aspects significantly from most other countries. This is partly connected to climatic and topographic factors causing other growing conditions and thus, potentially different environmental impacts compared with other countries. Another important aspect is the long time and still present policy of canalization, causing that milk and beef production predominantly is geographically separated from the production of cereals (and other arable crops) and that cereals almost entirely go the way through commercial compound feed producers and consequently not used directly on the farm. National, and even local, established high quality inventory data is important both for the reliability to future food label systems and the development of environmental friendly management systems. Here two cases are presented; grain production in central Southeast Norway and a common combined production system of forage, milk and bovine meat. The grain production is a mix of barley, spring wheat and oats. The life cycle of bread is surprisingly little studied within LCA, considering its importance in our diet. The milk production is often found in combination with forage and bovine meat production. Both dairy farming and beef are well studied in several countries, but there is still a lack of studies on the combined production systems traditionally found in Norway. This study has an attributional approach where the goal is to better document the environmental impact of the studied systems in order to both understand the environmental profile of the studied systems as well as enable comparison to imported products. The presentation focus on the challenges of describing mixed production systems with crop rotations as well as the results to farm gate.
Bioenergy And Climate Change: Atmospheric Decay Of Co2 Emissions And The Gwpbio Index (Abstract #501)
Francesco Cherubini, Anders Hammer Strømman and Edgar Hertwich
In most of the primary research studies, there are two predominant ways in which direct CO2 emissions from biomass combustion are accounted for: 1. The majority of case studies ignores the CO2 flux within a biofuel, simply assuming that CO2 in is equal to CO2 out (i.e. GWP = 0). 2. Others, like the EcoInvent database, explicitly account for CO2 emissions (GWP = 1) and removals along the life-cycle, from CO2 atmospheric uptake due to plant growth to the final atmospheric emission from combustion. In both cases, when the biomass system is carbon neutral (i.e. the final CO2 balance is equal to zero, without permanent losses in terrestrial C pools), the system is even assumed to be climate neutral. These accounting methods are so widely adopted that in most of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies on bioenergy systems it is not even mentioned which one of the two is used. This convention overlooks the importance of time boundaries: before it can be captured by vegetation re-growth, biogenic CO2 emissions cause an impact on the Earth climate system and contribute to climate change. The research challenge is to measure this contribution, preferably with yearly unit based indicators to be included in LCA. This work proposes a calculation procedure to estimate this effect: the impulse response function of the Bern CC model is modified to include the biomass management compartment due to bioenergy. The result is a set of atmospheric decay functions for biogenic CO2 as a function of the biomass rotation period. The contribution to climate change is then expressed as Global Warming Potential (GWP). This GWP for biogenic CO2 emissions (called GWPbio) is an equivalency factor between 0 and 1 and can be calculated for all the different biomass species, from annual row crops to boreal forest.
Comparative Study On End-Of-Life Mobile Phone Recycling Management Between Japan And China Based On Regime-Actor Analysis (Abstract #510)
Lu Xianjun and Matsumoto Toru
In recent years, with the economic development in China, the waste issue is also becoming serious continuously and it has affected economic development conversely, especially E-waste. If it can not do well in the Recycling Management, the E-waste would be not only harmful to human health, but also cause a huge waste of available energy. As one of E-waste, as we known End-of-life mobile phone contains toxic substances such as lead and other trace and rare metals such as silver and gold, so the constructing of appropriate End-of-life mobile phone Recycling Management system is necessary. In this study, comparing the flow of End-of-life mobile phone recycling in China with that implemented in Japan, and demonstrated the characteristics of End-of-life mobile phone recycling in China and elicited the implication from Japan's End-of-life mobile phone Recycling Management experience. Based on the status of End-of-life mobile phone recycling, it made clear the flow of End-of-life mobile phone recycling, referring to it, the paper analyzed not only input, processing and output separately but also the function of the regime and the actor of End-of-life mobile phone and used the approach of comparing the Japan's regime and actor with China's to found out the similarities and differences in Recycling Management of End-of-life mobile phone between two countries and its reasons to explore whether the experience of Recycling Management can learn from each other in the two countries and gave some suggestions. It is also discussed the effective policies in the future which can improve the economical and environmental efficiency of End-of-life mobile phone Recycling Management in China. The result shows, for solving the E-waste issue and improving the Recycling Management level, it is important to find out the characteristics of stakeholders related with E-waste and share the international experience.
The Pattern Of Industrial Symbiosis: A Meta-Analysis (Abstract #511)
Jooyoung Park and Marian Chertow
Many instances of industrial symbiosis have been documented, particularly since 1989 when the term was first coined. However, attempts to compile and integrate these findings have faced many obstacles, especially since reporting on projects is not at all uniform. What kinds of industrial waste have been reused, how much or how often, by whom and how? Constructing a database of waste that is reported to be exchanged and industrial actors that generate or reuse them is a good way forward not only for academic endeavors but also for sharing information to expand the network of industrial symbiosis. As we strive to learn the pattern of material flows and the principle of metabolism in ecological systems, we need to have parallel appreciation for industrial systems, considering the extent of resource reuse as well as environmental impacts. In order to understand patterns of industrial symbiosis, this study analyzes approximately 200 inter-firm exchanges of industrial waste based on the records of 13 industrial clusters around the world. We discuss the types of waste that are exchanged most frequently as well as the industrial sectors that generate or reuse them. In addition to by-product exchange, we assess the pattern of utility sharing including residual heat and secondary effluent across industries. Finally, this study raises questions of standardization that need to be addressed to facilitate further efforts of generalization.
Conditions And Strategies For Exploiting Inactive Resources In The Technosphere (Abstract #514)
Nils Johansson, Joakim Krook, Mats Eklund, Niclas Svensson and Per Frändegård
Huge amounts of natural resources are currently in-active in landfills and other human built stocks. So far, however, utilization of such obsolete material stocks is rare. Several landfill mining projects have been reported worldwide but such initiatives have so far primarily been funded and operated by local authorities for environmental reasons such as remediation. In order to facilitate utilization of in-active resources on commercial grounds, economic benefits must simply outweigh the costs. By reviewing the reported costs and benefits of Swedish Landfill mining projects, this study aims to understand how utilization of in-active stocks can be realized on a larger scale. Although technology development and increasing raw material prices may push our focus towards such in-active resources, findings from this study suggest that the very core of facilitating resource recovery depend on cooperation among different societal actors. This since collaboration brings the benefit of shared responsibility, costs and profits as well as a common knowledge platform facilitating the process of turning present obstacles into opportunities. Such a collaborative approach is in line with the general theory on management of common resource pools based on shared profits. A main difference is however that while management of common resources aims at controlling accessibility, the core of in-active resource management is to increase the accessibility.
Maximizing The Recycling Volume Of Crucial Metals And Non-Metal Minerals (Abstract #518)
Katja Nowak and Thomas Völkner
On account of shortened innovation cycles, mechanization of daily life, and rising prosperity the volume of electrical and electronic waste increases. Insufficient collection systems as well as insufficient or inexpert recycling of such waste do not only endanger the environment and human health they will also cause scarcity of crucial metals and non-metal minerals in the short and the long-term. To promote the reuse and recycling of electrical and electronic waste the European Union introduced the Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). Since its enactment, initial improvements have been achieved. Nonetheless, according to official reckoning, Europe-wide only 50 % of available resources are recycled and put back into production process. For further improvement of the WEEE-recycling, we recommend to consider supplementary economic parameters while setting up recycling rates and collection systems. The recycling costs - which comprise transaction, logistic, treatment and/or recovery costs - are of critical importance for the economic efficiency of secondary raw materials. However, transaction and logistic costs depend on the size of the procurement and sales market, that is why regional approaches may decisively contribute to competitiveness of secondary raw materials. Furthermore, they support environmental and climate protection. But regional initiatives, like local recycling networks, only establish slowly. A reason of this is the lack of regionalized potential studies, which support economy and politics in initiating such networks. The Institute for Infrastructure and Resources Management at the University of Leipzig researches on WEEE-recycling at regional level. A first step is to identify formal and informal institutions, which may support and/or hinder the recycling. Based on the outcome, inductive recommendations are made to offer support to local protagonists. A current research project is a potential study in the German-Czech-border-region. A second step is to evaluate the sustainability of possible recycling approaches. Based on the set up indicator system, deductive recommendations are made to offer support to local politics.
