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Comparative Life Cycle Assessment Of Conventional And Green Seal Certified Products (Abstract #12)
Amit Kapur and Cheryl Baldwin
Green Seal is a non-profit organization that has developed life cycle based sustainability certification standards as per ISO 14020 and ISO 14024 for over 180 categories of products and services. This paper highlights the comparative life cycle assessment results of three different products, for sanitary paper products, paint, and soaps and shampoos, complying with the relevant Green Seal standard, GS -1 , GS-11 , and GS-44 respectively. The goal of this study was to assess the effects (e.g., environmental benefits) of Green Seal standards by comparing products that meets the requirements in the standard to conventional products in the marketplace. The scope of the LCA was “cradle-to-gate” (i.e. from resources extraction to finished product leaving the production facility) and was limited to product-specific environmental and packaging requirements of each standard. The Eco-indicator 99 impact assessment methodology was used in the study for the following impact categories – climate change, acidification/eutrophication, carcinogens, respiratory organics, radiation, ozone layer, ecotoxicity, land use, minerals and fossil fuels. In general, it was found that the Green Seal-compliant products have lower to significantly lower environmental impacts. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the variations in the composition of compliant and conventional products. It was found that the benefits of Green Seal-compliant products are typically a result of the standards’ focus on source-reduction (of raw materials and packaging) and prohibition of hazardous ingredients. The results of the comparative LCA studies illustrates that in most cases LCA is a useful tool in assessing the effects of Green Seal standards, namely in identifying global environmental benefits. There are limitations of using LCA in the assessment that will be discussed, including product use and human health considerations.
Data Acquisition And Indicator Disaggregation For Physical Input-Output Table In Chinese Cities (Abstract #14)
Sai Liang and Tianzhu Zhang
Submitted to the EEIO session: The physical input-output table (PIOT) is a useful tool for analyzing environmental sustainability. The PIOT improves monetary statistics of national accounts, because it highlights the physical dimension of the same economy. In addition, the PIOT opens the black box of the economy-wide material flow analysis (EW-MFA), which enables it to illustrate material flows within the economy. However, the PIOT demands large amounts of data, making its application a challenging job. Moreover, many data in cities, especially imports and exports, are unavailable. This situation makes applications of the PIOT in cities much harder. Taking the statistical system of Chinese cities as an example, we have discussed several methods for data acquisition of domestic extraction, intermediate deliveries, final consumption, stock changes, imports, exports and waste emissions at city-scale levels. Indicators of the EW-MFA are aggregated. Small material flows, which might be neglected in aggregated indicators, can have large environmental impacts. In addition, there might be big differences among material flows of sectors in different cities. Therefore, we have disaggregated three aggregated indicators of the EW-MFA, named domestic extraction, domestic material consumption, and domestic processed output, by categories of material and sectors, to illustrate urban material flows better. In addition, we have introduced two more indicators to characterize urban material flows: dependence degree on imports for each kind of resources in each sector, and recycling/removal rate of each kind of waste in each sector. Future work should pay special attentions to applying the PIOT for material metabolism accounting of typical cities. Moreover, the economic system of the PIOT in this study is regarded as static during the compilation period, which is not consistent with actual situations. Therefore, future work should also focus on the simulation of dynamic systems in the PIOT.
Towards Carbon Neutral Settlements – The Role Of Urban Infrastructure? (Abstract #16)
Helene Slagstad and Helge Brattebø
To deal with the climate change and the call for sustainability effort has to be made at all stages of the society to lower the emissions from our way of living. In Trondheim, Norway, a new settlement is under planning with the aim of carbon neutrality, as well as sustainability. One important factor of sustainable living is the impact from the supporting urban infrastructure, such as for water, wastewater and solid waste. Trondheim has a well functioning infrastructure, based upon services from centralized facilities. The question is whether a new settlement should adjust to this infrastructure or look at other options, maybe involving decentralized solutions, aiming to cut carbon emissions to a minimum. This study takes a life cycle approach to assess the full effect of different choices for the infrastructure, together with looking at the assessment opportunities in the early stage planning phase and the usefulness of industrial ecology tools. Preliminary results of solid waste handling show that there is little difference between the use of existing infrastructure solutions (massburn MSW incineration in combination with district heating) and alternative solutions with food waste source separation and conversion into biogas (large scale centralized or small scale local facilities). The difference between small scale and large scale biogas digesters are also small when it comes to environmental effects. There could be other sustainability incentives though, and a more thorough study of the waste systems with different analytical tools are now being performed, together with similar kinds of studies on the water and wastewater system. The presentation will demonstrate how to structure an environmental model analyses of water, wastewater, waste and heat infrastructures for urban settlements, it will outline main results for a case in Trondheim (Norway), and it will comment upon the usefulness of such information in early stage urban planning.
Life Cycle Assessments Of Three Different Sewage Systems (Abstract #17)
Victor Chaves, Eduardo Rosco and Carmen Madrigal
The analysis is focused on two commercial devices for the treatment of rural domestic sewage and a third option designed to be made using local materials and labor, considering daily use by 10-15 people over ten years. The three systems are built based on the same principle: providing the wastewater with enough residence time and oxygen so that micro-organisms are able to absorb the organic matter, producing clean water suitable for disposal. The first device basically consists of one tank with two filters inside made of mineral wool (e.g. Rockwool) through which the wastewater passes. It has pipes for conducting the water and tubes for air ventilation. The second one favors aeration by using motor-driven paddles that transfer air into the tank and provide the mixing required. The third option is an open sewage canal thirty meters long with rocks of various sizes contributing to the aeration. It is inclined only slightly in order to increase the time residence. This system has been especially designed to be completely homemade at a very low cost to make it appropriate for developing countries. The life cycle impact assessments of the three systems are based on the Eco-indicator99 and on a measure of the energy needed during their entire lives. The main impacts of the first device are its transportation from abroad followed by the materials production. For the second device the transportation produces the greatest impact as well, followed by the electricity consumption during its use. The third option has the least impact, given that the transportation of the materials counts for very little and it does not consume any energy during its use.
Capturing Embodied Energy In China’S New Urban Lands By Remote Sensing (Abstract #23)
Matthew Eckelman and Peter Christensen
Here we elaborate a method for integrating urban remote sensing analysis with urban metabolism and life cycle assessment to address the critical need for information on urban embodied energy at regional scales. Current estimates indicate that urban areas are responsible for 76% of the world’s final energy use, but current estimates do not generally account for the energy and material requirements of new urban infrastructure, making it difficult to understand the full impact of urbanization processes. This paper outlines an integrated framework for analyzing urban embodied energy and applies the framework to investigate the energy embodied in urban growth across China from 1990-2000. Methods: This study combines Landsat remote sensing data, provincial apparent consumption and new construction statistics, and energy use data for building materials production (cement and steel) to develop spatially explicit estimates of the energy embodied in new urban areas across China during this period of tremendous urban growth. Both material production and construction states were considered, and as Chinese industry has become increasingly energy efficient since 1990, particular attention was paid to using time-appropriate factors. Energy used for construction is tracked in national statistics; these were allocated to the provinces using new floorspace construction as a proxy. Results: The main results of the work are a series of urban maps that show the distribution of embodied energy in selected major Chinese cities. These results are specific to time period and location and show the effects of land cover dynamics, advances in energy efficiency, and variation in the material composition of buildings and infrastructure. For any given pixel undergoing urbanization, concrete construction might add anywhere between 1 and 246 gigajoules per km2. This method can be used to develop accurate estimates of urban embodied energy across challenging city, provincial, and national boundaries.
Virtual Phosphorus Ore Requirement Of Japanese Economy (Abstract #29)
Kazuyo Matsubae, Jun Kajiyama, Takehito Hiraki and Tetsuya Nagasaka
Phosphorus input is indispensable for agricultural production, hence the imported food consumption implies the import of the phosphorus resources indirectly. The global consumption of agricultural products depends on a small number of ore producing countries. For the sustainable management of phosphorus resources, the global phosphorus demand and supply network should be clarified. In this study, we propose a new indicator to consider the direct and indirect phosphorus requirement for our society as the virtual phosphorus ore flow. Virtual phosphorus ore flow indicates the direct and indirect demands of phosphorus ore which transforms to agricultural products and fertilizer. As the virtual water (Hoekstra and Chapagain, 2007) considers, our consumption of agricultural products indirectly requires the phosphorus as one of the nutrients. Similar to the virtual water concept, the places of direct and indirect phosphorus consumption are different. Virtual phosphorus ore flow (VPOF) intends to analyze the global network of phosphorus ore requirement derived by the agricultural products consumption. Here we apply this indicator to Japanese economy in 2005 and discuss the actual situation of the direct and indirect phosphorus ore requirement. The important findings are that our society effectively requires twice the amount of phosphorus ore as the domestic ore demand for fertilizer production. Phosphorus contained in “eaten” agricultural products is only 12% of virtual phosphorus ore consumption.
The Co2 Impact Of Yield: Case Studies Along Steel And Aluminium Supply Chains (Abstract #32)
Rachel Milford and Julian Allwood
The steel and aluminium sectors are collectively responsible for over 25% of industrial CO2 emissions. The key strategies for emissions reduction currently being discussed within these industries include: improving the efficiency of energy-intensive processes such as liquid metal production; increasing recycling; and pursuing decarbonisation of electricity and energy supplies. However, these strategies alone are insufficient to meet a 50-80% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050, whilst demand is predicted to more than double. Downstream fabrication processes are seldom included in industry emissions reduction strategies due to the low energy requirements of individual processes and the dispersed and product-specific nature of the process chain, which makes data collection difficult. However, fabrication processes result in yield losses, both intended, (e.g. skeletons from stamping operations) and unintended (e.g. product defects). The further down the supply chain fabrication losses occur, the greater the embodied energy and emissions in the material discarded and the greater the amount of liquid metal required upstream. Case studies for three steel and aluminium products are presented, which analyse the cumulative emissions impact of yield losses along the supply chain. Data collected during visits to companies is used to map the flow of material, the energy and the CO2 emissions for each process step, from liquid metal production to the final fabrication step. The conversion from liquid metal to fabricated products is shown to incur significant yield losses and therefore increase the energy and emissions associated with the case study products. Yield improvements along the supply chain are shown to have significant emissions-reduction potentials and may be less costly to implement than changes to upstream processes.
U.S. Agricultural Phosphorus Use-Efficiency And The Impact Of Potential Efficiency Improvement Techniques (Abstract #33)
Scott Yee and Sangwon Suh
Previous research modeling the material flow of phosphorus through the United State’s agricultural system has indicated that significant losses occur within the Crop cultivation phase of phosphorus’s life cycle. Approximately one quarter of the total amount of phosphorus involved in the United States agricultural system is lost during the crop cultivation stage. Phosphorus losses in this phase are likely caused by immobilization of phosphorus within the soil environment and flows of phosphorus out of cropland. Improvements in phosphorus management are important because excess phosphorus inputs into the environment can drive hypoxia and cause eutrophication in freshwater and marine aquatic ecosystems. Technological and management based practices have the potential to improve the efficiency of phosphorus and decrease the total losses associated with the agricultural system. Nutrient management practices, specifically pertaining to nitrogen fertilizer, have been proven to increase the efficiency and decrease the nutrient flow from cropland to the environment. The research being conducted in this study builds upon previous material flow analysis research of the domestic phosphorus use-efficiency of agriculture and will evaluate how efficiency improvement measures can improve domestic phosphorus use efficiency. One specific technological and behavioral improvement is the use of precision agriculture. The goal of precision agriculture is to coordinate fertilizer application with actual soil conditions. Some additional nutrient efficiency improvement techniques include phosphorus application synchrony, improved fertilizer recovery, and smart fertilizers. The intent of this research is to use MFA methodology to predict and quantify the potential pathways of fertilizer use efficiency improvements and discuss the potential public policies surrounding these options.
System Design And Feasibility Of Resource Recovery From Wastewater (Abstract #35)
Murray Hall and Tony Priestley
This study coupled an economic analysis with system design to explore the cost effectiveness of resource recovery from wastewater. Trends in resource availability and cost, especially for phosphorus, were considered with increasing wastewater treatment costs, which are required in many growing cities to maintain aquatic ecosystems. It was argued that a whole-of-system approach was required to find the most cost effective solution for pollution AND resource use. Variables that affect cost effectiveness were identified and an alternative design paradigm for resource recovery from wastewater was explored for the medium and long term. Two detailed Australian casestudies were developed to explore the practicalities of systems design as well as the marketability of recovered resources.
Important Factors In The Energy History Of Melbourne (Abstract #39)
Tim Baynes and Xuemei Bai
Urban metabolism studies are generally assessments of the material and energy fluxes concerning a city at a given point in time. While there are many studies on urban energy metabolism, the driving forces behind the increase of urban energy metabolism is not always clear. We present longitudinal time-series data and an index decomposition analysis (IDA) of the energy dimension of urban metabolism for the metropolitan area of Melbourne. Between 1974 and 2006 Melbourne’s demand for energy nearly doubled and the primary energy needed to supply electricity increased 182%. We suggest this is driven directly by increases in the size of the total population (42%) and indirectly by factors such as the total space occupied by developed areas (increasing by 48%). In addition to changes to extensive variables, per capita energy requirements have also increased (52%) and the intent of this research was to estimate what are the significant factors influencing these aggregate changes. Using both extensive (e.g. population, GDP, total area) and intensive variables (e.g. residential density, vehicle.km/person, appliances/household) we employed an IDA approach to assess the relative importance of historical trends of several factors on the time series of Melbourne's energy history (1974-2006). In aggregate terms, the energy use in the transport, residential and commercial sectors have contributed the most to the total change in primary energy consumption over the last 30 years. Over this time, the increase in the size of the commercial and services industry has resulted in a 3-fold increase in the primary energy consumption by that sector. These results have implications for the design of cities and transitions to more service-based economies.
Conceptual Frame For Classification Of Pollutants Into Emission Based Impact Categories: A Site Specific Approach For Civil Engineering Applications (Abstract #42)
Anne Ventura
The application of Life Cycle Assessment to civil engineering applications has a singularity compared to other manufactured products: these are established into a territory and decision makers are often interested by what will happen in the geographical zone they manage. However, the use of site specific LCA is a particularly paradoxical challenge: local parameters must be sufficiently detailed to be scientifically relevant in the majority of cases, but generic enough to avoid time consuming researches, as LCA are generally multi-sites studies. Furthermore, the classification step is systematically neglected in the calculation of LCIA indicators: for several direct contribution of one pollutant to several impact categories, the distribution between these impact categories is not accounted. From these observations, a new conceptual frame is proposed for non-redundant classification, called “zone classification” and based on the probability that an emitted substance and its chemically degraded forms are involved into several environmental impacts. It is based on a classification coefficient alpha and requires categorization of chemical pathways (reactive, suspensive, direct, indirect). The method is made of two steps: i) the first step requires defining an impacted zone around the source, inside which the emitted chemicals are expected to majorly diffuse or spread; ii) in the second step, the score of the chemical is set according to the occurrence of the chemical target inside the impacted zone. The approach is developed on a pollutant case study: NOx airborne emissions in Paris and choices of impacted zone and of chemical targets are discussed. The availability of data is also discussed as well as the possibility to include indirect impacts into the environmental system.
Consequential Lca And Scenarios (Abstract #50)
Jeroen Guinée and Reinout Heijungs
Consequential LCA (CLCA) has become a popular mode of LCA modeling. CLCA is a modeling approach aiming to describe the (future) consequences of a decision. In CLCAs unit processes are included in the product system to the extent that they are expected to change as a consequence of a change in demand for the product. This change is modeled as a comparison of the situation with and without a specific demand. CLCA is thus a scenario-based way to model a specific product-related future. Although CLCA is based on a thoroughly different philosophy that attributional LCA (ALCA), where the idea is to calculate the share of responsibility of a product system to the impacts that are caused by all product systems together, both ALCA and CLCA can deal with product systems in past, present or future. LCA, consequential or attributional, requires scenarios on the future. Future scenarios include forecasting and thus include large uncertainties, which increase the longer the term of the forecasting gets. Such uncertainties are inherent of modeling the future, no matter which approach is adopted for this. CLCA builds up its consequential scenarios from product bottom-up. Consequences all over the world in terms of displaced land, water, energy production etc. are all modeled from a single product’s perspective. Up scaling the results of bottom-up CLCAs independently is very likely to give inconsistent and impossible results. We therefore argue that such bottom-up scenarios may not be the best way to quantify direct and indirect effects for product systems related to main sustainability (transition) problems like energy, land use, water and material/resources use, etc. For these problems, it might be more appropriate to develop top-down scenarios. Research in this area needs to be developed further. Some preliminary examples of top-down scenario approaches for LCA will be provided during the presentation.
Life Cycle Assessment Of Photovoltaic Panels Produced In China (Abstract #52)
Zhouwei Diao and Lei Shi
This article conducted Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of PV modules produced by Chinese industry and processed from solar-grade silicon produced in China. Data is collected from two different technologies in direct module production in China as well as indirect production data of auxiliary materials in the German Ecoinvent database. This research also compared energy requirement between different solar-grade silicon production technologies and analyzed Energy Pay-back Time also Global Warming Potential of PV panels. The influence of different production processes and parameters are considered. The results show that, the processes of solar-grade silicon production, casting and wafering are the most energy intensive and influential processes to environment. Products made under the mainstream technology have far more energy requirement and environmental influence than the ones made under the best technology. For Chinese PV industry, it is important to develop technologies of silicon production and wafering to reduce the energy cost and environmental influences of PV products.
Touring A Facility In Your Pajamas: Industrial Ecology In Second Life (Abstract #53)
Eckelman Matthew and Lifset Reid
Second Life is a virtual, open-access, and user-generated environment that has served as a platform for hosting everything from rock concerts to scientific conferences. Many institutions have also used Second Life as an educational tool, primarily for public outreach. In this session we give a demonstration of a virtual pulp and paper facility that we created for use in industrial ecology classes at Yale. This virtual tour supplements visits to real industrial facilities, which is consistently cited as one of the most interesting and worthwhile experiences for our students. The main purpose of these visits is to familiarize students with the everyday operations of industrial facilities and to allow them to explore the environmental issues that companies must address to stay competitive, comply with regulation and pursue CSR goals. Virtual facilities offer a number of educational advantages over real-life ones: they are always open and available for tours, they can be accessed instantaneously from anywhere in the world where there is an adequate internet connection, they sidestep concerns of proprietary information and safety, and most importantly, tours and embedded information can be tailored to specific educational objectives. Our experience using the virtual facility over the past several years shows that students have significantly more time than usual to ask questions, can and do explore the facility independently, and are able to produce facility reports that fulfilled the educational objectives of the visits, including mapping material flows and explaining pollution prevention and sustainability opportunities. In addition to giving a short tour, we will discuss our process of building the facility and embedding information. There are many opportunities for extending the functionality of the facility, and we hope that the virtual pulp and paper mill will become a useful, inter-disciplinary educational tool for the industrial ecology community.
Lca In Building Design Process: Innovative Architecture And Engineering Case Studies (Abstract #54)
Kathrina Simonen
Faculty in the Department of Architecture at the University of XX have established an industry/ academic collaborative research effort to aid in the development of more advanced methods of linking the science of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to building industry best practices. Designers looking to include embodied environmental impacts in their design decision-making struggle to find relevant data and applicable methodology. While emerging building industry tools and databases are beginning to grow sufficiently robust and complete to be useful, practitioners still struggle to obtain meaningful information by which to assess design decisions and analyze completed projects. This research focused on identifying examples of the use of LCA and/or Carbon Accounting as a design tool by architects and engineers in order to analyze the challenges and opportunities this presents. Case studies will be presented that address both architects and structural engineers who have integrated embodied carbon as a metric used in design decision-making. Structural engineers with an interest in reducing the environmental impact of their built work have identified the reduction of embodied carbon as an appropriate focus of their efforts and face the unique, sometimes conflicting, challenge of optimizing strength and environmental impact. Architects are using LCA based analysis to shape design in both conceptual planning and design for maintenance/end of life. In order for the methods of LCA to be effectively used to reduce the environmental impact of the built environment, designers must have accurate data and accessible tools that are relevant in the context of a rapid design and construction process. Understanding how select architects and engineers are experimenting with innovative methods for tracking embodied carbon will help identify opportunities for integrating more comprehensive LCA methodology in building design and clarify future data and research needs.
Carbon Footprinting Of Products, Carbon Offset Projects And Life Cycle Assessment: The Same But Different? (Abstract #55)
Steven Young
For those familiar with LCA, greenhouse gas (GHG) quantification (i.e., “carbon footprinting”) of products (CFP) should be familiar – but differences are becoming apparent as standards and guidance are solidifying. Under International Standard ISO 14067-2 CFP complies with life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology in accordance with ISO 14040 and ISO 14044. The CFP standard also incorporates the relevant provisions of ISO 14025 with respect to product category rules (PCR) if used for purposes of communication. There is however, a parallel but different International Standard for “carbon footprinting”. ISO 14064-2 specifies project level quantification of greenhouse gas emission reductions and removal enhancements. This entangled set of standards, specifications and methodological guidance will be examined with examples with specific consideration of three fundamental methodological areas. 1) All these approaches are constructed around the idea of functional unit. This concept, of course, is central to the product-focus of LCA. The ISO 14064-2 guidance borrows conceptually (but not normatively) from LCA. Specifically, this approach for carbon offset projects specifies a functional unit basis to ensure “equivalence in type and level of activity of products or services.” 2) The approaches have different study objectives (i.e., comparative vs. non-comparative) that lead to different guidance. The ISO 14064-2 document is strictly limited to comparative analyses that compares a proponent’s “project” to achieve carbon emissions reductions to an “equivalent” business-as-usual “baseline” scenario. 3) Scope of system boundaries in LCA is considered using “cut-off criteria”; however, ISO 14064-2 notably uses a very different and innovative means that can expand system boundaries broadly for product comparisons. It is suggested that the LCA and CFP can be enhanced by the GHG offset projects methodology.
Potential Land And Water Impacts Related To Increased Biofuel Production In The Us (Abstract #56)
Jane Bare
There is no international consensus on how to conduct land and water use impact assessment for LCIA, yet decisions are currently being made which have the potential for impacts in these areas. The increased agricultural production for the manufacture of biofuels in the US is an issue which could have widespread impacts. This paper will provide a methodology for evaluating these impacts and provide examples of water depletion analysis along with various ecosystem services impacts.
Possible Ways For Japan To Contribute To The Yellow River Basin, China For Realizing Low-Carbon And Saving-Water Society (Abstract #58)
Osamu Higashi and Hiroaki Shirakawa
China today is placing a high priority on national policies promoting further economic development through megaprojects like the south-to-north water diversion, the west-to-east electricity transmission, and the west-to-east natural gas transportation. In this context, the Yellow River basin boasts a wealth of resources, and widely expected to develop as an energy supply base. Meanwhile, it is undeniable that water shortages in the Yellow River basin have the potential to impede economic growth in the future. A framework to stimulate energy production by using water rights transfers was launched on a trial basis in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The power generation sector invests in infrastructure for water-efficient irrigation and then obtains from the agricultural sector the surplus water thereby made available. If this water rights transfers system functions properly, it will facilitate development in the Yellow River basin even in the face of water supply constraints. In that context, this paper outlines developments in the Yellow River basin in the context of water rights transfers and related issues, and then discusses possible ways for Japan to contribute to stable societal conditions in the river basin region. More specifically, this paper describes the role of the Yellow River basin in China's national development strategy and discusses the significance of water rights transfers in the basin. Next it takes a close look at the basin’s stages of development in terms of Japanese and other overseas capital flows into China. Finally, this paper describes the correlation between increased energy production in the Yellow River basin facilitated by water rights transfers and China’s overall development on one hand, and the expansion of environmental impacts, and regional disparities on the other, discusses risk management approaches to address future droughts, and considers possible ways for Japan to contribute to the Yellow River basin.
What Do We Do With Our Carbon? An Exploration Into The Carbon Footprint Of Uk Households. (Abstract #63)
Angela Druckman and Tim Jackson
If the UK is to achieve a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of at least 80% by 2050 on 1990 levels in line with the nation’s Climate Change Act, it is imperative that policy-makers understand the drivers of UK emissions. In this paper we explore emissions that arise as a result of UK household expenditure, which is responsible for over three quarters of UK emissions when measured from the consumption perspective. Accordingly, the aim of this paper is to look at the composition of the carbon footprint of an average UK household. This provides a basis for untangling the complex interplay between the material, economic, psychological, sociological and cultural forces that drive the emissions attributable to UK household consumption. The figures provided here will provide a foundation for academics, policy-makers and anyone interested in reducing household carbon emissions. Our paper is based on results estimated using the Surrey Environmental Lifestyle MApping (SELMA) framework, which includes a quasi-multi-regional input-output sub-model. These results are used to explore in detail the carbon footprint of an average UK household, focusing on the activities that drive emissions. Our results show, for example, that around 10% of the carbon footprint is due to holidays, with total recreation and leisure activities (including holidays) accounting for over a quarter (27%) of all household emissions. Other notable results are that food and catering accounts for nearly a quarter (24%) of emissions, and that the GHG emissions due to a meal eaten out are around 71-83% higher than for a meal eaten in the home. We also explore issues such as the proportion of the carbon footprint that is embedded in paraphernalia purchased in the pursuit of hobbies, and the relative amounts of emissions due to care of clothing compared to emissions embedded in garments.
Implementing Individual Producer Responsibility For Waste Electrical And Electronic Equipment In The Eu Through Improved Cost Allocation (Abstract #65)
Kieren Mayers, Karl Bodenhoefer and Luk van Wassenhowe
Under the terms of the EU Waste Electrical and Electronics Equipment (WEEE) Directive producers have been responsible for organising and financing the collection, treatment, and recycling of their products at end-of-life since August 2005. Research on the implementation of this legislation in EU Member States concludes that the overall environmental impacts of WEEE have been reduced by improved treatment and increased recycling. The intention of such ‘Extended Producer Responsibility’ legislation is to provide direct economic incentives for producers to develop products that are easier to treat and recycle. Recent research has shown, however, that the implementation of EPR for WEEE has so far failed in this respect. This paper outlines a two new methods for allocating costs for WEEE treatment and recycling to producers. Results show that these methods provide both effective and efficient frameworks for financing WEEE, delivering financial incentives to producers substantial enough to affect their profitability and, as a consequence, the decisions relating to the design of their products. In particular they fulfil three important criteria: they reward improved design, allocate costs of historic waste equitably, and provide sufficient financial guarantees against future waste costs and liabilities. They are also relatively practical for implementation since they are based solely on cost allocation. Further research and investigation would be worthwhile to test this approach using real world data and using different scenarios.
Material Efficiency For Steel And Aluminium (Abstract #67)
Julian Allwood
Industrial energy use is dominated by production of steel, cement, plastic, paper and aluminium in liquid form (molten metal, liquid cement etc.) There are few remaining options for energy efficiency in these industries, because they have long been motivated by cost, so sector groups claim that Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is the key abatement solution. However, CCS is unproven at scale and we don’t know the true costs. An alternative is to pursue “Material Efficiency” – meeting needs for material services with less production of liquid materials. A £1.5m research programme in Cambridge is exploring technical and business opportunities for material efficiency for steel and aluminium: • Re-using metal without melting. Steel I-beams are undamaged in use, so could be re-used if buildings were deconstructed not demolished. • Diverting scrap to other use before melting. Large scrap can be trimmed to stock. • Designing lighter weight products. We can remove around one third of the metal in current use without loss of function. • Improving yield ratios from stock to part. Typically more than twice the weight of a sheet metal product must be cast as liquid metal, due to trim losses in manufacturing. • Using products for longer. Fridges in the UK are currently discarded after 10-12 years, but could be designed to last much longer. • Using products more intensely. Over 98% of car seats licensed for use in the UK are not in use at any time. • Improving yield ratios from liquid to part. Metals producers refer to strip, or plates as ‘products’ but no final consumer wants strip or plate. • Improving heat management along the supply chain. Virgin aluminium is currently cast pure, and then re-melted for alloying. This presentation will summarise results from the first two years of this project.
Economic Analysis In Life Cycle Assessment (Abstract #68)
Richard Wood
Over the last decade Life Cycle Assessment has sought to extend beyond pure environmental analysis to include a description of impacts also in the social and economic spheres of sustainability. In the economic dimension, focus has been on life cycle costing (LCC) techniques, or related cost benefit analysis (CBA). These techniques capture the micro-economic impacts related to financial decision making, but tend to ignore economy wide effects or at best propose external costs as a measure of wider economic impact. However, data availability as well as uncertainty and variability are hindrances to the practical implementation of external costing. Furthermore, external costs generally relate directly to environmental releases or social impacts, such that the counting of external costs in a sustainability assessment risks double counting the same impact. In contrast, it is generally desired to capture the economic impacts of a technology on an economy-wide scale. We would like to know a technologies’ contribution to GDP, national competitiveness, labour productivity, resource productivity, resource scarcity and similar measures. We would like to know not only the direct effects of the technology, but also the indirect effects of the technology. Such questions go beyond LCC and CBA, and require the representation of interrelationships between the technology and the broader economic system. Here we build on hybrid LCA, integrating a technology within an input-output model, in order to capture indirect economic effects. Emphasis is placed on new technologies and the consequences of introducing a new technology to market scale. A framework is presented of the integrated system, outlining basic data requirements and calculation of indicators as listed above. In the application of the framework, price elasticities and expected trajectories of economic growth are given such that secondary effects of the technologies’ introduction can be included. An illustrative example on wind power is given.