Opportunities For Environmentally Improved Asphalt Recycling In Sweden (Abstract #538)
Sofiia Miliutenko
It goes without saying that asphalt recycling is both environmentally and economically beneficial. Main methods that have been developed for asphalt recycling are: "hot" and "cold" (which can be performed "in-plant" or "in-situ"). Several studies have been done on comparison of these methods from environmental and economic point of you, but most of them include assessment on the material-specific level (i.e. considering only physical and chemical properties). Very few studies take into consideration environmental impacts on a wider perspective- the industrial system level (including such issues as materials transportation, extra traffic burden during asphalt recycling on-place, avoided impacts during substitution of raw materials and others). It was observed that a small share of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in Sweden is used for production of new asphalt. Large quantities of RAP are still reused as unbound material, which is not environmentally beneficial in terms of avoiding environmental burdens from bitumen production. Thus the aim of this paper is to identify and evaluate the potential ways of improving the life cycle environmental performance of asphalt recycling in Sweden. Methodology used is comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of main recycling methodologies: "hot", "cold" (performed "in-plant" or "in-situ"). The specific objective of the project is to calculate the potential energy use, Global Warming Potential, and the use of natural resources of the mentioned techniques throughout their life cycle stages (including collection, transportation and processing of asphalt). With the help of LCA methodology it is aimed to identify "hot spots" of the chosen methods of asphalt recycling, their advantages and disadvantages. By doing interviews with the key stakeholders (on national, local and project level) it is aimed to explore main obstacles to increased rate of asphalt recycling in Sweden and to identify who is in the position of improving the current practices.
Spatial Appraisal Of Rock Aggregate Quality In Southern Finland (Abstract #543)
Samppa Bernelius
Aggregates, which include gravel and crushed rock for the construction industry, are an essential resource for any modern infrastructure. Crushed rock aggregates vary in quality by their physical attributes; high quality aggregates are required for demanding purposes, such as railway construction. Quality is an important factor in the sustainable consumption of aggregates; using high-quality aggregates instead of general purpose aggregates for non-demanding projects will complicate the sustainable use of these resources in the future. Crushed rock aggregates have been studied extensively with geographic information systems (GIS), but the focus has been on their availability. Internationally, there is some research on aggregate quality, but attention has been focused on the general suitability of all aggregate sources instead of the quality of rock aggregates. In this study I present a model for the estimation of quality rock aggregate resources. The model is based on known resources and observations in GIS using Weights-of-Evidence and Fuzzy Logic modelling, validated by spatial statistical methods. Data used include lithology, low-altitude geophysical surveys, structural elements and a database of rock aggregate observations. As a result, I present a three-level GIS model of rock aggregate quality in southern Finland. The model combines maps of the prospective availability of high-quality and general purpose aggregates with the occurrence of unsuitable rocks. This combination provides the best information for the planning of aggregate use for different construction projects as well as minimizing the transportation distances. The model enables the optimization of aggregate use in growing urban areas, where competition for land use restricts the available aggregate sources.
Increasing The Reliability Of Lca Through Process Simulation, With An Application In Lignocellulosic Ethanol Production In Sweden (Abstract #554)
Christin Liptow and Anne-Marie Tillman
One of the prerequisites for LCA is the supply with reliable data, which can be achieved in various manners like for example use of data bases or collection of primary data from industrial operations. However, especially for emerging technologies the already established ways of data procurement do not apply and other options need to be found. One possible choice is the use of process simulation, whose mass and energy balances can deliver reliable data especially on not yet industrialized processes. This makes the integration of process simulation a valuable extension of the current LCA methodology. Implementing the knowledge from a recent literature review of ours, we demonstrate the usefulness of process simulation for LCA purposes using the example of lignocellulosic ethanol production in Sweden. This process is currently not established in an industrial scale and therefore the study also serves as an environmental assessment of an emerging technology. With this we also demonstrate that LCA can be extended to the reliable assessment of new and not yet industrialized processes.
Long-Term Household Travel Patterns And The Adoption Potential Of Compact And Electric Vehicles (Abstract #562)
Kevin Bolon and Greg Keoleian
With the introduction of a number of small and electric-powered vehicles into the marketplace, the variety of energy efficient choices available for meeting household transportation needs has increased dramatically. However, due to the variability inherent in household travel, an efficient vehicle with reduced capability may not be able to meet the requirements of every trip in terms of range, or passenger and cargo capacities. In order to understand the potential for these new vehicles to contribute to actual energy savings, it is necessary to consider the travel requirements of households over a period spanning months or years. This presentation describes a method for collecting long-term household travel requirement data, and presents the results of a pilot test involving several households in the vicinity of Ann Arbor, Michigan. Traditional travel surveys collect details about individual trips, which is not practical for a period of more than a few days. GPS instrumentation can be used over longer time periods, but it is difficult to discern important information such as trip purpose, or the number of passengers. For this research, an online survey was developed which asks respondents to report their typical travel according to the purpose of the activity being conducted. For each activity, "fuzzy" descriptions are then collected, such as the range of possible activity times, or the likelihood that it will be conducted on a certain day, or at a certain location. It was hypothesized that for long time periods, respondents will be able to probabilistically report typical travel more accurately than they can recall individual trip details. Based on the pilot survey results, a travel scheduling model was used to simulate whether various fleets of efficient vehicles could be adopted by the household. In cases where a vehicle could not satisfy every travel requirement, a reliability factor is reported.
The Concept Of Guiding Orientations And Their Contribution To Govern Complex Innovation Processes (Abstract #575)
Urte Brand and Arnim von Gleich
Guiding principles (Leitbilder) played an important role in past innovation processes. Among the most successful guiding principles were 'organic agriculture', 'solar economy' and 'closed loop economy'. But it is still controversial, whether guiding principles can be purposely applied to give innovation processes a certain (more sustainable) direction. We are aiming at an integrated concept to support and direct complex innovation processes and technological path changes by the help of guiding principles. It consists of four phases from assimilating the guiding idea up to the assembly of design concepts. Looking at the mechanisms of impact we distinguish between three levels of guiding orientations: World views, guiding concepts and guiding design concepts. Successful guiding concepts (like the above mentioned) often gain their public impact by inducing 'resonance' at the basic level of 'world views' (e. g. learning from nature). The approach may contribute to the solution of several main problems, that innovation and especially directed innovation is facing: 1. To overcome lock-ins and path dependencies 2. To coordinate and synchronize multiple actors in innovation systems 3. To cope with complexity (eg. structuring perception) and uncertainties regarding success and side effects. It may also contribute answers to some main questions: . What exactly must be done to influence complex innovation processes by the help of guiding orientations? . Which actor constellations are able to successfully initiate guiding orientations? And which actors are to be addressed in the process? We will present: . The characteristics of and requirements for 'socially successful' guiding orientations. . A practical phase concept and a three-level model of guiding orientations. . An outlook at the application of this approach in the context of a large R&D-Project about adaptation to climate change in Germanys North-West with the aim of building more 'resilient energy supply systems'.
A Life-Cycle Comparison Of Composting Vs. Anaerobic Digestion For City Of Davis Yard Waste (Abstract #583)
Colin Murphy, Amelia Holmes, Ariane Sudrajat, Qian Wang and Alissa Kendall
Utilizing waste as an energy source may mitigate some solid waste disposal problems and may provide benefits towards attainment of renewable energy goals. Yard waste comprises approximately 15% of total municipal solid waste (MSW), and 50% of the organic fraction of MSW. Two options commonly perceived as solutions to yard waste disposal are composting and anaerobic digestion. Composting promotes the development of aerobic microbes, which convert many critical nutrients into forms that are readily accessible to plants. This process reduces the mass and volume of waste while obtaining a valuable product that can be used as fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion (AD) occurs within sealed vessels and converts the carbon in organic matter largely into methane, which can be combusted to produce electricity or heat, while the remainder of the solid mass can be used as fertilizer. This paper discusses the potential of these different approaches for organic MSW processing through examination of a case study of the city of Davis, CA, which currently composts yard waste. This study uses a process-based LCA and assumes that the AD process would occur at the same location as the current composting facility. The purpose is to evaluate whether a switch to AD at this facility would provide energy and/or emissions benefits while considering the beneficial effect of the fertilizer produced by both processes. While the electricity production from this system is relatively modest, there are potentially significant life-cycle energy and emissions benefits to be gained by processing yard waste through AD. The results of this study offer valuable insights for communities deciding how to process organic MSW, but also highlight the many ways in which waste-disposal decisions are highly dependent on local conditions.