Model Based Study On The Sustainability Of An Integrated System (Abstract #69)
Prakash Kotecha, Urmila Diwekar and Heriberto Cabezas
The importance and complexity of sustainability has been well recognized and a formal study of sustainability based on system theory approaches is imperative as many of the relationships between various components of the system could be nonlinear, intertwined and non intuitive. A mathematical model capable of yielding qualitative inferences can serve as an important tool for policy makers to: (1) explore various simulated important scenarios, and (2) evaluate different strategies and technologies. In this work, we consider a simplified ecological food web with an integrated macro-economic system, industrial production sector, an energy generation sector, and elements of a human society along with a rudimentary legal system. The energy sector is designed to supply energy to the other components of the system either by using a finite, non renewable energy source or by a combination of a non renewable source and biomass. Many of the components of the system depend directly or indirectly on the biomass used for energy production. Subsequently, this model is used to study the impact of using biomass for the production of energy on the sustainability of other components of the system. We have also simulated the model under two commonly foreseen scenarios of population explosion and per capita consumption increase to understand the effect of using biomass for the production of energy on the sustainability of the various components of the system.
On The Design Of Sustainable Energy Systems (Abstract #70)
André Pina, Carlos Silva and Paulo Ferrão
The energy context is characterized by high fuel costs and the need to increase security of supply and reduce greenhouse gases emissions. This has been the driving force for governments to invest in renewable energies and design policies for reducing energy demands. In what concerns electricity, such policies can have undesirable impacts on the electricity supply sector if a detailed and holistic approach is not used to design them. Islands are perfect case studies as they simulate the limits that a different scale earth suffers from at a more pragmatic view, with the conditions to invest on these regions being generally more favorable due to the higher costs they incur on importing energy sources. With the purpose of developing sustainable pathways for energy systems, the Green Islands Project has been developed in the Azores islands as a collaboration between the local Government and the MIT-Portugal Program. This work analyzes possible evolutions of the energy system of São Miguel under the introduction of different energy policies. A scenario based approach is used to study different energy demand reductions policies and different goals for the penetration of renewable energies in the electricity and transportation sectors. The modeling is performed in TIMES for the long-term evolution and in MATLAB to analyze the hourly dynamics of electricity supply and demand. This multi-level approach enables different technical, social and economic constraints to be considered. The results showed that a detailed analysis is necessary to optimize the investment in the electricity supply system while taking into account the impacts of different energy policies. This holistic analysis can therefore help identify the real benefits and drawbacks of introducing specific policies and help design an integrated energy plan for the evolution of the energy system of a specific region.
Cross-National Comparison Of Lifespan Distribution Of Durable Goods (Abstract #76)
Masahiro Oguchi and Masaaki Fuse
Product lifespan distribution is essential information for stock and flow accounting of materials related to durable goods. Some information on lifespan distribution has been reported for several types of durable goods; however, there is still a lack of information because the estimation requires detailed data such as the number of in-use products by product age. This study compared lifespan distribution of durable goods between various countries and based on the result we tried to propose a simplified estimation method of lifespan distribution that requires less detailed data. First, we estimated lifespan distribution of motor vehicles in various countries (more than 15 countries) based on the number of registration and in-use vehicles by vehicle age from NVPP by R.L. Polk & Co. and other sources. Survival rates were approximated by Weibull distribution function with two parameters: average and shape parameter. We also gathered estimation results of lifespan distribution of electrical and electronic equipment in various countries from literature. Then we analyzed the estimated values of parameters of lifespan distribution. If shape parameter of lifespan distribution can be set to a constant value regardless of countries, it is possible to estimate lifespan distribution only from the number of registration (or sales) and total in-use products, that is, it needs no information of in-use products by product age (Oguchi et al. 2010). Therefore, we explored a constant value of shape parameter that can be applied to all the countries by conducting sensitivity analysis of shape parameter on the shape of lifespan distribution. Also we compared average lifespan and discussed the differences between countries.
Fate Of Metals And Brominated Flame Retardants Contained In Weee: Behaviors And Substance Flows In A Municipal Waste Treatment Process (Abstract #77)
Masahiro Oguchi, Hirofumi Sakanakura, Atsushi Terazono and Hidetaka Takigami
We investigated flows of various substances contained in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in municipal waste treatment processes. We carried out a shredding and separation experiment of WEEE using a shredding and separation plant of municipal bulky waste in Hitachi city, Japan. We also investigated a thermal treatment plant of municipal waste including incineration and ash vitrification processes. Output fractions of the processes were sampled and the content of 55 metal kinds was analyzed. Content of organic compounds such as brominated flame retardants was also analyzed for the output fractions of shredding and separation experiment. Metal concentration of clean off-gas and working environment air during the shredding and separation experiment was also measured. Based on the results of the investigations, we estimated substance flows of 55 metal kinds and organic compounds contained in WEEE in the municipal waste treatment processes. In the shredding and separation process, approximately 75% of aluminum and 50% of copper contained in WEEE was distributed to the fraction of large-size grain (over 30mm) after magnetic separation, which is to be incinerated in normal waste treatment in Hitachi city. Through the incineration and ash vitrification processes, a large part of copper was distributed to molten-metal and the molten-metal from the city is sent to a copper smelter; therefore, some part of copper contained in WEEE generated in Hitachi city must be recovered. However, the rest of the copper was distributed to the fraction of magnetically-separated materials or small-size grain (under 30mm) and never recovered. Also, most of aluminum is eventually to be distributed to molten-slag, which is to be landfilled. Over 80% of most of other kinds of metals were distributed to the fraction of small-size grain (under 30mm) after magnetic separation; therefore, most of the metals are to be directly landfilled in current waste treatment.
Methods Addressing Water Use In Lca: Review And Recommendations (Abstract #78)
Anna Kounina, Manuele Margni, Annette Koehler, Emmanuelle Aoustin and Sebastien Humbert
Stress on global water resources is recognized as an important issue. Although the impacts related to water use on human life, and on biotic and abiotic environments can be considerable, such impacts have only recently been assessed in LCA. The present project aims at reviewing and performing a systematic qualitative analysis of existing methods linked to assessment of water use. This project is part of the work undertaken by the « Water Use in LCA » working group of the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative. The methods are assessed according to a set of pre-defined criteria (completeness of scope; environmental relevance; scientific robustness and certainty; documentation, transparency and reproducibility; applicability and potential stakeholder acceptance) and a procedure as proposed by the ILCD Handbook.This work looks at similarities and differences between methods, identifies key elements and provides indications for deriving operational characterization methods and factors to assess water use in LCA. Interim recommendations on water use modeling, inventory database development and impact assessment methods are formulated to support practitioners in their short term application. The methods evaluation as well as the outcoming recommendations will be presented as the results of this work. The methods assessed are: Inventory databases: ecoinvent; GaBi; Quantis (in development), WFN database (in development) Inventory methods: WBCSD 2007 (Global Water Tool); Chapagain and Hoekstra 2009; Vince 2007; Boulay 2010; Bayart 2008; Milà I Canals 2009; Peters 2010; Quantis 2010 (in development). Midpoint impact assessment: WFN 2009; Ridoutt and Pfister 2010; Frischknecht 2006; Pfister 2009; Milà I Canals 2009; Boulay 2010;Veolia 2010, Bayart 2008. Damage impact assessment: Pfister 2009; Motoshita 2010; Boulay 2010; Maendly and Humbert 2010; Verones 2010; van Zelm 2010; Bösch 2007 (CExD).
Race Among Production,Consumption And Emission:A Decoupling Analysis Of Gdp,Energy Consumption And Co2 Emission In China During 1980-2008 (Abstract #79)
Liu Zhu, Geng Yong, Xue Bing and Yang Yu
With a large number of concerns attracted to global climate change, China has become the top CO2 emitter driven by its rapid economic growth. In order to trace the process and describe the future trend, an indicator system was established for describing the relationship among economy,energy consumption and CO2 Emission based on decoupling theory. By adopting statistic data during 1980-2008, the absolute or relative relationships among variables were characterized by the weak, strong and recessive/expansive decoupling. Results revealed that: (1) the improvement of energy-efficiency and the reduction of CO2 emission intensity were resulted from sky-rocketing economic growth; (2) energy consumption and CO2 emission were strongly correlated in 1980-2008, and the total energy consumption and carbon-based energy consumption were closely related to CO2 emission; (3) empirical study showed a approximate “N”-shaped relationship between economy and CO2 emission in time series, mainly due to a phase of absolute decoupling between economic growth and CO2 emission during 1996-2000. Research results illustrated that: (1) the great improvement of China’s efficiencies of energy consumption and CO2 emission in 1990-2008 was mainly caused by scale effect of economic growth; (2) With difficulties existed in the adjustment of energy structure, a great challenge would be faced by China’s strategy of energy saving and emission reduction from the energy structure of carbon-based energy for a long time to come; (3) economic crisis made a dramatic effect on the reduction of CO2 emission. The research results indicated that how to balance economic growth and environment influence would become the most critical issue facing China’s sustainable development.
Eco-Industrial Park Initiative In South Korea : Systems And Outcomes (Abstract #80)
Song Hwa Chae, Jang Hun Lee, Bong Jun Min and Kyung Sik Lee
In Korea, the industrial complexes have played a leading role in rapid national economic growth. There are more than 800 industrial complexes in Korea, and over 64 thousand of companies are existing inside the complexes. However, because of too much focusing on the economic efficiency, companies were not able to handle with the environmental or social needs. Therefore, Korean government decided to retrofit the existing industrial complexes to eco-industrial parks(EIPs) for greening of industry. The government-run EIP construction was launched in 2005 with a designation of five exisiting industrial complexes. The vision of the first phase EIP was the establishment of sustainable industrial eco-system by constructing by-product exchange(BPX) networks. To achieve this vision, the governmental funding to feasibility studies and organizing the regional EIP centers in order to accelerate the BPX network construction have been carried out. The BPX creation system explains the major activities of regional EIP centers. First, the potential BPX networks are identified by the expert forum, coordinator system, material and energy DB, and regulation relaxation. Then the feasibility study and commercialization of BPX are supported with risk-taking, networking, and consulting activities by regional centers. During the last five years, 116 feasibility studies of possible BPX networks have been funded and 39 projects are going on the commercialization. 146 million dollars of economic benefit, 389 thousand of by-product reduction, and 708 thousand tons of CO2 emission reduction have been achieved annually. Since June 2010, Korean EIPs have expanded up to 38 industrial complexes including 8 hub complexes and 30 spoke complexes. In this paper, the systems and its outcomes of eco-industrial park initiative in South Korea will be discussed.
Upiom: A New Hybrid Tool Of Mfa And Its Application To Primary And Secondary Metals Associated With Construction And Car Manufacturing (Abstract #84)
Shinichiro Nakamura, Yasushi Kondo, Kazuyo Matsubae, Kenichi Nakajima and Tetsuya Nagasaka
The main concern of MFA/SFA studies consists in identifying the actual flow of materials/substances in an economy. On the other hand, LCA is usually concerned with the identification of environmental impacts associated with a well defined functional unit, say, the provision of a given amount of a product system. Identification of the flow of materials/substances that is associated with the product system would provide useful information to LCA, and would contribute to a possible integration of LCA and MFA/SFA, the two major tools of industrial ecology. This paper proposes a new methodology based on hybrid input-output analysis for identifying the physical input-output flow of individual materials that is associated with the production of a unit of given product, the unit physical input-output by materials (UPIOM). UPIOM differs from conventional MFA by its focus on detailed inter-industry (sector/process) flows for individual materials that are eventually embedded in a product (the conventional MFA usually does not consider inter-industry flows (Weisz et al., 2006, Ecolog. Econ.)). It differs from PIOT (physical IO table) because of its focus on individual materials (PIOT is concerned with the mass of aggregated materials), and also because of that it refers to the inter-industry flow that is associated with a given product system (PIOT refers to the flow associated with a given GDP). Furthermore, UPIOM in its triangulated form can provide a new way of visualizing MFA, in a manner which complements the widely used Sankey diagram. The proposed methodologies are applied to the flow of metals (Fe, Cu, Al, Zn, and alloying metals) originating from both primary and secondary sources that is associated with the production of a passenger car and a construction object in Japan. We will show different patterns of flows among metals and products, and discuss their implications for effective recycling possibilities.
Energy-Related Co2 Emissions In China By 2050 (Abstract #88)
Bo Xu, Qie Sun, Ronald Wennersten and Nils Brandt
With China’s booming economy, energy demand and relating CO2 emissions have been rapidly growing since the 1980s. Coal has dominated China’s energy structure and this situation will continue to last in the coming decades. The future trends of China’s energy demand and CO2 emissions have obtained considerable attention from both researchers and policy-makers. This paper aims to forecast China’s energy-related CO2 emissions by 2050, and to investigate the turning point in the future CO2 emission trend using scenario analysis. The Long range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model will be used to develop the scenarios for China’s energy demand and energy-related CO2 emissions in 1980-2050. Namely, these scenarios include: (1) a business as usual (BAU) scenario and (2) a set of if-what scenarios. In the BAU scenario, the effects by existing mitigation policy instruments will be considered, while other parameters, e.g. industry structure, energy efficiency, carbon capture and storage technology will remain unchanged. In the if-what scenarios, the paper will develop individual scenarios to simulate the effects of each parameter, and then construct a comprehensive scenario, where the changes in all parameters will be jointly taken into consideration. By comparing the if-what scenarios with the BAU scenario, the paper will analyse the potential of China’s mitigation as well as the effects of various parameters. In addition, the trend of China’s future energy-related CO2 emissions and CO2 intensity (CO2/GDP) will be studied in order to investigate the existence of the turning point of China’s overall CO2 emissions. Finally, the results and limitations of the study will be summarized to conclude the paper.
Efficiency, Sufficiency And Growth (Abstract #92)
Julia K. Steinberger
This presentation combines the insights gained from recent (and possibly less recent) empirical research into the connections between environment, economy and human well-being. Rather than directly addressing the problem of unsustainable total levels of resource consumption and emissions, most governments and policy-makers prefer to express environmental goals in terms of efficiency: more efficient products and buildings, more efficient economic processes, measured by GDP output per resource input. Efficiency, as a ratio, appears to be a more innocuous goal than absolute consumption, since its advocacy is compatible with the enshrined imperative of high economic growth. However, many researchers, past and present, have demonstrated that not only are efficiency and growth not contradictory: they are inextricably linked. On the other hand, despite international inequalities, high living standards, measured by physical indicators of health and well-being, are attainable at lower and lower levels of resource use. Therefore, from a sufficiency perspective, humans are becoming more and more efficient, while from an economic growth perspective, they are less and less sustainable. This presentation brings together physical, social and economic insights into the idea of an environmentally-efficient society: which types of efficiency should be pursued as policy goals, and which deserve to be curbed or questioned?
Evaluating The Development And Demographics Of Electrical Grids In Third World Countries Through Agent Based Models (Abstract #93)
Jose Alfaro and Shelie Miller
Electrification in third world countries is a step that can highly affect other development factors of a country and improve the living standard of its people. However, normal pathways of electrification reach the urban centers and tend to forget the rural poor. Although this approach reaches a high percentage of the population its demographics raise social justice questions. Further, the infrastructure required can have dramatic environmental impacts and the fuel mixture used to power it will bring it’s own environmental concerns. Different approaches can be explored that would minimize environmental impacts while maximizing the percentage of the population served during the electrification process and serving a more balanced demography. Finding these approaches raises the need to successfully model the possible development of the grid and to create what if scenarios of policy and strategies to compare the environmental impacts and the demographics associated with the development. Having a tool that can perform this would allow early recognition of desired policy, fuel mixes and grid configurations. Further, least developed countries whose infrastructure is small can strategically plan for a better development with such a tool. This paper lays out an agent-based model (ABM) used to simulate the development of an electrical grid in a third world country. The paper then studies simulations of the electrification of a small country using different parameters. The results of the simulations provide an ABM approach to evaluating demography, environmental impacts and policy opportunities of the grid. This approach, coupled with interested governments, can be used to efficiently evaluate different pathways to electrification and their repercussion. It would also allow leaders to investigate their decision implications on a complex system in terms of environmental impacts, social justice and effective economic development.
Scenario Analysis On Future Structural Change Of China’S Paper Industry: Policy Implications For Resource Conservation And Water Pollution Reduction (Abstract #95)
Chao Zhang, Jining Chen and Zongguo Wen
China’s paper industry is experiencing tremendous structural change under the background of rapid transformation of China’s traditional industry sectors to modernized and sustainable ones. The paper industry has long been the biggest contributor to industrial water pollution discharge and accounted for relatively large proportion of virgin fiber resource and fresh water consumptions. China’s paper industry is also very complex in terms of many alternative raw materials (e.g. agro-residuals, timbers and recycled waste paper), complicated processes mix and highly heterogonous technological levels. In order to explore the environmental impacts of possible future structural change trajectories, a bottom-up technology-based model, simulating the detailed process and technological structure of pulp and paper making sector and corresponding resource consumption and water pollution discharge, is established. Several series of future scenarios concerning four aspects of intra-sector structural change are developed, i.e. raw material structure, plant scale and process structure, diffusion of process integrated clean technologies and level of end-of-pipe treatment. The scenario analysis is carried out by a two-stage approach: assessing the effects of every single scenario (while other conditions remain unchanged) and different scenario combinations separately. Through the analysis of 9 single scenarios and 16 scenario combinations many useful conclusions concerning raw material demand, fresh water consumption and total water pollution (including wastewater, COD, NH4-N and AOX) discharge up to 2020 are derived. Generally speaking, considering the increasing product demands and scarcity of virgin fiber materials, future structural adjustment policies should make more stress on using recycled paper and increasing paper recycling rate. Scale structure adjustment, i.e. eliminating small-sized mills with high pollution loads, and encouraging certain key process integrated clean technologies both play important roles in water pollution reduction, especially for NH4-N and AOX. Proper scenario combinations can achieve 20~39% reduction of different pollutants compared with the base year level of 2008.
Steps Towards A Global Hybrid Database (Abstract #98)
Bo Weidema
The advantages of hybrid databases, combining the detail of process-based data with the completeness of the supply-use framework, have long been recognised. The ecoinvent database supports integrated or em-bedded hybrid analysis, in which the more detailed activity datasets are embedded into the supply-use activity datasets, leaving only the residual of each supply-use activity after subtraction of the embedded process level data. In this hybrid approach, the detailed activity datasets and the residual IO datasets are fully integrated, exchanging data both ways, and the resulting database is as representative of the entire economy as the original supply-use table, just at a higher level of detail. The ecoinvent database provides an “IO repository”, i.e. a repository for supply-use tables, where each activity of the supply-use table is stored as an activity dataset in the ecoSpold format, i.e. the same data format as used for process-based data. The repository includes datasets for imported and exported products and final consumption activities, thus allowing a full balancing of the supply-use matrix per product. A number of format requirements of the ecoinvent IO repository are explained, with reference to their advantages for the application of the supply-use tables in hybrid analysis. The requirements include the use of the harmonised ISIC and CPC classifications (while maintaining the original local classifications as well), the parallel use of monetary and physical units in the activity datasets, the addition of statistical data on physical re-source inputs and factor-based data on emissions, and the integration of a number of satellite tables (valuation, waste, final use, capital formation and use) directly in the core supply-use table.
Is There A Potential For Using Natural Resources Much More Efficiently? (Abstract #100)
Laura Talens, Gara Villalba and Robert Ayres
Past experience says that economic growth cannot continue indefinitely at a relatively constant rate, without a comparable increase in natural resource consumption. Is there a potential for using natural resources much more efficiently (i.e. is there a way of getting more services from existing natural resources)? Unfortunately, the term “efficiency” has several different meanings in the technical literature and the technical literature is not very accessible to non-technical readers. In fact, there is widespread misunderstanding of the fundamentals of thermodynamics, which leads to a great deal of confusion among business and political leaders, as well as ordinary citizens. We explain the difference between first law efficiency and second law efficiency, based on the laws of thermodynamics. The second law efficiency is a measure of how far/close a certain technology is to what is thermodynamically and theoretically possible, and thus represents a true evaluation of how much that technology can be improved. We calculate first and second law efficiency for all major chemicals in the chemical industry to measure the overall efficiency of the sector, which up to now has been estimated to be around 80%.
Technology Forecasting Of Rare Earth And Scarce Metal Use (Abstract #101)
Robert Ayres, Gara Villalba and Laura Talens
While information processors keep getting smaller and faster, the need for certain groups of metals, notably conductors (gold, silver and copper) and semi-conductors (especially gallium and rare earths like neodymium), photo-detectors and photo-emitters keeps growing along with demand for computers, cell-phones, lasers, LEDs and so forth. Moreover, virtually all of these metals are geologically scarce, or very scarce, with the further problem that (except for copper)they are not found in conveniently recoverable concentrations. Some of them are also toxic. Some of these metals have other potentially important uses, such as batteries (e.g., for hybrid and electric cars), permanent magnets (for maglev trains and motors etc), and as jewellery. In this task, trends in IT will be forecast focussing on major subcategories (e.g. telecommunications, data processing, TV, etc.) from the standpoint of scarce metal requirements. Material flow analysis is used to study the metabolism of these scarce metals in our economy. Resulting economic effects will be described and implications for metal use and product end-of-life will be discussed.
Consistent Treatment Of Wastes And By-Products In Lca (Abstract #102)
Bo Weidema
The clear definition of determining products (reference products) as opposed to dependent outputs (by-products and wastes), as proposed by Weidema (2003), allows an unambiguous identification of materials that require treatment, which makes the distinction between wastes and by-products irrelevant. This paves the way for a consistent treatment of wastes and by-products in LCA, independent of the specific definition of waste applied by different decision makers. Materials for treatment can be modelled as negative inputs instead of positive outputs, thereby maintaining the mass balance of the producing activity, while following the physical and economic causality. Recycling activities can then be unambiguously identified as those treatment activities that result in by-products that do not require further treatment. The end of the recycling activity can be defined as the point of substitution, where the material can – without further treatment - sub-stitute a determining product as an input to an activity. For system models that apply allocation among co-products, the point of substitution provides an unambiguous point of allocation, ensuring all treatment activities being attributed to the activities that produce the materials that need treatment, disregarding whether these are defined as wastes or by-products. The allocation result remains unaffected by choices of the degree of detail (which means that the result cannot be manipulated by moving treatment in or out of the supplying activity) and the full value of the by-products is attributed to the system that gives rise to these by-products (making any value-correction unnecessary). Allocation at the point of substitution has the additional advantage for economic allocation that the prices of the by-products are always available (as opposed to allocation before or during treatment, where the price of a waste or by-product often can only be estimated, and if available often being influenced by irrelevant properties of other wastes or regulatory conditions).
Energy Exchange Between Companies Of An Industrial Park: Case Study (Abstract #104)
Chantal Block, Isabel Vermeulen and Carlo Vandecasteele
Recently, the EU set for the member countries new guidelines (20/20/20 objectives), aiming at improving energy efficiency by 20 %, introducing 20 % of renewable energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission by 20 % by 2020. As a consequence EU governments introduced measures and incentives to decrease the fossil fuel consumption and to promote energy saving methods and technologies. Decrease of fossil fuel combustion by energy exchange between companies is thus nowadays a main issue of the energy policy of companies and industrial parks. Waste-to energy technologies can play herein an important role. Herdersbrug industrial park (Brugge, Belgium), consists of 92 small and medium size companies, a waste-to-energy incineration plant and a biomass fermentation plant. The 92 companies of the park consume yearly ca. 34 000 MWh electricity and 144 000 MWh due to fossil fuel consumption. An important part of this energy is at the moment generated by waste treatment on the park and will further increase in the next future (the biomass fermentation plant will be operational in 2011). The boiler of the waste incinerator generates high pressure steam, used to drive a 12 MW turbine to produce electricity. After the turbine, low pressure steam is passed through two heat exchangers in order to give water of 120°C and 8 bar which is distributed via a heat network to different companies. The biogas produced by the biogas fermentor will be combusted in a CHP to generate electricity and residual heat (also distributed via the heat network). In 2011 waste treatment on Herdersbrug industrial park will generate all the electricity and ca 40 % of the heat required by the 92 companies. Ca. 60 % of the generated energy will be renewable energy.
Heating And Cooling Exergy Balance Of An Urban Building Stock (Abstract #111)
David N Bristow and Christopher A Kennedy
As cities aim to reduce their energy demands and related emissions, efficiency is often used as a goal or strategy. Equally often the measure of efficiency used is based on the first-law of thermodynamics. The emerging literature on thermodynamic analysis of urban infrastructure systems, however, indicates that accounting for the second law of thermodynamics, or exergy in assessing the energy flows of cities can help locate large inefficiencies otherwise masked by a first-law only analysis. This work presents a spatially explicit, hour-by-hour analysis of the operational exergy flows and greenhouse gas emissions of central Toronto, Canada. This core consists of 20% of the building stock of Toronto and includes a diverse range of urban forms spanning from the central business district to contemporary suburban neighborhoods. The analysis simulates the movement of occupants and changing efficiency of the electricity grid during two days of the year 2008, coinciding with the coldest and hottest temperatures recorded during the year in order to locate the times of maximum exergy requirements. The analysis indicates that exergy demands are much lower than energy demands due primarily to the choice of space conditioning systems. The average energy and exergy required are 62% and 5.5% of the heating demands respectively and 46% and 15% of the cooling demands. Additionally, the largest buildings require roughly 61% and 58% of the energy and exergy used by smaller buildings on a per capita basis for heating, and 72% and 74% for cooling. Moreover, a tradeoff made in the design of buildings is identified as density increases. The larger buildings use a smaller portion of the supplied exergy, 5.3% versus 6.6% in heating, and a larger portion in cooling, 21% versus 19%, due largely to the increasing glazing fraction of larger buildings which reduce thermal resistance to heat flow.
The Work Done By Cities: A Definition Of The Thermodynamically Sustainable City (Abstract #112)
David N Bristow and Christopher A Kennedy
Cities are facing mounting challenges from increasing global competition; the peaking of non-renewable resource consumption; and mounting environmental concerns. If urban populations continue to rise as projected over the coming decades, and urban economic activity and resource consumption continue as usual, many cities might find themselves unable to compete for resources. In this presentation we explore an open thermodynamic paradigm of cities to address these issues. In this paradigm, cities are viewed as far from equilibrium open thermodynamic systems. Such systems require large imports of high quality energy, or exergy in order to sustain their structures and operations as they continually destroy the imports sustaining themselves. Can we develop strategies for cities such that they complete this process in a sustainable fashion that maintains the vital socioeconomic processes of cities? The objective of this presentation is an examination of this question by considering, from a thermodynamic perspective, what it is that cities do with their exergy, or rather, what work they do in thermodynamic terms. To accomplish this we build on a general thermodynamic framework of open systems. Using the framework we show that measures of work as exports (Odum) or that which grows the system, via an interface or gradient expansion (Garrett), are theoretically identical and in agreement with thermodynamic theory, but overlook the possibility of a city with a static internal exergy stock. We further define an expression for how a city can become thermodynamically sustainable by balancing work done by the city against inefficiencies and local solar and geothermal exergy sources.
Transition Of The Global Aluminum Cycle Induced By The Introduction Of Next Generation Vehicles (Abstract #115)
Hiroki Hatayama, Ichiro Daigo, Yasunari Matsuno and Yoshihiro Adachi
Several governments announced policies in regard to next generation vehicles such as hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles, and many researchers have been evaluating the energy consumption and CO2 emissions for these vehicles based on a product life cycle assessment or long-term global analysis. However, there has been little discussion about the change in material cycle, although some types of next generation vehicles have considerably different material composition. This study presents the global aluminum cycle up to 2050, a period in which the introduction of hybrid electric and electric vehicles is considered by reference to BLUE Map scenario proposed by International Energy Agency. The material cycle in Japan, the United States, Europe and China was presented with material flow analysis (MFA). The MFA was conducted considering two alloy types, which provided information on the quality of material flow as the concentration of alloying elements. Then, considering the mass-quality balance between aluminum demand and discard, aluminum recycling throughout four regions was simulated by multimaterial pinch analysis. The scenario analysis shows that the introduction of electric vehicles leads to a decrease in demand of cast alloys, which increases the unrecyclable scrap in 2030. At the same time, another scenario indicates that alloy separation from end-of-life vehicles will contribute to reduction in the primary aluminum requirement by 15%.
Life Cycle Analysis Of Brazilian Sugar Cane And Cellulosic Ethanol Production And Its Use In Passenger Light Vehicle Fleets In Brazil And Japan (Abstract #117)
Joana Portugal, Kiyo Kurisu, Jun Nakatani and Keisuke Hanaki
Under the Japanese National Energy strategy (2007), ethanol plays a significant role to curb climate change and to improve energy security of supply. However, the prospects of crop-based fuel production are constrained by Japan's limited agricultural production. Brazil, the world largest ethanol exporter, might be a major source for importation. This study intended to assess environmental impacts of introducing sugar cane and cellulosic ethanol blends in Japanese and Brazilian national light passenger vehicle fleets and to forecast penetration of advanced technologies (Flexible Fuel Vehicles-FFV) and its potential benefits up to 2030. Based on Impact 2002+ method, the following middle-point impact categories were evaluated: respiratory inorganic and terrestrial acidification/nutrition effects, global warming potential and non-renewable energy consumption. Additionally, the LCA methodology influences (allocation procedure, system boundary, functional unit) on overall results was also evaluated. A dynamic life-cycle model was adopted, encompassing both fuel and vehicle life cycles (Well-to-Wheel analysis). Hence, upstream energy consumption and material inputs from farming, collection, refining and distribution activities were accounted, as well as exhausted emissions and fuel consumption resulting from vehicle operation. Furthermore, an uncertainty analysis was performed to determine the relevance of input parameters and assess the confidence in results. In order to evaluate the penetration of advanced technologies and its impacts in fleets, six production scenarios and three increasing substitution ratios were evaluated in this model framework. Results revealed that Brazilian ethanol imports can itself effectively support the Japanese National Energy strategy. Scenarios assuming higher ethanol blends shown significant energy and environmental benefits, being cellulosic ethanol the most attractive. Additionally, the model confirms that FFV technologies are more efficient and environmentally friendly than conventional Otto-cycle vehicles. These conclusions have important implications to policy-makers, showing that advanced fuels and FFV technologies have relevant effects on air pollution control, climate change mitigation, and promote energy security of supply.