Modelling Economy-Wide Emissions Of Organic Substances From The Accumulated Stock Of Plastic Materials In Consumer Goods - The Case Of Sweden 2006 (Abstract #586)
Sverker Molander, Patrik L. Andersson, Filippa Fuhrman, Peter Haglund, Tomas Holmgren, Tomas Rydberg, Johan Tivander and Jenny Westerdahl
The occurrence of organic substances in environmental samples and enriched levels in urban areas point to consumer products as being, beside point sources, important emission sources for some chemicals. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first attempts to build a model that bridge the gap between the well-known areas of substance/material flow analysis and diffusive mass-transfer models. The modelling aims at a better understanding of what factors in the industrial system that influences the emission and distribution of chemicals in the ecosystems. Such knowledge opens for a better design of chemicals, materials, and product life-cycle systems in order to reduce emissions. To connect between substance/material flow concepts (mass per time unit) and diffusive mass-transfer modelling (area, material composition, ambient conditions) the core concepts "product" and "use" was elaborated. About 20 related concepts was defined and supporting data sources was identified in order to perform a first application of the model to the service-life phase of products with a significant content of plastic materials. The 45 chosen "product categories" represented about 3/4 of the total amount of accumulated plastic materials in Sweden 2006, an estimate based on trade statistics and estimated lengths of service-lives for different product categories. For each of the product categories the content of plastic materials and total emitting surface area was determined. Data for a number of plastics additives and various plastic materials comprised part of the input to the calculation of diffusive mass-transfer from the surface area to ambient air. As an example, estimated emissions of antioxidants from the net accumulated product stock in Sweden 2006 were around 480 tons/year from a total antioxidants stock of 84 000 tons. The presentation will further discuss concepts, the main algorithm and results of the study.
The Crepuscular Earth. A Reference For Calculating The Depletion Of Mineral Resources Using Lca (Abstract #588)
Alicia Valero and Antonio Valero
The Crepuscular Earth or Thanatia is a guess thermodynamic model for a terrestrial "grave", where all fossil fuels have been burned and converted into CO2 and with the absence of mineral deposits. The resulting degraded atmosphere has a carbon dioxide content of 683 ppm and a mean surface temperature of 17°C. The degraded hydrosphere is assumed to have the current chemical composition of seawater at 17°C. For the upper continental crust, we propose a model which includes composition and concentration of the 294 most abundant minerals currently found on Earth. In this sense, Thanatia here presented constitutes a coherent baseline for the assessment of minerals. Any substance like a mineral deposit or a glacier is an exergy resource with respect to the Crepuscular Earth. Exergy depends on the properties of the resource (quantity, composition and ore grade) and constitutes a universal, objective and useful tool for classifying resources according to their depletion states. Presented over time, it provides the velocity at which degradation of each and every mineral resource is occurring. Since exergy is assessed only supposing reversible processes, the numbers obtained are paradoxically far from expected. Hence, we need to complement it with exergy costs, which represent the sum of all exergy resources that would be required if we were to replace a mineral from the crepuscular Earth (or grave) to the conditions actually found in nature (or cradle). If it is assumed that the same "backup" technologies are applied in the grave to cradle stage than in the cradle to gate stage, LCA becomes the key tool for obtaining exergy costs and for providing a methodology for assessing the Earth's Mineral Capital and its depletion velocity. All proposed concepts, crepuscular planet, exergy resource and exergy replacement cost are thermodynamic contributions and are solidly based on the Second Law.
A Gis Based National Assessment Of Algal Biofuel Production Potential Through Flue-Gas And Wastewater Coutilization (Abstract #591)
Nolan Orfield, Greg Keoleian and Nancy Love
The high theoretical productivity of microalgae makes it a promising energy crop, but economically viable large-scale production facilities have yet to emerge. Furthermore, life-cycle studies indicate biofuel from algae produced with current technology has a lower net energy ratio (NER) than other biofuels. These drawbacks are due partly to the carbon dioxide and fertilizer input requirements. Therefore, coupling algae cultivation ponds with flue gas emissions from power utilities to provide carbon dioxide and municipal wastewater to provide nutrients has been recommended. This flue-gas and wastewater coutilization (FWC) strategy not only reduces the upstream impacts and costs associated with providing inputs, but also provides a credit for wastewater treatment, a service currently required to reduce production costs to a viable level. This study provides the first national assessment of the potential for producing algal biofuel in the United States in a manner that is cost-competitive with fossil fuel. A spatial-temporal algae growth simulation incorporating solar radiation and temperature data is built to calculate the average annual algae yield for any location, which is used to establish the required pond size, the predominant economic hurdle. The results of this model are then integrated into a geospatial overlay analysis which establishes the economic viability and biofuel production potential of FWC at any location by considering the relative abundance of the input resources as well as their proximity. It was found that less than 200 million gallons of biofuel could be produced annually, less than half of the transport fuel consumed daily, due to the limited amount of nutrients present in wastewater and the unfavorable climatic conditions at most locations. This presentation will also explore strategies for increasing algal biofuel production, including nutrient recycling and utilization of nutrients from livestock waste.
Net Carbon Balance Of Amazon Rainforest Lumber (Abstract #592)
Érica Campos, Vanderley John and Sergio Pacca
The Amazon rainforest supplies most of the tropical wood in the global market and this material extraction is the first drive of deforestation. Lumber production, which is mainly consumed for industrial applications, consists of 3 stages: (1) logging, (2) sawing and (3) transporting. The net carbon balance of this activity depends on various factors and in some cases wood products cannot be considered as a carbon stock. This work aims to assess native lumber production by means of Material Flow Analysis. One hectare of Amazon rainforest sinks 460 to 700tCO2 depending on biomass density, local climate, and previous logging. Typically, 26 to 56tCO2/ha are logged and after sawing 11 to 28tCO2/ha remain in commercial lumber. Biomass left in the forest and sawing residues are burned or degraded, generating carbon dioxide or methane. National data states that in 2009 around 458,500 ha of Brazilian Amazon rainforest were degraded, resulting in a total stock of 5 to 12.8MtCO2 in commercial lumber. However, just 67% of this lumber goes to long service life applications. In consequence only 3.4 to 8.6MtCO2 could be effectively considered as a carbon stock. Additionally, the net CO2 might be even lower due to transportation, which depends on distance, transportation mode, vehicle efficiency, fuel type, among other factors. Amazon rainforest is thousands kilometers away from major markets. Part of lumber is exported: EUA, France and China (24, 16 and 10% of total exportation, respectively) traveling in Brazil by truck to seaports in a rate of 0.21 to 0.23kgCO2/tkm. This MFA would consist in a market instrument to comprehend the climate change impact from lumber chain production, to identify focal points to mitigate GHG emissions and, in result, to preserve the Amazon rainforest.
Drainage Basins As An Industrial Ecology System Unit (Abstract #593)
Amitai Or
Drainage basins as an Industrial Ecology system unit. In natural ecology, drainage basin is considered to be a basic and important landscape which has substantial affect on nutrients flow. Urbanization as well as horticultural and industrial land use alters the natural nutrient flow by increasing the nutrients levels and elevating the toxicity levels in the soil and water. Such alteration of the natural flow may cause phenomena such as soil depletion, eutrophication of rivers and lakes and many other environmentally harmful effects. Whilst debating industrial ecology material balance this is to say; production and consumptions of industrial materials, water, nutrients, and ect', the main system unit is usually a global or a country wide one and the influx and outflow (waste) is considered within a continent or country borders. In some cases, the material balance may be calculated for a province, a specific industry type or even a product line yet, it is seldom used at a drainage basin scale as occur at the natural ecology. Thus, usually, only generalized and not closely fitted analysis to a landscape fragmenting boundaries are being made. The combination of classic, landscape and industrial ecology methodologies may be very fruitful. On one hand, classic ecology methods as carrying capacity calculations, diagnosis of the limiting factor and alike may be used in order to set a "drainage basin" ecological sustainable quota. On the other hand, manipulation of industrial ecology tools such as material flow analysis, and ecological footprint, can be used to determine if the suggested quota is industrially feasible and sustainable, for a specific drainage basin. The product of such combined analysis may be implemented in the planning stages of land usage, locations of different land usage, eco-industrial Parks planning and even in elucidating the best composition of the different land usage.
How Closely Can Coupling Agent-Based Modeling With Empirical Research Represent Adoption Of Heating System Technology? (Abstract #597)
Bertha Maya Sopha, Christian A. Klöckner and Edgar G. Hertwich
Changing home heating to more efficient and renewable systems is important for a sound climate policy. Given the fact that individual behavior influences consumption and hence impacts environment, it is not enough to consider only the existence and cost-competitiveness of various sustainable technologies. The behavior of consumers, including the role of social and psychological factors needs to be embraced when designing a policy favoring a higher diffusion of sustainable technology. The present poster introduces a methodological proposal of coupling empirical research and computational modeling (Agent-Based Modeling) in technology adoption and diffusion. A special feature of the approach is that consumer decision-making is based on a psychological model which is parameterized through a survey. A conceptual model for adoption decisions is constructed based on theoretical considerations and empirical findings. The adoption-decision model capturing the heterogeneity of adoption-decision processes has been derived by combining insights from the diffusion of innovation theory, the theory of planned behavior, the utility theory, and the meta-theory of consumer decision strategies. This adoption-decision model is embedded in an agent-based simulation model and an empirical survey is conducted to produce statistically representative quantitative data for the model. The proposed methodology thus allows a more representative decision-making model of consumers in the sense that it captures technology-related factors and psychological factors, and follows empirically grounded behavioral principles. A case study of heating system adoption and diffusion in Norway is offered as an illustration of the application of this methodological proposal. Simulation results show that the theoretically-based, empirically-founded, agent-based model is able to reproduce the general patterns of heating system adoption in Norway at both macro- and micro-levels. Simulations are furthermore carried out to explore potential interventions for wood pellet heating uptake, and to compare the results to literatures and empirical findings.
Improving Measurements Of Companies' Environmental Performance - Identification Of The Main Environmental Challenges And Possibilities For The Automobile Sector (Abstract #630)
Sofia Poulikidou and Ulrika Lundqvist
Rating agencies have an important role in sustainable investments since they provide institutional investors with information about companies' performance. However, there is no consensus among rating agencies about which criteria that should be used, and from a sustainability perspective, the most relevant criteria are not always used. Thus, in order to make sustainable investments more relevant and influential for a sustainable transition of industry there is a need of improvements of measurements of companies' environmental performance. The first step in this direction requires an understanding and assessment of the major challenges from a sustainability perspective that various industrial sectors are facing. The automobile manufacturing industry has been selected as a case study, towards the development of a holistic methodology for impact identification, evaluation and ranking. A life cycle approach together with an operationalization of four sustainability principles are used to identify and classify the impacts related to the life cycle of the automobile sector. Three ready-made weighting methods are used, the Eco- Indicator '99, the EPS 2000 and the Environmental Themes, to rank the identified impacts according to significance. The results in quantitative terms indicate that from a life cycle perspective the utilization stage of the car is the major contributor to a variety of emissions as well as to the use of resources. Additionally, the weighting processes suggest that oil, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and natural gas are among the most critical parameters for the sector. Those parameters are taken into consideration and used as reference for the development of improved measurements of companies' performance that capture both the present situation of the sector as well as future scenarios and improvement possibilities. The main advantage of this methodology is that future oriented criteria can be formulated that are measuring whether there is a transition towards sustainability.
Sourcemap.Org: First Application Of Linked And Open Lca Data To Support Sustainability Projects (Abstract #632)
Leonardo Bonanni, Hannes Ebner, Matthew Hockenberry, Bianca Sayan, Nils Brandt, Chris Csikszentmihàlyi, Hiroshi Ishii, Marko Turpeinen, Steven Young and Jorge Zapico
Sourcemap.org is a open "platform for researching, optimizing and sharing supply chains" with a wide range of users. As Sourcemap.org's focus is to inform sustainable decision-making for supply chains, they require a wealth of environmental data on inputs and outputs. They, like many other sustainability-related projects, need a robust, large, and reliable database to draw from. Members of the team have formed an independent, multi-institutional project to develop an open and linked LCA catalog for public use, called Opensustainability.info (OSI). Sourcemap.org now relies on OSI to describe their supply chain maps in terms of environmental impacts. We'll show how Sourcemap.org has incorporated OSI into their application and the improvements in data reliability and transparency that have arisen. We will also show how this can be extended to other applications. Projects can then avoid the research, retrieval, and maintenance of multiple separate collections of environmental impact data. Sourcemap.org is illustrative of OSI's far-reaching potential to support and enhance many existing and future sustainability projects in environmental education, research, public outreach, and policy development. They will gain increasing legitimacy and transparency as they can base their output on an open database.
Achieving Optimal Deployment Of Renewable Energy Technologies In The Battlefield (Abstract #636)
Valentina Prado
The Department of Defense (DOD) consumes over 127 million barrels of fuel annually - enough for five million cars to drive around the equator. Fuel consumed by Forward Operating Bases (FOB) in Iraq and Afghanistan represent 15% of the total DOD fuel consumption. Nearly half of the FOB's fuel is used in diesel generators for electricity production. Since these bases are in locations with no power grids, they must satisfy all their energy needs using fossil fuels. In practice, fuel delivery to these remote locations requires significant resources. The challenge is to move large volumes of fuel over unpaved roads through rough terrain. Fuel cost is further increased because additional vehicles and personnel are needed to protect oil in transit. Thus, even in the best case scenario, fuel delivery has a significant resource and logistical footprint. Also, there is a direct correlation between fuel transported and casualties. Given the availability of sunlight in FOBs in Iraq and Afghanistan, solar technologies can be implemented in the battlefield in order to reduce the generators run time, fuel consumption and delivery. However, optimal deployment of renewable energy (RE) technologies is impeded by a lack of knowledge about how these technologies will perform and under what conditions they are superior to traditional generators. This study addresses these knowledge gaps by combining a thermodynamic model and Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). First, the thermodynamic model forecasts the performance of commercially available RE technologies as a function of geographic location, season, specific battlefield conditions and previous experimental data. Then, the MCDA component weighs different factors along the fuel supply chain (overall fuel efficiency, cost and energy security) to guide army planners into selecting the most suitable RE technology for a given mission. The goal of this study is to help the DOD achieve an optimal deployment of RE technologies.
Environmental Emissions For Lead From Informal Secondary Smelting (Abstract #638)
Masaaki Fuse
The historic shift of lead use in gasoline and solders to lead containing batteries, seems to have reduced the risk to human health and ecosystems. Lead in batteries may be recycled by informal sectors in developing countries, because this is relatively easy and does not require advanced technology. Due to the absence of exhaust gas and waste water treatment, such informal secondary smelting emits a lot of lead to the environment. To examine the effect of informal secondary smelting on emissions from the lead life cycle, we conducted a material flow analysis of lead for 160 countries in 2007. This analysis was refined by using trade statistics and consumption pattern models. Results show that the total lead emission to air over all life cycle stages was 210 Gg Pb/yr. 62 % of these emissions were related to informal secondary smelting. These results indicate that informal secondary smelting affects environmental emissions largely and suggests that human health and ecosystem risk for lead may move from leaded gasoline to informal secondary smelting.
Theoretical Analysis For Deciding Scale Of Preferable Material-Cycle Blocks (Abstract #662)
Atsushi Fujiyama and Toru Matsumoto
In Japan, a new concept introduced in the second phase of the Basic Plan for Establishing a Recycling-based Society in 2008 was the establishment of sound material cycle (SMC) measures, by means of which a material cycle of optimal size was formed in accordance with the characteristics of the region and the properties of its circulative resources. Although the implementation of SMC measures aims to increase the circulation rate of resources for the whole country by establishing SMC measures for waste and other circulating resources, many issues must be addressed before its realization. To provide appropriate SMC measures, this study has as it objectives the sorting of analogous waste and circulative resources into item or groups, and the establishment of a decision theory for the ultimate SMC measures for the item of various groups. This study brings up analysis method for current situation and optimized solutions of a material cycle and applies waste and other circulating resources. At the first stage, this study showed current status of waste transportation to compute transportation share and transportation amount by automobile transportation, rail transportation and marine transportation. Next stage, this showed that there was deviation between present conditions and optimized solutions with solving transportation problem on linear Programming for industrial waste and Containers and Packaging. Since it shows deviation on transportation problem, it thinks that waste transportation is concerned in the factor other than constrained condition. Next stage, another factor ware analyzed using based on a Gravity Model and Quantification Theory Type I. The results of this study showed that there was transportation distance had a significant impact on transportation quantities, and also that distribution of original generation points and disposal facilities affected transportation distance.