An Impact Analysis Of Korea’S Co2 Reduction Policy On The Economy And Energy Flow In Busan Region -Cge Approach (Abstract #119)
Seogwoong Moon and Samhwa Jung
This study analyzes the economic and energy flow impact of the midterm project announced by the Korean government in 2009 to reduce the emission level of carbon dioxide in Korea. The study uses computable general equilibrium model. Simulations comprise of seven scenarios under the constraint of government target for the year 2020 to reduce CO2 emission down below the level of 2005. Of the seven scenarios, three scenarios are based on measures proposed by the Korean government such as increase in the supply of renewable energy, green homes, and energy efficiency improvement. Other scenarios are based on measures not highlighted in the government policy but have more powerful potential to augment the productivity of all input resources; namely policy options such as 3R, networking and circular economy. All simulation results are focused on the region of Busan city as well as economy-wide impact compared to the BAU case. Industries such as coal-oil-gas, petro coal product, electricity, chemical, non-metal, transportation service, and metal product are among the most adversely affected by the policy of carbon cap. Simulation outcome confirms that policy measures to increase renewable energy source and higher energy efficiency are costly given the target for the year 2020. The cost assessed by the gap in the growth of real GDP and real output by industries as compared with BAU is considerable even though those policies help the Korean society transform its industries into less energy intensive structure. However, the low-carbon green growth is more promising according to the study when the economy's resource productivity is raised throughout industries and society, on top of the government proposed policies. Establishing the 3R system, symbiotic eco-industrial development and circular economy will lead to higher resource productivity, which in turn can secure low carbon society without compromising sustainable economic growth.
Explicit Market Modelling In Lci (Abstract #121)
Emilia Moreno-Ruiz, Bo P. Weidema and Gregor Wernet
The explicit modelling of markets as separate unit processes was proposed by Weidema (2003) and recently implemented as the default modelling principle in the ecoinvent LCI database. The systematic implementation of market datasets implies that all datasets – both market and non-market activity datasets – are completely independent of each other, and that each dataset therefore can be supplied, maintained and improved completely separately from the rest of the database, while the correct linking and embedding of the datasets are ensured by the database linking algorithms, which can be designed to create different (attributional or consequental) system models based on the same unit process data. The geographical delimitation of markets is important in both attributional and consequential modelling, since only activities located within the market boundaries are included as suppliers to the market. The geographical delimitation of a market is identified by the lacking or constrained import of the product across the geographical boundary. The specific modelling of exports and constrained imports is presented. For consequential system models, where substitution is applied to model the reduction in demand for a by-product, the availability of market datasets for all products provides a consistent and unambiguous modelling of what the by-product substitutes, namely the inputs to the market, as demonstrated by examples.
Considering The Risk Of Man-Made Disaster In Life Cycle Assessment---A New Hybrid Inoperability Input Output Method (Abstract #123)
Chen Lin
This paper proposes a new method to employ the hybrid input output model for considering the risk of the man-made disaster in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In any production process of a certain product, there is a certain probability (more or less) to cause a man-made environmental disaster. This environmental disaster not only causes pollution directly, but also induces the inoperability of production processes in an economy (the economy can be local or global). For instance, a terrible leak of toxic chemicals to rivers will cut off water supply and thereby cause the inoperability of local agriculture production. Thus, for the LCA of a product, we should also consider economic and environmental costs induced by this inoperability. This study employs econometric methods to evaluate the probability of occurrence of the man-made disaster in a product's production process and then develops a hybrid input output model to measure the loss by the man-made disaster caused inoperability. Finally, the risk and aftermath of the man-made disaster are taken into account to revalue a product under the framework of hybrid LCA.
Dynamic Modeling Of Singapore'S Urban Metabolism: Historical Trends And Sustainable Scenario Development (Abstract #124)
Tamas Abou-Abdo, Noel R. Davis, Karen N. Welling, Jonathan S. Krones and John E. Fernandez
Singapore has experienced rapid urbanization, population increase, and economic growth during the latter half of the 20th century, fed by enormous quantities of material throughput and energy consumption. The limited nature of island resources thrust environmental and resource scarcity issues to the forefront as early as the 1960s. This, combined with a government culture of data-driven decision-making, provides several decades of data and policies for analysis, making Singapore a valuable case study for urban metabolism research. Within this context, we have developed a dynamic urban metabolism model that simulates material inputs, outputs, transformations, and consumption, drawing from principles of system dynamics and industrial ecology. Previous studies have investigated the aggregate volume of material flow; this project seeks to extend these studies while building capacity for scenario forecasting and policy analysis. Starting with a basic IPAT framework, we identified key socio-economic and technological drivers for consumption of water, energy, construction materials, biomass, and other materials. Having captured the networks of influence among urban services and the stocks and flows of resources, we are able to simulate the past fifty years of material consumption and replicate existing empirical data. The government's response to environmental and resource pressures has matured over the decades, leading to the inclusion of sustainability objectives in Singapore's current master plan. We provide insight into these objectives by using our model to assess material intensity and other urban metabolism characteristics for various development scenarios through 2060. This study seeks to establish robust and practical measures for urban resource efficiency among the various economic sectors of the city-state and draw general conclusions about resource efficiency and urbanization which we believe to be relevant to growth trends in cities elsewhere in the region and the world.
Consideration Of Greenhouse Gases In Some Environmental Certification Schemes (Abstract #130)
Emma Keller, Llorenç Mila-i-Canals, Jaqi Lee and Roland Clift
Communication of the ‘sustainability’ of products has become increasingly prevalent over the last decade, namely through the proliferation of third party certification stamps or so called eco-labels. Some of these labels have become brands in their own right and consumers have developed trust and often a willingness to pay premium prices for products displaying these eco-labels of sustainability. Furthermore, in consumers’ eyes several of these eco-labels have become synonymous with quality, reduced environmental impact, and in some cases apparently benefitting the environment. It is no doubt that certification schemes behind these eco-labels have indeed created a market of more sustainable products and that competition between different labels has raised the bar on the environmental criteria that products are expected to meet. However, these environmental criteria are not understood by all consumers, and there is a lack of transparency in the actual standards and levels of environmental impact that these labels consider. This is particularly true for the greenhouse gas (GHG) or carbon impact of products. This paper reviews in detail several of the best-known national and international labels found in the agri-food arena and used to signify that products have been ‘sustainably sourced’. It will focus in particular on the certification schemes employed by Unilever as part of its commitment to source 100% of its agricultural raw materials sustainably by 2020 and will discuss whether and how these schemes consider the GHG footprint of the product. Schemes reviewed include Fair-trade, Rainforest Alliance, RSPO, Global Gap and the organic label. The paper focuses on three key questions; i) what dimensions of the large sustainability space are considered ii) what criteria are used to assess these and whether they are based on management practice or measured performance, and finally iii) whether and how GHGs are considered and assessed in the certification process.
The Role Of Automobiles For The Future Of Aluminium Recycling -Model And Scenarios In Global Scale (Abstract #131)
Roja Modaresi and Daniel B. Müller
While primary aluminium production is energy intensive, recycling reduces energy consumption by 95%, with reducing raw material consumption, GHG emissions and waste generation. However there are several challenges to aluminium recycling. Today, recycling is mainly constrained by limited quantities of scrap available. Post consumer scrap availability is likely to increase in the future, which will lead to increase qualitative challenges, caused by the growing complexity of aluminium alloys, combined with the limited refining possibilities. Today, aluminium is downgraded towards casting products with higher alloying content forming the bottom reservoir of the cascade. Recycling strategy therefore depends on a constantly growing reservoir of cast aluminium, a condition that may not be sustained over long time periods. Casting products are mostly (~75%) used by the automotive industry. We developed a dynamic material flow model to simulate the dynamics of aluminium in the passenger cars stock in Global scale and determine the wrought and casting aluminium needed to produce the vehicles and leaving use in obsolete vehicles. The model, which distinguish these three types of vehicle technologies (gasoline, diesel and electrical), calculates aluminium stock and flow for the period of 1900 to 2050 using population, cars per capita, life time, wrought and casting intensity in the three vehicles types as parameters. Based on our calculation, the availability of old scarp from vehicles is increasing significantly over the next couple of years. There is a critical point in which the scrap supply exceeds the demand of casting for the automotive sector. In some developed countries this point will reach in few years ahead. In the short term, the problem can be delayed by increasing the reservoir of casting, however, in the long term, a better scrap separation is unavoidable to maintain the value of aluminium and to benefit from the energy saving from recycling.
Estimating The Reserve In Urban Mine (Abstract #136)
Shinsuke Murakami and Rie Murakami-Suzuki
Urban mining has drawn more attention in Japan. Recycling metals from EOL (End-Of-Life) products has long been carried out. However, we expand our target from common and precious metals to include the minor elements, so-called rare metals in Japanese, such as tantalum or indium. Such kind of minor elements are often contained smaller and more sophisticated WEEEs (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment.) In this few years, the pilot projects were and are being carried out to collect these smaller EOL WEEEs. In this research, with the data of these pilot projects, the feasibility study was carried out. Then, the methodologies combined with stock data of EOL WEEEs, the “Urban Reserves” of these urban mines are estimated. In the estimation, some scenarios were considered with the simulation model for collection and transportation. Since the cost for collection is huge, the scenario of collection affects significantly on the feasibility of the whole recycling system. The combination of the metals to be recovered influences a lot. Especially because recovering minor elements is not necessarily profitable, it must be combined with the recovery of common metals, which is profitable on its own. Unfortunately, the estimated amount of recoverable minor elements in the urban mines, named smaller WEEEs, is not huge, but its grade is high. Considering the growing use of these appliances, their recycling is of course important. Therefore, the estimation of the reserves here is also important in order to establish the efficient recycling systems.
Life Cycle Consumptive Water Use For Oil Shale Development And Implications For Water Supply In The Oil Shale Region (Abstract #137)
Aweewan Mangmeechai and Paulina Jaramillo
Oil shale has been identified as an unconventional source of crude oil that could be produced domestically in the U.S. Oil shale resources are primarily located in Utah, Wyoming and Colorado. To ensure that the total use of water in the basin is managed properly, oil shale companies may need to be incentivized to consider the total life cycle externalities associated with increased water consumption. In this paper we analyze the life cycle consumptive water use for oil shale and the implications oil shale development could have on the water resources of the Colorado River Basin. We find that life cycle consumptive water use for oil shale is significant and could impact water availability for consumers in the lower Colorado River Basin. Water supply in the Colorado River Basin could be a primary constraint to the development of oil shale. At that level of oil production of 2 million barrel per day, the life cycle consumptive water use would be between 143 and 319 billion gallons (0.4 and 1.0 million acre-ft) of water per year if surface mining and retorting is done; or between 146 and 386 billion gallons (0.5 and 1.2 million acre-ft) of water per year if the in-situ process is used. Energy companies or governments may want to invest in water management and supply strategies that would eliminate the uncertainty associated with the water availability in the Colorado River Basin. Strategies that could be implemented are refining the shale oil outside of the oil shale region (removing the need for local water), using dry cooling systems for electricity generation, and building desalination plants in California (to replace water). There, are, however, costs to these strategies. Overall, the water supply strategies could result in costs equivalent to a $14.5/bbl increase in the cost of producing shale oil. With this equivalent cost increase, the production cost of shale oil would reach $110/bbl.
Creating A Low Carbon City Through Urban Symbiosis: A Methodological Framework (Abstract #139)
Martina Maria Keitsch and Yong Geng
Global warming is a world-wide environmental issue and requires international efforts to abating the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). While European and Japanese eco-town projects have shown that resource circulation and industrial and urban symbiosis are able to improve resource efficiency by exchanges of wastes and by-products generated from industrial enterprises and urban areas, many cities in China are still suffering from resource scarcity and lower resource efficiency. Improving the overall eco-efficiency of Chinese cities through urban symbiosis is imperative to achieve a sustainable urban development. Creating a “low-carbon city” is critical for both theoretical research and practical management. Due to the complexity of urban systems, however, appropriate methods for establishing a low-carbon city have to be examined. The authors present a methodological framework to combine different tools for low carbon city development through urban symbiosis in Shenyang, China. The methods include the design of a spatial database with help of GIS and of a performance indicator system based on MFA and LCA. Further, an analysis of relevant policies (at national, provincial and municipal levels) on carbon emission reduction, and an evaluation of drivers and barriers based on semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders are presented. Based upon the results, plausible, differentiated strategies for Shenyang are proposed by considering the local situation. By testing the different strategies, we can compare possible paths towards low-carbon cities and identify the optimal one. The methods used in this study are interdisciplinary by nature and aim at integrating engineering science, urban planning and social sciences through a ‘research by design’ approach to find solutions on global change problems that are the major concerns in the case city. The goal of the combined methodology is to generate comprehensive knowledge about the framework, drivers and barriers and provide tools and scenarios for a low carbon city development.
Data And Knowledge Management For Industrial Symbiosis Development (Abstract #142)
David Cobbledick, Adrian Murphy, Lauren Basson and Roland Clift
The co-ordination of Industrial Symbiosis (IS) networks is the domain of ‘knowledge workers’: that is skilled professionals for whom knowledge is central to daily tasks. For the ‘IS practitioner’, daily tasks will require the personal development and application of knowledge and expertise in material properties and applications, waste processing technologies, and the economic, regulatory and social environment of the practitioner’s region of influence. Although the achievements of individual practitioners and co-ordination initiatives are well documented, the true potential of the international IS community resides in its collective knowledge and the collective intelligence therein. Further development of IS requires that this knowledge be brought together in an international knowledge base which can then inform the development of collective best practice. Recent advances in internet and intranet technologies have collective intelligence at their core and provide models and tools for this kind of collaboration and knowledge sharing. This contribution will review these technologies and their potential application within and across IS initiatives internationally. Specifically it will consider semantic technologies (e.g. Ontologies) and enterprise social software (e.g. Folksonomy and Wiki’s). The potential of these technologies in the explicit representation of the evolving tacit knowledge of IS practitioners will be demonstrated. Discussion will be illustrated through case studies from the UK National Industrial Symbiosis Programme (NISP).