Should Alberta Upgrade Oil Sands Bitumen? (Abstract #663)
Nicolas Choquette-Levy, Jessica Abella and Joule A. Bergerson
Alberta's oil sands comprise a significant portion of North America's energy supply, accounting for over 10% of all U.S. crude oil imports. However, existing and potential climate policies are complicating the decisions being made by oil sands stakeholders, due to the relatively high carbon footprints of their products. One of these decisions includes whether to upgrade bitumen into higher-quality synthetic crude oil (SCO) and send it to a conventional refinery, or mix it with diluent into lower-quality diluted bitumen (dilbit) and send it to a refinery that accepts heavier feedstocks. Although initial studies suggest that upgrading pathways lead to higher well-to-wheel GHG emissions, upgrading facilities are still being planned. There is therefore a need to explore the environmental and economic tradeoffs associated with the full range of upgrading and refining scenarios available to oil sands producers. We seek to inform this decision by conducting a process-based life cycle assessment (LCA) of two bitumen production pathways: one in which bitumen is upgraded into SCO and the other in which it is diluted to produce dilbit, before being transported via pipeline to US refineries. We build a comprehensive spreadsheet model that estimates the energy flows and GHG emissions (per MJ of gasoline) associated with the extraction, upgrading/dilution, transportation, refining, and gasoline combustion stages. One of our preliminary results is that pipeline transportation of dilbit is approximately 2.5 times more GHG-intensive than SCO transportation, whereas previous studies have assumed equivalent transportation intensities. We analyze the factors that drive the LCA results through a sensitivity analysis and explore the impacts of different climate policy options on the decision of whether to upgrade. Finally, lifecycle costing is used in conjunction with the policy options in order to identify conditions under which a company would be incented to upgrade bitumen, even with a higher GHG footprint.
The Environmental Impacts Of Media: A Review Of Comparative Lcas Of Digital And Paper Media (Abstract #684)
Justin Gabriel Bull and Robert Kozak
The consumption of the written word is changing. Society is in the midst of a dynamic and uneven transition from paper media to digital media. We reviewed the comparative research literature that attempted to measure the environmental implications of this transition, with a focus on peer-reviewed research employing life cycle assessment (LCA) methodologies. We conducted our review according to a framework developed by Reap (2008) that identified key problems in LCA methodologies. We found that between LCAs there were large variations in the described environmental impacts, although digital media was generally deemed more environmentally benign. We also found that inside individual LCAs large variations exist when certain assumptions were adjusted. There were several drivers of these variations. A lack of contemporaneous and high-resolution data was an acute problem when modeling the lifecycle of digital media. This reflects the ever-evolving and complex supply chains of the IT sector. Further, digital media is typically consumed on products that offer dozens of alternative functions: coping with these multifunctional products required methodological creativity that resulted in understating the environmental impacts of digital media. The modeling of consumer behavior was also a major source of variation: for example, the impact of driving a vehicle to a retail outlet contributed significantly to a paper product's footprint. We conclude that comparative LCAs of digital and paper media demonstrate the limits of the LCA methodology. Assumptions and low-resolution data drove study findings, but authors did not identify this trend. We suggest that the LCA methodology does not produce high-confidence claims about the environmental trade-offs between paper and digital media. It does, however, successfully identify the gaps in data availability and data quality that impact extant comparative LCAs.
A Framework For Life Cycle Analysis Of Subsurface Remediation Technologies Using Nano-Scale Zero Valent Iron Particles (Abstract #687)
Seung-Woo Jeong, Sangwon Suh, Youn-Joo An and Arturo Keller
Zero-valent iron or element iron has been widely used as a reactive material in permeable reactive barriers (PRB) to degrade chlorinated contaminants dissolved in groundwater. As field evaluations have shown several drawbacks of PRB such as reactivity reduction and passiveness in groundwater clean-up, nano-scale, zero-valent iron (NZVI) has received much attention as a potential solution to overcome those problems. Many field applications employing NZVI are recently reported, and fate, transport and toxicity of nanoparticles are increasingly documented. Nevertheless, existing Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework falls short when characterizing environmental impacts of NZVI applications due to the inherent differences of NZVI particles as compared to their micro-scale counterpart. Evaluation of subsurface remediation alternatives using LCA should take the differences in environmental behavior and impact of nano-scale particles. The primary objective of this study is to propose an LCA framework for evaluation of subsurface remediation alternatives including that using NZVI. Our preliminary results show that some of the essential characteristics of NZVI that are important in understanding its environmental performance are not addressed by conventional multi-media fate and transport models and toxicity characterization methods employed by Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodology. We developed a framework under which these characteristics can be incorporated into LCIA methodology using NZVI application for subsurface remediation as an example.
Low Tech Versus High Tech Development Of Buildings For A Sustainable Future? (Abstract #694)
Rolf André Bohne
Buildings are responsible for near 40% of the CO2 emissions worldwide. But buildings are also an area with great potential for inexpensive Co2 reduction, with a potential of a reduction of more than 5 GTons CO2 annually at a cost less than $20/ton. There is however a need to investigate and suggest policies for a long term development for the buildings, in order to supply the demands for future residential housings to a growing population, and at the same time stay below 550 ppm CO2 (the 2 degree target). This paper looks at the consequences of two possible strategies for reaching this target, the low tech versus high tech scenarios, with regard to CO2 emissions, energy supply and the availability of construction materials. Which of theese strategies will be most promising and riobust for meeting the demand for futere residental housings?
The Positive Political Economy Of E-Waste Management System Design (Abstract #709)
Stéphanie H. Leclerc
The Positive Political Economy of E-Waste Management System Design The current widespread implementation of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) for managing end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment is marked by a plethora of different approaches and the common omission of incentives for eco-design. The proposed paper explores the usefulness of a Political Market Framework to help explain these variations and possible shortcomings. Differences in the supply and demand functions for particular elements of e-waste management policy may help explain and predict variations in EPR implementation. The author intends to use the province of Québec as a particular case study. The province's government has announced its intention to implement a different EPR system architecture, moving away from a common approach used in many other Canadian provinces. Why do things differently ? Whose interests are at stake ? She intends to assess the particular interests of stakeholders shaping the supply for EPR policy (the Environment Minister, Members of the Council of Ministers approving the regulation) and demand for EPR policy (Producers, Recyclers, Retailers, Consumers, Environmental Groups, Municipalities, and Re-Use and Refurbishing companies). Mapping-out the supply and demand functions for specific elements of EPR system architecture may reveal some of the challenges in organising the sustainable consumption and production of electrical and electronic equipment.
Visualizing The Resource Consumption Of Urban Form (Abstract #710)
David Quinn and Daniel Wiesmann
Introduction The objective of this work is to demonstrate a simple tool that we have developed which demonstrates some tradeoffs associated with resource consumption and urban form. This tool provides a user-friendly way of exploring these tradeoffs, so that the user can learn what parameters influence resource consumption at the neighborhood scale. Understanding these tradeoffs is particularly relevant in rapidly growing cities, as short-term planning decisions have long-term consequences for both the quality of life of the inhabitants, and the future energy and material use of the urban area. Analysis Method? This tool is based on analysis that has been performed by the authors on neighborhoods from several countries around the world. This analysis was conducted using GIS techniques and statistical techniques that are standardized and repeatable. Using the analysis from these parameters (such as population density, transportation mode, affluence and others), relationships between material and energy consumption were identified. In this current iteration, the focus is on construction material (for buildings and infrastructure), transportation energy and domestic energy consumption. Future iterations will consider more parameters.?? User-Experience The user chooses options for several input parameters (such as population density, or energy use per capita); these values which can be varied within specified ranges. The output of the tool illustrates graphically what the resource consumption of that urban area is based on these choices, and the typical functioning of the neighborhood. We intend having several demonstrations available at our poster (on a computer and available for download), so that users can interact with this tool. We also hope to gather feedback so that we can refine and develop future iterations of this educational tool.
Environmental Impacts Of Inter-Firm Collaboration Based On A Life Cycle Approach (Abstract #717)
Dowon Kim and Jane Powell
Although eco-industrial development (EID) is attracting increasing attention worldwide as one of the emerging alternative approaches to sustainable industrial development, the environmental benefits from EID have not been proved sufficiently. The economic benefits of EID tend to be emphasised as EID activities are mainly driven by economic needs, while the environmental benefits tend to have been handled fragmentarily to justify them. However, the evaluation of the environmental impacts can lead EID activities to increase sustainability through comparison of diverse inter-firm collaboration options. It can also prevent uninformed decisions caused by the inclination toward economic benefits and justify why society should encourage environmentally beneficial EID options even though most EID activities aim to improve business profit. This study has been undertaken to explore quantifying the environmental impacts of inter-firm collaborations based on a life cycle approach. A life cycle approach enables all the environmental benefits and costs from cradle to grave to be integrated quantitatively and consequently diverse options can be compared for decision making. This study suggests a quantifying approach that is different from conventional life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of inter-firm collaboration in the process industry. This study examines both facility sharing and by-product exchange as typical types of inter-firm collaboration. Although facility sharing is considered to be economically beneficial to business due to the clustering effect, it has not been clear whether the clustering effect can reduce energy and material use. It is also questionable whether by-product exchange can always generate more environmental benefits than facility sharing. This study compares the environmental impacts of facility sharing with those of by-product exchange by examining three collaboration cases collected in an eco-industrial park in Korea. In addition, key implications from the analysis to improve the environmental benefits of inter-firm collaboration are discussed.
Household Energy Consumption Under Urbanization And Lifestyle Change: A Case Study Of China From 1987 To 2007 By Input-Output Analysis (Abstract #726)
Haiyan Zhang
China has made impressive progress in economic growth since its 1978 economic reform program took hold. China also experience rapid urbanization since 1980. Its urban population increased from a mere 19.4% in 1980 to 46.6% in 2009. With rapid economic development, urban and rural residents' living conditions have increased a lot. Urban and rural residents' average disposable income increased 6.4 fold and 5.7 fold separately from 1980 to 2008 while diversity between urban and rural income had been even larger. China still has a binary economic with significant difference between urban and rural regions. To support the lifestyle change, residential energy consumption increased from 112 kg standard coal (kgce) per capita in 1980 to 241 kgce in 2008. In 2008, residential sector accounted for 9.76% of energy end use in China. The current statistical data only indicates the direct energy use such as lighting, cooking, and heating of the residential sector. Households also consumed a large amount of indirect energy that embodied in goods and services. This paper quantified the direct and indirect energy consumption of both rural and urban household from 1987 to 2007. Energy input-output table was compiled from economic input-output data and physical energy consumption data. With the comparison of data of 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2007, the paper told a story of the lifestyle change overtime of rural and urban residents and how household consumption change impact the energy consumption of other sectors. Using structural decomposition analysis, we especially focused on how did urbanization and lifestyle change affect household energy consumption. As most of Chinese energy conservation policies focus on energy efficiency improvement, this paper provides quantitative evidence for policies from demand side. submitted to the EE IO session
Central Vs. On-Site Wastewater Treatment In A High-Rise Building: A Life-Cycle Assessment Case Study In The Northeastern Us (Abstract #731)
Francis Jordan and Uta Krogmann
Due to economy of scale, on-site membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment facilities with water reuse generally consume more energy than central wastewater treatment facilities. However, if not only the operational energy consumption is considered, the environmental impacts might be less dominated by it and if water resources are scarce, water reuse might be favorable. The objective of this case study was to conduct a comparative life-cycle assessment of an existing residential green high-rise building in the northeastern United States with on-site wastewater treatment and water reuse and a hypothetical green building with the same water conservation and efficiency measures but discharge of all wastewater to the municipal sewer and no water reuse. The on-site wastewater treatment facility in the existing building includes a three-stage biomembrane reactor with an anoxic stage, an aerobic stage and filtration stage with ultrafiltration membrane followed by ozonation and ultraviolet radiation; the treated water is reused for toilet flushing, cooling water and irrigation. Upstream water and downstream wastewater collection and treatment infrastructure and biosolids disposal are included in the boundary. Energy and major nutrient related environmental impacts are focus of the comparative life-cycle assessment. A sensitivity analysis is performed.
Assessment Of Energy Systems Using Draft Ansi Lca Standard Scs 002 (Abstract #733)
Colin High
Assessment of Energy Systems using Draft ANSI LCA Standard SCS 002 The presentation describes initial experience in evaluating energy projects programs, and systems using methods that follow the ANSI Draft Standard SCS 002. The energy systems evaluated include conventional fossil fueled generation, wind and solar generation and energy efficiency, energy storage and energy product manufacturing. The Draft Standard establishes the methodological framework and associated metrics upon which analyses of products, services and systems shall be conducted. The framework is referred to as "Life Cycle Stressor Effects Assessment" (LCSEA) and is intended to be used by product service providers, environmental professionals, policy makers and customers. The Draft Standard addresses the needs of these users by providing 1) a uniform LCA framework and specific set of impact indicator metrics sufficient to calculate actual impact levels across a comprehensive set of relevant impact categories; 2) guidance for the development of reference baselines to be used as the basis of comparisons; and 3) guidelines for marketplace claims, including Type III Environmental Declarations, as well as environmental performance labels (e.g., environmentally preferable products and environmental performance ratings derived from such declarations). The experience in using the Draft Standard for energy products and systems has been primarily with relatively large complex analyses for public sector policy and decision making. In this context the experience reported has been positive, however there are data compatibility issues that must be addressed. In the near future it is expected that there will be growing interest in assessments at the commercial and consumer level and this will require resolution of data problems especially for the electric power sector outside the United States. Comparison with alternative approaches and application problems for selected projects will be discussed. Note to reviewers: Several assessments being undertaken by the author's team are currently confidential. These are expected to be become public before the conference so that more specific results can be provided at that time.
Embodied Carbon Flows In Global Supply Chains: A Study Drawing On Bilateral Trade Data (Abstract #743)
Misato Sato
Significant recent attention has been paid to quantifying the carbon emissions embodied in international trade. Most previous studies use aggregated models and highlight the growth of exports of embodied emissions from developing countries such as China to the industrialised world. This study combines the UN Commodity Trade Statistics and product carbon intensity factors to provide a detailed quantitative description of embodied carbon flows in global trade. Covering all countries and 970 products, for the first time, it disaggregates estimates of embodied emissions in trade (EET) by product and bilateral trade flows. It finds that EET flows are particularly concentrated in upstream industrial products in sectors such as iron & steel, non ferrous metals, primary plastics, cement & lime, organic and non-organic chemicals and fertilisers, as well as mid- or down-steam products such as metal-manufactures, paper and pharmaceuticals. Agricultural and energy products also account for non-trivial volumes of EET. Contrary to the simplified picture portrayed by studies using aggregated models where flows from developing to industrialised countries are dominant, the granular approach reveals a complex mapping of global EET flows.
Policy Issues To Develop An Energy Efficient Industrial Park Using Renewable Energy Sources In Korea (Abstract #747)
Yong Un Ban, Hurnkun Jeong, Taeho Lee, Kyungmin Han and Hyungsuk Ko
Renewable energy promotion projects in Korea have not comprised industrial park level yet, focusing on individual public building, school, houses, factory, and so on. However, newly developing industrial park can offer better opportunities to promote to introduce renewable energy sources into industrial field than existing industrial park. This study has intended to explore a possibility to combine existing renewable energy promotion policy and the developing process of industrial park, and to find new approach to promote to introduce renewable energy sources at industrial park level, specially newly developing Kimhae industrial park, which is expected to have developed in the beginning of 2012. To clarify the possible scale of renewable energy facilities that could introduce in Kimhae Industrial Park, the Kimhae Industrial Park Developing Plan was reveiwed and energy use of 63 expected tenant companies of the industrial park was investigated. Also executives of these companies have been interviewed on introducing renewable energy facilities into their future factories. At last, existing renewable energy promotion policies in Korea were reviewed in terms of possibility of their application to the newly developing industrial park. The result of this study indicated that the RPS(Renewable Portfolio Standard) is the most suitable means to help expected tenant companies introduce renewable energy source on the Kimhae Industrial Park level. Also, it is clarified that other promotion policies are necessary to be improved in terms of implement process, and the scale of fund should be increased to cover the industrial park level.