Anthropogenic Aluminum Cycle In The United States From 1930 To 2008 (Abstract #143)
Weiqiang CHEN and Thomas Graedel
A dynamic anthropogenic aluminum cycle for the period of 1930-2008 in the United States was analyzed using the substance flow analysis method. Special attention was given to the trade of aluminum-containing products at different stages of the cycle and in-use stock of aluminum. The primary results include: (1) The United States was a net-importer of aluminum from the perspective of the life cycle in recent years; by dividing all aluminum-containing products into five groups, it was a net-importer of “Bauxite & Alumina”, “Unwrought Aluminum”, “Final Products”, and “Semis”, while a net-exporter of “EOL Products & Scrap”; (2) Total generation of old aluminum scrap increased year by year from 1931 to 1991, and then kept stable after 1991. In 2008, there were about 4.5 million tons of old scrap generated in the United States; (3) Absolute in-use stock of aluminum increased year by year from 1931 to 2007 but experienced a slight decrease in 2008. Top down results show that absolute in-use stock in 2000 and 2008 was 94.9 million tons (-24%, +18%) and 105.2 million tons (-31%, +19%), respectively, while per capita stock in these two years was 336 kg (-24%, +18%) and 346 kg (-31%, +19%), respectively; Per capita stock of aluminum in all end-use sectors except Transportation decreased or kept stable after 2000, resulting in the conclusion that total per capita stock of aluminum in the United States may be experiencing an S-curve transition and approaching its saturation value; (4) Per capita stock calculated by the top-down method in this study seems very close to that calculated by the bottom-up method at the Connecticut State level.
Diversity And Its Role In The Facilitation Of Industrial Symbiosis (Abstract #144)
Paul D. Jensen, Lauren Basson, Malcolm R. Bailey, Emma E. Hellawell and Matthew Leach
Diversity is widely said to be important for the functioning of both ecological and industrial systems; however, its importance to system functioning is not fully understood due to the abstract nature of the concept and the complexity involved in its study. This paper develops the diversity debate by asking several fundamental questions: what is diversity, how and why does it evolve and what are the benefits, if any, of diversity within industrial ecosystems? It is argued that the answers to these questions can improve the understanding of the development of industrial ecosystems whilst also providing insight into the origins of opportunities for industrial symbiosis. By mapping the geospatial industrial diversity of England, and comparing this to a geographic map of known instances of industrial symbiosis, it is possible to ascertain the specific diversity characteristics of synergy hotspots. This provides insight into the relative level of diversity required to facilitate localised industrial symbiosis within areas of both mixed and homogenous industry. This paper presents both the development of diversity theory in relation to eco-industrial development, and the practical application of this knowledge to the proactive facilitation of resource efficiency through industrial symbiosis.
Microalgae Cultivation Utilizing An Industrial Partnership (Abstract #146)
Judith Cirulis, Ashley Scott and Greg Ross
Industries that discharge large outflows of CO2 have the potential to partner with the microalgae industry to produce biofuels. Microalgae consume 2 kg of CO2 for every 1 kg of cell biomass that grows, so achieving a dense culture requires a rich source of CO2, such as the 6-7% CO2 in exhaust gas from power stations and ore smelters. This symbiosis will be especially beneficial in temperate climates where the heat of the exhaust gas can also be used to maintain the microalgae ponds at an optimal growing temperature regardless of daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations. However, optimizing the design to integrate off-gasses into microalgae cultivation requires determining the desired microalgae cultivation conditions. The exact cultivation conditions of each species of microalgae are unique, as strains of microalgae are found at every latitude and longitude around the world, in fresh and salt water. Selecting a strain of microalgae for biofuel production has primarily focused on lipid content and growth rate, but when using off-gasses there are other considerations, such as tolerance to metals and low pH. These “non-optimal” conditions may stress the microalgae and result in decreased or, potentially, increased lipid production. It is therefore important to screen a much wider selection of microalgae strains, including microalgae isolated from tailings ponds of ore smelters and surrounding waterways that have already adapted to acidic conditions with significant metal content. By identifying potential microalgae strains, their optimal conditions, benefits and drawbacks, it is the goal of this research to develop a microalgae cultivation process that can be integrated into an existing industrial process and consume a large percentage of the emitted CO2 and heat.
Analyzing The Factors In Developing Industrial Symbioses: A Survey Study In China (Abstract #147)
zhen wang and lei shi
With more than forty eco-industrial parks were established in China by now, a lot of attentions have been given on how to facilitate their development, which they are encountering many barriers to overcome. To learn the state that how many factors affect the development of eco-industrial parks in China, this research try to provide an framework to analyze many kinds of factors, and conduct an on-site survey on “single” by-product exchanges, i.e. industrial symbiosis. Four dimensions are involved in this framework, which are technical, economic, political and social aspects. This framework can be used to analyzing two types of relationship, i.e. the drivers-barriers, and the internal-external, which are related to firm’s industrial symbiosis activities. This survey was carried out in Yangzhou, a city in Jiangsu province with a wide range of industrial sectors, where data of approximate 40 firms who already had some kinds of industrial symbiosis activities have been collected. The primary results show that, from the internal side, the promotions of technical level both in production stage and pollutant control stage are the two most important elements to initiate an industrial symbiosis activity in firms. From the external side, the political and financial supports from government are the two most important drivers for firms to conduct industrial symbiosis behaviors. As to the barrier, low monetary interests, hard to manage and lack of enough amount of by-product are the three most important reasons. The result of this research will contribute to the next round of policy making of government and help to create an appropriate “soft” environment for planning or promoting an eco-industrial park.
Eco-Industrial Development And Industrial Symbiosis: The Voluntary Environmental Certification Scheme Of Eco-Industrial Parks Of Tuscany (Italy) (Abstract #149)
Fabio Iraldo, Tiberio Daddi, Sara Tessitore and Marco Frey
In December 2009 the regional Government of Tuscany (Italy) approved a regional Regulation to establish a new approach at regional level in the development of “industrial parks”. For the first time in EU environmental and industrial policies, the so called “industrial ecology” is applied, allowing an area to achieve an official environmental certification if it is planned, built and managed through activities inspired to synergy and industrial symbiosis. The certification scheme (named APEA) is fully voluntary and the certification process is coordinated by the Regional Authority. This approach could be considered as an evolution of environmental certification schemes applied to the single organizations (e.g. ISO14001) and represents an opportunity to improve the environmental performance of industrial areas. Our presentation aims to show how this approach has been developed, on the ground of previous successful experiences of eco-industrial areas in Tuscany, and which are the criteria and requirements that an area must meet in order to obtain the qualification. The Regulation 74/R foresees a certification scheme based on three classes of requirements. The first class is related to planning and building-related issues. Requirements listed in this class regard, for instance, the energy efficiency of industrial buildings, the impact on the landscape, the planning of mobility. The second class contains requirements concerning environmental infrastructures: a minimum level for the recovery and re-use of rain water, minimum amount of renewable energy to be produced by the area, etc. The last class determines requirements about management of environmental issues. To obtain the APEA qualification, a Management Body should set up, that has to carry out an Environmental Territorial Review and develop and apply effective management procedures to regulate and control the main environmental aspects. The eco-industrial parks classified as APEA are rewarded by the regional Authority with funding and simplification of rules for companies.
Carbon Footprint And The Problem With A Single Emissions Metric: The Case Of The Municipal Waste Landfill (Abstract #150)
Anders Damgaard, Morton A. Barlaz, Joseph F. DeCarolis and James W. Levis
When applying LCA methodology in waste management, the practitioner selects the impact categories to be included. Given today’s political climate, the result is often a singular focus on the carbon footprint of a treatment or disposal technology. If the technologies considered all rank identically with respect to different impacts, this approach will lead to a good result, , however, a problem arises when the ranking of optimal treatment/disposal technologies is not consistent amongst impact categories. A good example of this is a conventional landfill as compared to waste-to-energy. Municipal solid waste contains a large amount of organic matter, some of which is in the form of paper and cardboard. Fiber dominates the waste discard stream even after consideration of recyclables recovery. The residual waste therefore contains a large amount of lignin, which will not degrade within a reasonable timeframe (100 years) and will be stored. If the landfill is operated with state of the art technologies (high methane collection and utilization rates) then it can have a net negative carbon footprint. In the waste-to-energy facility, there is no carbon storage, but the fossil fractions in the waste emit large amounts of CO2, which is partially offset by the avoided regional electricity production and associated emissions. Depending on this energy offset, waste-to-energy can be either a net source or sink of CO2 emissions. As a result, the landfill is often the preferred choice when a carbon footprint is the only metric. However, when other impacts are included, the waste-to-energy technology performs better (e.g., resource consumption, acidification, toxic impacts, net energy production). The optimal environmental alternative then becomes a multi-criteria decision that must consider trade-offs among impacts. The carbon footprint metric might be sufficient for a product LCA, but for a waste management LCA to be representative, it should include a larger number of impacts.
The Importance Of Origin And Timing Of Water Use For Impact Assessment In Semi-Arid Areas: The Example Of Mandarin Production In A Coastal Area In Peru (Abstract #152)
Francesca Verones, Stephan Pfister, Karin Bartl and Stefanie Hellweg
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a method with globally applicable methodologies for assessing the environmental impacts of goods and services. However, water use and its site-specific impact on terrestrial ecosystems is still a rather unexplored topic within LCA. We performed a case study about the specific impact of water use for mandarin plantations on a small coastal wetland in Peru. This wetland constitutes the only natural vegetation in the area. Scenarios were developed to assess the environmental sustainability of the use of different water sources (surface/groundwater). In life cycle impact assessment there is so far no distinction in this respect, thus neglecting important regional characteristics. This is illustrated in the results where an increase in irrigated mandarin areas by 105% (projection until 2020) leads to an increase in wetland area by 1% or a decrease by 14%, depending on whether irrigation water is abstracted from the river or the aquifer. Another important component regarding water use is the choice of time frame for the scenarios. During the next decades many rivers in the region will experience increasing water flows due to the melting of the glaciers feeding into rivers. Therefore no impact, neither on the wetland nor on the aquatic river system is observed, as long as the projected amounts of water stem from the river. If the river water availability decreases after glacier melting this will lead to increased sourcing of groundwater for irrigation, leading to desiccation of the wetland in only 8 years in one scenario. We quantify the ecological impacts due to a decrease in wetland size on its flora in the various scenarios within a complete LCA study on mandarin production. The methodological drawbacks of current LCA studies of regionalization, water source, as well as timing of impact calculation are discussed and improvement options proposed.
Life Cycle Assessment On Life And Death: Comparing Lives Saved By An Airbag With Lives Lost During Its Production (Abstract #154)
Henrikke Baumann, Rickard Arvidsson, Hui Tong and Ying Wang
Recently, a framework for including social impacts of a products life cycle has been developed by United Nations Environmental Programme and the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. That framework includes impact categories such as human rights, working conditions and governance. Here, we present a different approach that balances impacts with benefits: lives saved by the product during the life cycle minus lives lost during the life cycle as impact category. The study object, and also the functional unit of the study, is an air bag with its electronic control system. The main object of an airbag is to save lives. However, during the production of the airbag and its control systems, lives may be lost, for instance in the production of pyrotechnical content of the airbag and in the mining of metals for the electronic control unit. The mining of metals often takes place in developing countries with poor legislation for working conditions and sometimes conflict areas. The impact is characterized as the average number of lives saved per functional unit minus the casualties believed to occur during production of one functional unit. This is a convenient indicator since it easy to interpret and comprehend. It also gives a quantitative estimate of whether the airbag is reasonable from a social point of view from a life cycle perspective, or if it just exports the casualties to other parts of the world. We also discuss in the study when there is a benefit to gain from investigating social impacts along a life cycle. The study is currently ongoing, and results will be ready to for presentation by the time of the conference.
Lca-Based Decision Support Tool For Industrial Waste Management (Abstract #155)
Carl O. Vadenbo, Michael E. Boesch and Stefanie Hellweg
One key focus of industrial ecology is to identify opportunities to link industrial activities in a way that low-value by-products of one process become high-value resources for another. The treatment of wastes for beneficial use as raw materials or as energy carriers is generally understood to result in two main benefits. Firstly, it reduces the need for extraction of virgin raw materials and thus mitigates the dependence on and the deterioration of natural resources, e.g. fossil fuels. Secondly, traditional waste management solutions are avoided, thereby decreasing related environmental burdens of waste treatment-related emissions or the area of land needed for landfill sites. To ensure that such opportunities truly represent more sustainable solutions, life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a comprehensive method for the assessment of environmental impacts from a system perspective. By combining industry process models with LCA, a decision support tool for directing industrial waste streams to the ecologically optimal waste co-processing industry or dedicated waste treatment plant has been developed. Co-processing includes the cement industry and the iron and steel industry, whereas waste treatments encompass municipal solid waste incineration and landfill. The tool assesses and facilitates comparison of the different waste management options from an environmental point of view. Differences in technologies or regional conditions may be reflected in the assessment through flexible tool customization. Environmental impacts are presented in terms of carbon footprint and several other impact category indicators such as acidification, toxicity or resource consumption. Intended users of the tool range from industry and authorities to stakeholder groups like non-governmental organizations. Two case studies performed by or in close collaboration with industry partners and with the aim of identifying the optimal treatment for specific waste types are presented to illustrate the practical application of the tool.
Development And Test Of An Industrial Symbiosis Identification Tool (Abstract #162)
Inês Costa, Paulo Ferrão, Leonardo Rosado and Rita Pinto
Industrial symbiosis (IS) emerged as a self-organizing business strategy among firms that are willing to cooperate to improve their economic and environmental performance. Most often this cooperation implies that wastes/by-products from one company are used as raw materials/energy by another different company. A significant part of IS research focuses on the development and application of methods and tools to assist practitioners in identifying, supporting, strengthen and expand IS network development. In this context, most of the tools include modules aimed at identifying and evaluating IS opportunities in a given geographical context. Although there are several approaches in identifying IS opportunities in a given region, there is seldom published material that details the methodologies implied in the development of such tools, namely in terms of the sources, classification and application of information to the uncovery and discovery of such opportunities. The research presented in this article seeks to fulfill this gap by developing and testing a IS identification tool, which can then be integrated in a more comprehensive IS facilitation process. This article addresses the methodology used to develop the IS opportunity identification tool and provides a case-study of its application to the Portuguese industrial region of Sines.
Waste Lubricant Oils In The Azores Islands: Creating A Resource Recovery Network Through Collaborative Action (Abstract #164)
Inês Costa, Pedro Nazareth and Paulo Ferrão
Islands possess unique social, economic and environmental characteristics. These conditions are often seen as limitations when it comes to finding resource management strategies – for raw materials, energy or wastes. However, the immediate realization of these limitations can also be a driver for managers to look for more specific, innovative, and often more sustainable, solutions. The Azores islands, part of Portuguese territory, are a group of nine islands in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, which are home for 245 374 residents. The limited space availability and relative isolation already led to important steps in waste management options, which in turn contributed to improve the islands’ sustainability. For example, it pushed for the implementation of organic waste management solutions which improved the longevity of Azores’s current landfills and generated a new energy source and end-product (compost). However, for most recyclable material flows the current practice rests on the collection, intra-island transport, temporary storage and then shipment to the mainland for recovery, which it is often a poorer environmental and economical solution. This paper in particular focuses on the case of waste lubricant oils’ management in the Azores islands. It presents 1) an environmental and economical analysis of the current waste oil management system, based on a life cycle assessment approach, and 2) details the development and implementation of a resource recovery network, through a collaboration process established between local industry, local university, regional government and the Portuguese waste oil management company (Sogilub). This case study is useful not only as an example of how islands cope with environmental challenges related to their inherent conditions, but also as an example of how a process to develop collaborative networks in resource efficiency is conducted at the practitioner’s level.