Patching Data Gaps Through Expert Elicitation: A Case Study Of Laundry Detergents (Abstract #774)
Vee Subramanian, Eric Williams, Joby Carlson and Jay Golden
The lack of LCI's for many chemicals makes it difficult for manufacturer's to fully understand and improve the environmental performance of their products. Not all LCA practitioners are experts and therefore, the approach to dealing with data gaps is often based on little training on assessing and including uncertainties in LCA, limited knowledge on the life cycle of products/processes that are being assessed, and lack of up-to-date knowledge on novel techniques. Data gaps for chemicals associated with lack of specific LCI's are presently resolved through input-output approaches, purchase of data from other public/private databases at a considerable cost, selection of most similar product/process (proxy) for which data are available, generating LCI through modeling and estimation, and molecular structure based inventory and impact estimation using neural network model. Not very many LCA practitioners know of the availability of all these approaches and rely often on the use of proxies based on their own expert judgment. Currently, there does not exist any procedure to (1) guide the selection of similar products/processes as substitutes for LCI data gaps, and (2) estimate the uncertainty associated with a substitute LCI. The process of expert elicitation is used to gather criteria for the selection of proxies and estimate the uncertainty associated with proxy selections within each functional chemical group of the detergent. Experts (chemists, chemical engineers, LCA practitioners, and toxicologists) in single or multiple areas are approached to understand the difference in thought process for proxy selection. The chemicals used in the formulation are categorized by their functional groups to get highly specific with proxy selection and provide criteria that have enough scope for consistency and repeatability of selections. The guidance for the selection criteria for proxies is created along with measured uncertainty for different chemicals groups based on expert knowledge for different impact categories.
Resource Productivity And Economic Development In China: A Factor Analysis At The Provincial Level (Abstract #782)
Feng Shi, Hiroki Tanikawa, Tao Hang, Akio Onishi, Xin Tian and Hidefumi Imura
The rapid economic growth China has been experiencing in recent years has also meant a rapid increase in demand for resources. Thus, if it is to achieve sustainable development in the future, China faces an urgent challenge to shift towards being a "recycling society". In that context, this study focuses on resource productivity, which is one important indicator to evaluate the level of achievement as a recycling society. Most of prior studies are analysis the resource productivity at the national level and studies in China at the province level are limited to Guangdong Province, Shanghai City, and Liaoning Province. Moreover, each of the studies that is unclear regarding data collection. Because of assessments of resource productivity at the province level in prior studies are inadequate, and that they are not capturing the unique characteristics of each province when comparing the differences between them. In the present study, for the 31 provinces and autonomous regions we first establish consistent data-collection categories, then calculate resource productivity for each province or autonomous region, and then apply factor analysis to clarify the relationships between their levels of economic development and resource productivity. As a result, we summarize some findings as follow. 1) Distinct regional characteristics are evident in direct material inputs in China. Imports are high in coastal areas and low further inland. Resource-rich provinces rely on their own resources, and resource inflows from other areas are low. 2) Even those with the highest resource productivity in the country are low compared to Japan and many other countries. Regional disparities in resource productivity are also very large. 3) Provinces with high resource productivity are concentrated in the coastal areas, including Shanghai, Zhejiang, and so on. Conversely, provinces with low resource productivity are concentrated in resource-rich inland regions, including Shanxi, Ningxia, and so on.
Life Cycle Assessment Supporting Policy Regarding Urban Agriculture (Abstract #788)
Stephen Fisher
We know intuitively that a local food supply for urbanites may reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and simply be more efficient for some crops. But little is known about the degree to which urban agriculture can accomplish these reductions and efficiencies. Urban agriculture is wildly popular in some urban areas (for example, Havana, Cuba where up to 90% of fresh vegetable consumption is urban grown), yet its popularity is not tied to a quantitative sense of reducing GHG emissions or growing efficiency. Instead, its popularity has been tied to food justice, food quality, and food safety. We might find that policy makers take on urban agriculture to make it even more popular, if not profitable, as a significant tool to reach their sustainability goals - if the data would support it. The foundation for exploring these metrics is a life cycle assessment of the fresh fruits and vegetables that can be grown in a given urban area. For this paper, tomatoes grown in Denver, Colorado will be compared to tomatoes purchased at a typical large supermarket chain in Denver. The material flows and impacts assessed will be water, energy, and GHG emissions. These foundational data and other metrics may give the necessary backing to policy makers that wish to answer the question, "should we promote urban agriculture," and then act upon it. Three policies at the local level that could have a significant impact are conversion of a small percentage of urban park land to food production; zoning convertibility for interim agricultural land use; and tax convertibility for owners of commercial or industrial lots who wish to lease or operate an urban gardening business. These three policies address, in part, water use, food access, urban blight, underutilized properties, and employment (urban farmer businesses).
Assessing The Environmental Impact Of A Manufacturer: "Top-Down" Vs. "Bottom-Up," And An Alternative (Abstract #800)
Lynette Cheah, Elsa Olivetti, Richard Roth and Randolph Kirchain
When carrying out environmental assessments of manufacturing operations, practitioners often have to weigh the tradeoffs between effort and accuracy. The simplest approach is to carry out a "top-down" assessment on the facility-level, measuring the inputs and outputs from the factory buildings. Such information is usually more readily available, and this approach can be said to be more complete. However, the system is seen as a black box, and lacks detail for careful analysis. On the other extreme, a more detailed, but time- and resource-intensive approach is to identify, measure and aggregate the impact of individual manufacturing processes, otherwise known as a "bottom-up" approach. This approach allows one to identify "hot spots" of greater impact within the facility. However, it requires more effort to accurately and consistently trace process steps and collect data, which may not be tractable. It is also prone to error, and is not easily scalable. In this research, we compare these two approaches and suggest a third alternative, which is a streamlined bottom-up approach. The proposed approach involves binning individual processing steps into various sets of activities. The average impact associated with each set of activity is used in lieu of the impact of the individual activity. By recognizing and categorizing individual processing steps under a specified taxonomy of manufacturing processes, actual details of specific processes and the associated machines/equipment used need not be known. Such an approach is not as thorough as a full-fledge bottom-up impact assessment, but requires less effort. When it is too challenging to apply a bottom-up approach, and the poor resolution of a top-down approach remains unsatisfactory, this streamlined bottom-up approach might be a suitable compromise. Using shoe manufacturing as a case study, we explore the efficacy of this streamline effort, and the tradeoffs between accuracy and effort for all three approaches.
Probabilistic Development Of A Life Cycle Inventory (Lci) Dataset For Pultruded Fiber Reinforced Polymer (Frp) Composites (Abstract #809)
Subhan Ali and Michael Lepech
The sustainability of the built environment is increasingly coming to the forefront of many building designs and infrastructure plans incorporating pultruded FRP composites. However, the metrics used to quantify the environmental impacts of pultruded FRPs are not fully understood by manufacturers or engineers. In this work, the probabilistic development of a life cycle inventory (LCI) dataset for pultruded FRPs is presented. Although the built environment comprises the most widespread application of FRPs with the industry having produced 3.1 billion pounds of composites in 1997, the underlying datasets necessary for determining the full life cycle impacts of pultruded sections have not been developed for the United States. A survey of US pultruders was conducted to measure the industry-wide material and energy inputs into the FRP pultrusion process, and these were statistically analysed to construct predictive models for material and energy consumption. Coupling existing literature on component material impacts with results from this study, an LCI model was developed for pultruded sections including structural shapes and lineals. Furthermore, probabilistic models were developed for material inputs to the pultrusion process. Monte Carlo simulation was then performed incorporating the outputs from these probabilistic models to develop impact distributions for the constitutive inputs and industry wide impact distributions were created that reflect aggregate impacts of pultruded FRPs. A comparative LCA was then performed on a pultruded structural composite profile compared to a structurally equivalent reinforced concrete beam. Preliminary results indicate total impacts that are approximately 35% lower for FRPs.