Modelling Integrated Urban Waste And District Heating Systems - Environmental Performance And Critical Parameters, City Of Trondheim, 1986-2020. (Abstract #165)
Helge Brattebø and Marte Reenaas
In Scandinavia today there are competing interests between waste to energy for urban district heating and for biofuel to public transport. Both these energy recovery options also compete with growing ambitions for materials recycling. Municipal solid waste as base-load fuel for urban district heating systems has two main advantages. First, it provides a local solution, with efficient volume reduction of growing waste amounts, and environmental benefits compared to traditional waste disposal. Secondly, it offers needed reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from the heated urban building stock, compared to alternative heating methods. This presentation offers a systems model analysis of urban district heating infrastructure, using the city of Trondheim (Norway) as case, with annual in-depth analysis of 22 years of operation (1986-2008) and future simulations for another 10 years (2010-2020). We combine MFA and LCA principles to examine the temporal development in system-wide CO2 and NOx footprints, analysing the role of critical system elements, including those of waste management, energy conversion and district heating, and the alternative waste treatment and heating options during these two periods. We found that the district heating system has avoided significant amounts of CO2 emissions, however, the system gave higher NOX emissions than the alternative options over the recent 22 years. We conclude that the use of wide system borders in our study is indeed needed. The choice of energy sources for heating of buildings, in periods when heat demand exceeds the base-load input from waste, proved to be crucial for the environmental performance of such a system. Future simulations examine the environmental impacts from scenarios including biofuel generation, increased recycling rates for plastic wastes, and export of organic wastes for treatment outside the system. Changing policy (economic) instruments and changing calorific waste composition seem to play important roles with respect to the future overall system performance.
Energy And Carbon Dioxide Impacts From Lean Logistics And Retailing: A Discrete-Continuous Simulation Approach For The Consumer Goods Industry (Abstract #169)
Gustavo Marco Antonio Ugarte Irizarri
Lean is a dynamic process of change driven by a systematic set of principles and best practices aimed at continuous improvement by rooting out non-value-added activities from an organization. Its process-based principles and practices have been extensively applied across several supply chain stages such as manufacturing, distribution, logistics, and retailing. Prior research on lean has been mainly focused in manufacturing settings due to its origins at the Toyota Production System, which emphasizes waste elimination and variability reduction as sources of improved quality control and productivity. The overarching philosophy of Lean has overlapped with the increasingly converging interests of governments, society, and global supply chain partners in economic performance and resource productivity towards the consumer goods industry. Given the industry wide adoption of lean practices such as: Just-in-time, Postponement, Cross-docking, and Vendor Managed Inventory; this research takes a process-based view of these leading practices and examines its corresponding energy and carbon dioxide impacts. Particularly, these inventory management mechanisms are compared against the traditional approach offered by Economic Order Quantity. Provided that product demand responsiveness and timely delivery drive different dynamics across warehousing, transportation, and retailing operations; each process is characterized by a discrete-continuous simulation model able to describe the corresponding long-term economic and environmental implications due to top customer service levels in contemporary markets. The process-based examination through simulation allows the integration of specific operational elements embedded in storage, distribution, and retailing facilities. The theoretical contribution of the research aims to provide further conceptualization and understanding of lean principles beyond manufacturing settings while addressing their environmental performance. Moreover, this contribution can further advance the clarification of the role of operational eco-efficiency, the impacts of supporting buildings and infrastructure, and the re-examination of current supply chain key performance indicators while providing a platform to quantify product sustainability for durable and consumable goods.
Resilience Of Industrial Symbiosis (Abstract #171)
Junming Zhu
Firms that engage in industrial symbiosis are usually committed to implementation of physical exchanges by establishing contracts or alliances and by building rigid, connective infrastructure. Symbiotic exchanges may therefore become more certain and continuous compared to exchanges in pure markets. However, the rigid interconnection means one firm’s production adjustment can cascade through a sequence of exchanges to influence the regular production of other firms. Existing symbiotic exchanges with enough benefits may also suppress one firm’s motivation to seek technological change, input substitution, etc. Therefore, symbiotic relationships, while rendering environmental and economic benefits, may cause a regional economy to be less resilient, i.e. resistant to evolve or vulnerable to market or policy fluctuation. The resilience of existing industrial symbiotic systems is worth examining. I consider industrial symbioses in Kalundborg, Guitang, Kawasaki, Gladstone and especially in Kwinana with more participants and exchanges. For each case, a process network is constructed in a way that nodes represent production processes involving symbiotic exchanges and links represent the material flow between each pair of symbiotic processes. Certain strategies to remove nodes (and corresponding links) are applied to each network reflecting the potential impact of a single firm’s decision to relocate, modify technology or adjust production. Outcomes of firms’ decisions, whether suppressed or spread out, are discussed based on information of firms and technologies. This study sheds light on the resilience of regional symbiotic economy towards market perturbation, technological change and policy regulation, and suggests some key elements for designing more flexible industrial symbiosis.
Predicting The Future: Determining Biomass Production Of New Crops For Bioenergy (Abstract #172)
Ben Sharp and Shelie Miller
Projecting the extent at which a bioenergy industry will develop is a function of many variables. Quantifying the expected total source of energy is fundamental to assessing how much and in what form bioenergy might take shape in a particular region. Production is governed by land, yields, and the degree at which farmers are willing to begin growing bioenergy crops. Reasonable bounds can be calculated on the first two variables using existing data on agricultural production and energy densities of crops. The later component, which incorporates decision making by many different individuals, is more challenging. Probabilistic measures on willingness of producers can be accomplished through theory and empirically-based results on adoption of new technology. Contributions from the social sciences can inform the shape of adoption curves, and help estimate changes over time. However, projections of annual harvests are confounded by fluctuations in expected profitability. Supposing different scenarios of market forces, this research estimates potential aggregate production of biomass according to different levels of agricultural incentives. Outcomes from this initial analysis can be refined by applying other available data on agricultural management. For example, previously introduced crops to a region can indicate profitability versus readiness of farmers to take risks with new agricultural practices. This paper examines a case study of the potential for switchgrass to be grown for energy. With a model from which to build probabilistic outcomes, total biomass production from year to year can assist in identifying pathways to efficient and more complete realization of a bioenergy industry.
Including Priority Air Pollutants In Climate Footprints (Abstract #175)
Mark Huijbregts and Carlijn Hendriks
Priority air pollutants can have indirect greenhouse effects, but are generally not included in the calculation of climate footprints. Carbon-containing air pollutants (CO, CH4 and NMVOCs) have indirect climate effects via the formation of tropospheric ozone, interaction with OH radicals and via the oxidation to CO2. The overall effect of these substances is warming. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) catalyse tropospheric O3 formation and promote the formation of secondary aerosol. The net effect of NOx is cooling. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ammonia (NH3) form secondary aerosols with a cooling effect. Primary particulate matter can cause either cooling or warming. Black carbon particles cause warming by absorbing solar radiation, while organic carbon and mineral dust emissions result in cooling due to their scattering properties. Here, we obtained global warming potentials (GWPs) for these priority air pollutants and applied these GWPs in climate footprint calculations of 778 commodities. Our study shows that addressing indirect climate effects results in extra cooling for most materials included in the climate footprint calculation. NOx and SO2 are typically the largest contributors to the difference between climate footprints with and without taking the climate effects of priority air pollutants into account. The largest influence of including priority air pollutants in climate footprint studies is found for the production of metals, resulting in negative climate footprints. Although the uncertainties associated with the GWPs for priority air pollutants are relatively large, including these substances in climate footprint studies gives significant differences in climate footprint calculations. In the presentation, we will discuss the implications of our findings for the validity of using climate footprint studies for environmental decision making.
Industrial Symbiosis Of Algae Cultivation From Life Cycle Perspective (Abstract #176)
Kullapa Soratana and Amy Landis
The utilization of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nutrients from waste streams in biomass production is often considered as environmental impact mitigation. This study examined the environmental impacts of microalgal mass production using a life-cycle perspective; results indicated that the utilization of waste streams did not necessarily result in impact mitigation. A comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) on 20 different scenarios of microalgae cultivation was evaluated. The factors related to microalgae cultivation considered were materials to construct the photobioreactor (PBR) and sources of nutrients and carbon dioxide. A 200-liter closed PBR of Chlorella vulgaris with the productivity of 25 g m-2 day-1 and 30% oil content by weight was used as a case study; scenarios were examined that utilized wastewater and waste CO2 as resources at three system operating over three different lifetimes – 5, 10 and 20 years. Generally, for the same amount of energy produced, the overall impacts from microalgae cultivation were decreasing as the system was operated for a longer time. Five different PBR materials - glass, polyvinylchloride (PVC), polycarbonate (PC), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) were investigated. Upon the investigation, results suggested that PMMA is the least ideal from an LCA perspective; this material contributes significantly to global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, and smog potential, whereas constructing the PBR from HDPE exhibited the least amount of impacts with the exception of it’s ozone depletion potential. Results show that, if wastewater is utilized as a source of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), then the impacts from the production of sodium carbonate, N-removal chemical, can be reduced, since N does not need to be chemically removed during the wastewater treatment process. Future work should focus on environmental footprint of different microalgae cultivation conditions for an optimize production.
Waste Treatment Hierarchy For Scrap Tires: Comparative Attributional And Consequential Life Cycle Assessment Of Material Recycling Vs. Tire-Derived Fuel Combustion (Abstract #179)
Rebe Feraldi, Melissa Huff and Sarah Cashman
Each year, market segments are emerging and maturing to utilize scrap tires reducing the volume sent to stockpiles or landfills. Combustion of tire-derived fuel (TDF) currently consumes over half of scrap tires generated in the U.S; ground rubber markets are the second largest segment, consuming nearly 20 percent. To contribute to decision-making for scrap tire waste treatment hierarchy, there is a need for the examination and comparison of the environmental savings from these two end-of-life (EOL) treatment methods. This life cycle assessment (LCA) study investigates these two EOL treatment options for scrap tires in the U.S. using both attributional and consequential LCA methodologies. The model assesses: 1) material recycling through state-of-the-art mechanical processing of scrap tires where rubber granulate is used for modifying asphalt and separated steel wires are sold to scrap markets, and 2) energy recovery in a cement kiln, where scrap tire materials displaces iron ore resources and conventional U.S. kiln fuels, bituminous coal and petroleum coke. The attributional LCA (ALCA) assesses and compares the average environmental profiles for the treatment methods, while the consequential LCA (CLCA) examines the potential environmental impacts resulting from shifting scrap tire volumes from TDF to material recycling markets. For both methodological approaches, the material recycling scenario provides greater savings than the energy recovery scenario in terms of the examined environmental impact potentials. Sensitivity analyses indicate that this conclusion does not change for a range of examined short- and long-term scenarios including a comparison of material recycling to energy recovery in pulp in paper mills in place of cement kilns. The study has been peer reviewed by an independent three-person panel of LCA experts and lends information to decision-makers for scrap tire waste treatment hierarchy prioritization.
Energy And Carbon Footprint Of The Residential Building Stock, Norway 1960-2050: Trends And Critical Variables. (Abstract #180)
Helge Brattebø, Nina Sandberg and Igor Sartori
The residential building sector is one of the key sectors to address in climate change mitigation policies. Basically, there are three groups of strategies; (A) reduced energy demand, by influencing per capita and per unit of floor area energy consumption for heating of water and air, cooling and ventilation, and the use of electric appliances; (B) higher energy conversion and distribution efficiency, by minimising losses on the way from source to demand; and (C) decarbonising the supply fuel mix, by less use of fossil fuels. By drawing upon combinations of these strategies, there are high policy ambitions to significantly cut the energy and carbon footprint of residential buildings. In order to examine the dynamics of this system, and understand the trends and critical variables of the energy and carbon metabolism over time, we applied a dynamic MFA approach where the building stock (including its type-age subsystems) and its metabolic flows are quantified in an integrated model. Independent variables are defined in relation to each of the above strategies (A, B and C). We account for important demand-technology-stock-flow relationships, assuming typical trends in building lifetimes (years) and in floor area demand (m2/cap), in material composition (kg/m2), and in embodied carbon (kg/kg) and energy intensity (kWh/m2). We analyse the energy and carbon footprint of the aggregated Norwegian residential building stock since 1960 and estimated development trends towards 2050. We discuss how critical variables and strategies influence past and future trends. We examine how the past trend in growing total energy consumption, due to a growing stock (m2), despite efficiency and conservation gains (kWh/m2/year), may level off due to new building codes, regulation and energy certification, and due to a much larger role of renovation of buildings than in the past. Carbon emissions, fortunately, will more rapidly decrease. Critical future variables are mainly related to strategies A (however, limited by the stock dynamics) and to strategies C (however, limited by a shift towards to use of fossil fuels as marginal energy).
Environmental Implications Of Technology Transition: Toxicity And Resource Depletion Potentials For End-Of-Life Electronics (Abstract #182)
Seong-Rin Lim, Carl Lam and Julie Schoenung
Technology transition is inevitable in almost all industries to satisfy new requirements and functions expected by consumers. Particularly in the electronics industry, the fast rate of technology development is dramatically shortening the cycle of technology transition. Thus, new electronic products exhibit significant potential for environmental impact at the end-of-life stage. The objective of this study is to analyze how technology transition can lead to changes in the toxicity and/or resource depletion potentials of electronic waste due to heavy metals based on three case studies: transition from cathode-ray tube (CRT) displays to flat panel displays (FPDs); from low-intensity light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to high-intensity LEDs; and from cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs) to white LEDs for the backlight source in cell phones. For the transition to FPDs, although FPDs exhibit lower human health impact potentials than CRT TVs, some FPDs, i.e., plasma and liquid-crystal display (LCD) TVs, exhibit higher ecotoxicity potentials due to higher copper and mercury content. For the LED transition, the high-intensity LEDs generally exhibit higher toxicity hazard levels than their low-intensity equivalents due to higher content of copper, iron, and nickel and higher resource depletion potentials due to higher content of gold and silver. For cell phones, the substitution of LEDs for CCFLs can reduce toxicity potentials because white LEDs have relatively low toxicity potentials due to less copper and do not contain mercury, arsenic, or lead (Pb). These case studies highlight that simple technology transitions do not always reduce the toxicity and/or resource depletion potentials. Rather, Design for Environment (DfE) needs to be incorporated into technology transitions to proactively prevent possible environmental impact.