Resource Intensity And Environmental Impact: An Approach To Sustainability Analysis Of Cellulosic Ethanol (Abstract #827)
Anil Baral and Bhavik Bakshi
Recognizing the need for biofuels to be sustainable, regulators have started incorporating sustainability criteria into low carbon fuel related policies such as the European Renewable Energy Directive (RED) with the aim of protecting soil, water, air, and biodiversity and improving human lives. To assess the sustainability of biofuels, it is important to analyze their impact on air, water and soil, and consumption of ecological goods and services besides GHG emissions. This study assesses environmental impacts from air emissions using mid-point indicators and quantifies resource intensity of cellulosic ethanol derived from five different feedstocks (corn stover, switchgrass, yellow poplar, newsprint and municipal solid waste) by using hybrid Ecologically-based LCA (Eco-LCA). Eco-LCA is an economic output model that allows us to track ecological footprints of various economic goods and services by taking into account contributions of ecological goods and services besides in addition to emissions. On a well to wheels basis, E85 from cellulosic ethanol reduces global warming potential over gasoline by 41-64% depending on the feedstocks employed. Yellow poplar offers the largest reduction potential and switchgrass the lowest. E85 derived from all five cellulosic feedstocks has higher acidification, eutrophication and human toxicity potential per kilometer traveled than gasoline. We estimated the relative intensity of use of individual ecological goods and services such as land, soil, water, minerals, and pollination by cellulosic ethanol as compared to gasoline. Cellulosic ethanol offers the possibility of a significant reduction in crude oil consumption by as much as 95%, but soil erosion and land area requirements can be a source of concern for cellulosic ethanol derived directly from managed agriculture. Cellulosic ethanol is more resource intensive than gasoline. However, some of the resources consumed, such as sunlight and detrital matter, are renewable, and some of the non-renewable resources are not consumed in large enough quantities to pose a constraint for large-scale production.
Urban Eco-Factory Compatibility Of Residential And Industrial Zones (Abstract #833)
Kai Salminen, Terhi Leino, Anssi Joutsiniemi and Reijo Tuokko
Merging Sustainable Industry and eco-cities is a multidisciplinary task. This paper describes an Eco- Factory Platform project AIDA (Adaptive and innovative development process for sustainable area) that originates from industry, industrial cities, and local regional authorities. The developed eco-Industrial areas hosting eco-factories will be located within the city development areas of five European cities and their landmark projects for sustainable urban development. These urban development zones shall house typically 12- 20.000 residents and the same number of workplaces. The zones will be characterized by an outstanding degree of energy efficiency of its buildings and factories and share sustainability solutions especially between residential and industrial zones. The projects innovates and demonstrate the compatibility of residential and industrial zones in the same urban region regarding living quality, The seeks to answer to the competitiveness, sustainability, and innovativeness challenges of European manufacturing industry by creating a new type of competitive innovative solutions for the sustainable growth of low carbon society holistic, networked, and open concept for the future for green products manufactured by clean processes, enabling sustainable business and supporting also new-generation eco-city development. The consortium consists of world-class industry partners that already have introduced eco-factories and world-class sustainable manufacturing companies, and service providers, academia, research centres and Science Parks with prominent European eco-city projects. The project integrate OEMs, SMEs, Science Parks, Research Centres and their city context for enabling competitive sustainable manufacturing in European Urban eco-cities
Life Cycle Assessment And Life Cycle Costing Of Bioenergy Applications For Light-Duty Transportation (Abstract #837)
Jason Luk, Sylvia Sleep and Heather MacLean
This study employs life cycle assessment and life cycle costing to examine various bioenergy applications for light-duty transportation. Four different pathways were evaluated for a non-food crop biomass feedstock with currently-available and near-term technologies. The pathways are; 1. A 250 MW direct combustion facility that generates electricity, with resulting electricity used for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle 2. A 4 MW Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system based on a project under-construction, with resulting electricity used in the vehicle in 1. 3. A larger, 1 GW IGCC plant, which is envisioned to be able to take advantage of greater process efficiencies and economies of scale in the near future, with resulting electricity used in the vehicle in 1. 4. A hypothetical hybrid E85 electric vehicle fuelled with a lignocellulosic ethanol produced via enzymatic hydrolysis, based on plans for a 5 ML/year production facility. The pathways were compared with a reference gasoline hybrid electric vehicle and evaluated based on four indicators; biomass feedstock and non-renewable energy inputs, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and economic costs. All results are reported per 100 km driven. The optimal pathway was found to differ depending on the evaluation criterion. Of the pathways considered, large scale IGCC had the lowest biomass feedstock requirements. Conversely, small scale IGCC pathway required the least non-renewable energy inputs. Although the lignocellulosic ethanol pathway (E85) had the largest biomass feedstock demand, this technology proved to be the most favourable on the basis of net GHG emissions and economic costs. This result was due primarily to the substantial impact of battery production on the performance of the electric vehicles. The differences in the non-renewable energy and GHG emissions indicators between the four pathways were minor relative to the significantly improved performance over the reference pathway, albeit at a higher economic cost.
Can China Learn From Developing Countries When It Comes To Technology Applications And Governance Principles For More Sustainable Cities? (Abstract #840)
Ronald Wennersten and Hongling Liu
In China the future growth of cities will be a major challenge for a sustainable growth not only GDP growth. Today the cities are far from sustainable because of the heavy dependence on fossil fuels; the creating of large amounts of waste, water and air pollution, social segregation etc. 16 of the 20 most polluted cities in the world is in China. Development of infrastructure is an important part of keeping unemployment down in China and thus maintaining social stability. Stable employment rate taken population growth and migration to cities into account requires around 8% economic growth. Integrated planning for a city will include the following main steps: -Sustainability Assessment of present situation. Which are the important sustainability aspects social, economic, environmental? -Creating a vision for the city in a participatory process -Developing an environmental plan with targets and indicators -The process for realizing the environmental plan and how it is integrated into the Spatial Development Developing a framework including a business model for operating costs In cooperation between the Department of Industrial Ecology at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm and School of Architecture at Southeast University in Nanjing, a framework for integrated planning in Chinese cities is being developed. The project looks at how experiences from Sweden and Europe can be transferred to Chinese conditions. The transfer includes technology, business models as well as governance. The reason for using Sweden as an example is that Sweden has well developed models for participatory planning and governance with many new city development projects. Sweden is also one of the few countries that have decoupled GDP growth from increasing GHG emissions. This presentation will discuss the problems of the transfer of experiences from developed countries in Europe to China.
Construction Of Sludge Resource Recycling Network Using Exhaust Gas From Co-Generation Boiler In Dyecen (Abstract #845)
Gyung Ho Kim and Sun Gap Keoun
In this research, We will estimate to possibility of sludge reduction by exhaust gas from cogeneration boiler and build of Resource Recovery network for Organic Wastes. Daegu industrial dyeing complex, Daegu City in Korea, have been generating dyeing wastewater sludge how much is 300 M3/day. These sludge disposal cost are about 65 hundred mullion won each year. we are focus on sludge reduction by exhaust gas from cogeneration plant in DYECEN. If this projects has been success, DYECEN can be saving sludge disposal cost how much is 38 hundred mullion won each year. Moreover, reduced cost will be reinvest to enterprise management. Also build of Resource Recovery network for Organic Wastes can reduce greenhouse gas discharging.
The Varied Habits Of Building Occupants: Implications For Design And Environment (Abstract #864)
Clinton Andrews
When people interact with technologies, they do not all behave the same way. Some of this variation is due to personal preferences and capabilities, but some of it may be due to framing factors that impose structures on specific decisions. In the home, for example, different household members take showers with different lengths and also select different lighting levels. When asked, they identify different factors influencing their bathing and lighting decisions. Are there any systematic patterns or common elements in all of this variation? Do these behaviors cause emergent environmental impacts at the scales of buildings or cities? This poster shares results of an empirical study of occupant behavior in a set of residential buildings and a pair of agent-based computer simulation models that portray energy-using and water-using behaviors, respectively. The empirical work confirms varied behaviors. The models successfully employ a common framework for decision making based on the Belief-Desire-Intention (BDI) model from the artificial intelligence literature. However, tasks such as choosing lighting levels and comfortable indoor temperatures exercise very different portions of the BDI framework than do water-using behaviors such as showering or using the toilet. The former emphasize selecting among alternative means of achieving a target comfort level, whereas the latter focus less on selecting among alternatives and more on the duration and frequency of the activity. These variations in behavior are important because building system designs suited for the median user may be unusable (ineffective, inefficient, unsatisfying) for other users. Usability problems particularly affect innovative designs such as are found in many "green" buildings, thereby diminishing their realizable performance. Thus, emergent impacts on aggregate energy and water resource use do indeed appear, and, at scale, influence the requirements for urban infrastructure. This research is funded by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Green Building Council.