Dynamic Substance Flow Analysis For China’S Phosphorous Resource (Abstract #185)
Dunchao Ma and Shanying Hu
Phosphorous (P) is an indispensable nutrient for living creature and an important raw material for industrial products, but also is blamed as one of the culprits for surface water eutrophication. Herein stocks and flows model is employed in the dynamic and life-cycle analysis towards China’s P flow almost since the nation implemented its reform and opening-up policy (1984-2008). The driving force behind looking back at historical inventories of P stocks and flows is to harvest an insight into the questions such as how China’s P international trade status changed during this period, how and in what proportions and efficiencies P was used in planting, breeding, rural life and city life, as well as in what ratios P was recycled as a nutrient again or partitioned into the reservoirs, such as agricultural soil, natural soil and natural water. Model results show that about 154.5Tg P was extracted from the lithosphere, more than one third (59.2Tg) was provided by small mines with the recovery rate as low as 30%. Although China has changed its role as a net-import country to a net-export one in terms of P materials since 2001, the results indicate that in the given 25 years, a net import of 8.1Tg P, mainly in the form of high-analysis phosphate fertilizers, took place in China. Planting utilized more P materials and showed much higher material usage efficiency than breeding did. More P was consumed and recycled in rural areas than in cities. Three anthropogenic stocks were formed, including 19.6Tg in natural water, 104.3Tg in natural soil and 38.5Tg in agricultural soil. Only the last one played a positive role in improving soil fertility by raising the soil Oslen-P from 8.3mg•kg-1 to 18.5mg•kg-1, while the rest deteriorated the environment. Based on these findings, several policy suggestions are made.
Biorefinery Industrial Park Material Flow Analysis And Industrial Chains Construction (Abstract #187)
Qiang Li, Shanying Hu and Jingzhu Shen
Production of chemicals through biorefinery is a trend of chemical industry, while is applied in some places in China. In a case of industrial park planning, an industry chain network system which has energy, materials and food industry around biorefinery is constructed by using new biorefinery and green chemical technology, increasing the types of raw materials and extending the industrial chains. According to the design, material flow analysis (MFA) of this industrial park is carried out. Based on the results of MFA the resource use efficiency of this industrial park is studied, which leads to the recommendations to improve the efficiency. First, strengthen the research and development and industrial applications to biorefining technology for the straw and other cellulose raw materials; second, pay attention to transform the existing production process to save the raw and auxiliary materials; third, continue to extend the industrial chain and develop high value-added products to improve the output value of unit resource input; in addition, according to peripheral industries characteristics, develop and introduce products to fit and support existing business in the park.
Organic Waste Towards Industrial Feedstocks: Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (Fts) (Abstract #189)
Philip Nuss
Shifting the resource base for chemical and energy production from fossil feedstocks to renewable raw materials is seen by many as one of the key strategies towards sustainable development. The utilization of biomass in biorefineries for the production of fuels and materials has been proposed as an alternative to the petroleum-based industry. However, given a certain productivity per area, the current massive growth in global biofuels demand may in the long term only be met through an expansion of global arable land. Although many studies have shown the potential of biofuels to reduce both, greenhouse gas emissions and non-renewable energy consumption, these production routes are still linear processes which depend on significant amounts of agricultural or forestry production area. Cascading use, i.e. when biomass is used for material products first and energy is recovered at end-of-life, may provide a greater environmental benefit than primary use as fuel. Considering organic waste as alternative feedstock could help to further reduce pressure on global arable land. This project focuses on thermochemical and biochemical routes capable of transforming organic waste into gaseous intermediates that are further processed, e.g. via Fischer-Tropsch-Synthesis to provide a variety of compounds which may serve as base chemicals to produce either fuels or polymers. The routes towards synthetic materials (polymers) allow a closer cycle of materials and can help to reduce dependence on either fossil or biobased raw materials. The work attempts to investigate the system-wide environmental burdens associated with these routes using life cycle assessment and to carry out a simple cost analysis. Results will be compared to fossil-fuel based polymers as well as to conventional waste management practices. It is hoped that results of this study will add to the current debate on sustainable biomass utilization and to establish future supply chains for green and sustainable chemical products.
Mitigating Climate Change Through Renewable Energy Projects In Developing Countries With Case Study Of Waste To Energy Project In Nepal And Energy Balance Of The System (Abstract #192)
Dharma Raj K.C, Sung Woo Kim and Jagan Nath Shrestha
Of the various measures taken to mitigate climate change, renewable energy sector plays a vital role. Due to lack of sufficient financial resources, technical knowhow and political willingness, one of the most valuable energy resources is still being the biggest problem in many municipalities in developing countries. Kathmandu Metropolitan City in Nepal is one of them which is facing serious problem of waste management caused by rapid urban population growth. The amount of solid waste, which is now about 400 tones per day in Kathmandu valley alone, is expected to be over 750 tones per day in 2015. If it can be managed well it will not a problem anymore rather can become a resource for renewable energy and municipality can save a major crunch of their budget with additional income and reduction of significant amount of greenhouse gas emission. This paper highlights the process of biogas generation from municipal solid waste along with scrubbing, compression and storage in a high pressure system to make it transportable. Energy balance of the pilot project installed in Kathmandu has been calculated and found to be energy positive.
Expanding Material Flow Analysis Data Into Life Cycle Inventories: Cases From The Silk And Cotton Textile Industry, Pig Iron Industry And Paper Industry In India (Abstract #193)
Laure Müller, Mariane Schneider, Megha Shenoy and Suren Erkman
The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the benefits of formatting and expanding pre-existing Material Flow Analysis (MFA) datasets in the Indian textile industry, pig iron industry and paper industry into Life Cycle Inventories (LCIs). These LCIs provide pertinent information on environmental life cycle impacts of industrial processes in India with the long-term goal of creating sustainable supply chains at the national and global level. Data was primarily collected for constructing MFAs to inform strategies for optimizing energy and resource flows to reduce adverse environmental impacts. This data was converted into LCI formats using EcoEditor Version 3. MFA datasets have geographical boundaries and lack inputs of infrastructure, primary resources from upstream processes and emissions to the environment; thereby they are not entirely sufficient to assess the overall impact of a particular product. In this investigation additional information on input of infrastructure and output of emissions to the environment for these varied processes was collated from secondary sources. Investigations on the main supply chain of the two textile industry sectors, the pig iron industry and the paper industry need to be conducted at the next stage. National datasets on primary resource use such as that for water, energy, fuels and electricity are of cardinal importance for Life Cycle Assessment; further research on these aspects will help provide complete LCA datasets that can be used to inform national and international policies so as to facilitate industrial processes and consumption of products and services with lesser overall life cycle impacts. This investigation illustrates that MFA data for industrial processes in developing countries can be used to broaden the application of information already collected without having to create new LCI dataset from scratch. Furthermore, this methodology provides a framework for compiling LCIs in developing countries at relatively lower investigation costs.
Applying Material Flow Analysis (Mfa) To Improve Energy Efficiency, Water Recycling And Provide A Life Cycle Inventory Of The Silk Reeling Sector In South India (Abstract #195)
Lokanath S, Rashmi Kumari and Megha Shenoy
Sericulture is an important agro industry in India. The silk reeling sector is a vital component of sericulture linking the agriculture based activity of cocoon production with the industrial activity of fabric production. India produces five types of silk viz. Mulberry, Tusar, Oak Tusar, Muga and Eri. The south Indian state of Karnataka contributed around 65% of the ~18,000 tons of Mulberry silk that India produced in 2007. Silk reeling in India involves boiling silk worm cocoons and reeling the filaments on wheel. For this activity demand for firewood, the main source of energy is extremely high. In this paper we present strategies to optimize resources for this sector. Using data from field studies we compiled a Material Flow Analysis (MFA) and a preliminary life cycle inventory (LCI). This analysis revealed that around 26 kg of firewood and 100 L of water is consumed to produce 1 kg of raw Mulberry silk. In 2007 the state of Karnataka produced 11640 tons of silk amounting to a consumption of 300,000 tons of firewood and 1.2 billion L of water. Subsequent to our investigation we presented these results to the silk reelers in the town of Sidlaghatta and proposed installing solar water heaters and efficient stoves to reduce firewood consumption by at least 45% (solar water heaters can improve efficiency by at least 20% where as efficient stoves can improve efficiency by at least 25%). Recycling waste water from this sector using aerobic and anaerobic digesters, currently in development, could also save large quantities of water. Waste water from silk reeling contains no chemicals and is rich in protein content; thereby it can be recycled using inexpensive digesters. Through this investigation we illustrate how to augment MFA and LCI data collected in developing countries to aid in the implementation of economically viable solutions to reduce adverse environmental impacts of cottage-scale industries.
Using Material Flow Analysis (Mfa) To Assess The Potential For Recycling Expanded Polystyrene (Eps) In Bangalore: Strategies For Its Economical Recycling (Abstract #196)
Loic Leray, Grishma Jain, Megha Shenoy and Suren Erkman
Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) is used in a range of applications, insulation and packaging being two of the largest. Due to its low recovery value, EPS is disposed at land-fills or incinerated. Incineration is limited due to specific technology required for complete combustion, to avoid air pollutants. EPS is relatively safe due to its inert nature, however due to its low density and large volume, it utilizes valuable resources, energy and land-fill space when disposed. This study focuses on EPS used for packaging of electronic and consumer goods due to its short useful lifetime. Recycling of this EPS is primarily constrained by transport costs due to its dispersed disposal. This study is based in Bangalore, a large and fast growing Indian metropolitan city, also an Information Technology hub. A previous study discovered minimal down-cycling of EPS (EPS to Polystyrene) in Bangalore. The aim of the current study is to (i) quantify and assess flows of EPS across Bangalore city, focusing on consumption and disposal, and (ii) identify and discuss limitations of the current scenario in order to suggest strategies for economical recycling of EPS (EPS to EPS) preferable to current down-cycling. A Material Flow Analysis (MFA) approach was used to assess flows and identify crucial stages and gaps within the EPS lifecycle. A combination of literature research, interviews with stakeholders and organizations, sampling and extrapolation was used to compile findings. Presently, recycling of EPS appears to be economically feasible through technology transfer from Europe, contingent upon an improved collection process. Scenarios explored to make recycling economically viable are to use recycled EPS for different applications such as for insulation and to enhance the collection process. Additionally, down-cycling, present in most manufacturing and independent recycling units can be expanded to complement this proposed recycling process in Bangalore.
Lifestyle And Household Consumption : A Transition To Sustainable Consumption And A Low Carbon Future (Abstract #198)
MOON Dami, Tanikawa Hiroki, Nakanishi Hitomi, Williams Liana, Schandl Heinz and Foran Tira
The current society is required to be more environmentally sound and less carbon intensive to respond to global environmental challenges and aim for a low carbon future. To support this transition it is crucial to understand household consumption patterns and identify policy contexts and interventions to facilitate and support change. In this study, we demonstrate how to explain the household consumption pattern considering the social and cultural context which influence the decisions that households make. The conventional approach in trying to decrease greenhouse gas emissions is often related to housing, appliances and daily transport. Therefore it is reasonable to focus on lifestyle and consumption at a household level, which is the elementary unit of a society. As a pilot study, we focus on Nagoya city, Japan. Preliminary interviews were conducted with Nagoya residents to explore the diversity of households, lifestyles and aspirations. These findings have informed a questionnaire survey on lifestyle and consumption in Nagoya. The survey consists of the questions about food and diet, transport, housing, energy use, water use, time use and other cultural and social factors. Based on the data collected by the questionnaire, we explore a typology of household lifestyles as an alternative framework to understanding different consumption patterns and their environmental impacts. The aim of developing the household typology is to identify and group households that have similar potential to transition to low carbon lifestyles. We can then clarify appropriate, tailored policy contexts to support households to consider different patterns of consumption that progress a towards low carbon future. This is a collaborative research project between CSIRO, Australia and Nagoya University, Japan. Comparative research between Australia and Japan will be conducted as a future task.
Recyclability Evaluation Of Phosphorous From Steel Making Slag In Terms Of Total Materials Requirement. (Abstract #203)
Eiji Yamasue
Phosphorous is one of the important strategic resources for agricultural food production and for the chemical industry. Phosphorous is, however, present in nature only as a trace element, and what is worse is that high-quality ores are drastically decreased. It is therefore important to consider the quantity and availability of untapped phosphorous resources. One of the possible candidates would be some steel-making slags because the total amount of phosphorous in such slags in Japan is comparable to the imported amount. Such the slags consist of phosphorous rich (more than 10 mass%) and free phases, the each of which can be separated under the strong magnetic field after pulverization. The separated phosphorous-rich phase is possibly utilized as a new phosphorous resource and the residual matrix can be recycled to iron and steel-making processes as flux. One of authors has proposed the novel evaluation method of recyclability of materials in urban mine in terms of total materials requirement (TMR), that is, the TMR for recycling (urban ore TMR, UO-TMR). In many of industry, phosphoric acid is rather preferable to elemental phosphorous. Thus the aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of phosphoric acid derived from a steel-making slag compared with that from natural ore from the viewpoint of TMR. The TMR of phosphoric acid produced from natural phosphorous ore (NO-TMR) and recycled from a steel-making slag (UO-TMR) using strong static magnetic field were estimated and compared. Furthermore, not only TMRs of phosphoric acid but also those of by-products such as gypsum were estimated as well. As the results of estimation, the NO-TMR of phosphoric acid was estimated to be 9.5~11.7 kg/kg and UO-TMR was 8.0~29.4 kg/kg. The fluctuation is ascribed to utilization efficiency of by-products. The contribution of slag price and recovery efficiency of phosphorous will be discussed in the presentation.
Drivers And Practices Of Green Supply Chain Management In Japan And China: A Comparative Study (Abstract #205)
Sun Ying
Drivers and practices of Green supply chain management in Japan and China: A comparative study Ying SUN*1), Tsuyoshi FUJITA1), Akihisa MORI2), Qinghua ZHU3) 1) National institute for environmental studies, JAPAN 2) Kyoto University, JAPAN 3) Dalian University of Technology, CHINA *Corresponding author (son.ei@nies.go.jp) Along with the globalization of the economy, the promotion of Green supply chain management (GSCM) in China influences not only China's economic growth but also the implementation of environmental measure and corporate profits of Japanese companies. In this study, we conducted an international comparative study between Japanese and Chinese enterprises, to show conditions for Chinese companies to facilitate GSCM. The data were collected by questionnaire surveys which were conducted at two industrial parks in Shenyang city of China and Japan. Factor analysis and Covariance Structure Analysis (CSA) were used to analyze the data. Firstly, we extracted the effects of GSCM drivers and practices by factor analysis. Secondly, we clarified the mechanism that showed the pathways by which drivers affected practices of GSCM in enterprises by constructing structural equation models. Thirdly, we compared the differences between Japanese and Chinese enterprises and analyzed the reasons. Lastly, we showed the experiences of Japanese enterprises to Chinese enterprises. The main results are as follows. 1) “stakeholder demands” is a major driver of GSCM in Chinese enterprises, whereas “domestic regulations” and “stakeholder demands and foreign rules” are major drivers in Japanese enterprises; 2) a factor unique to Chinese enterprises was “linkage with performance evaluation”, whereas “expediting CSR” was unique to Japanese enterprises; 3) “stakeholder demands” rather than regulations promoted “collaboration with suppliers” and “resource recovery and collaboration with customers” in Japan; and 4) Chinese enterprises have promoted internal practices including “establishing in-house institutions” and “environmental practices”, whereas they have not promoted “collaboration with customers and suppliers”.
Indicators For Assessing Water Effects Of Bioenergy On Different Scales (Abstract #206)
Sonia Yeh, Gouri Mishra, Goran Berndes, Suhas Wani, Sanwon Suh, André Elia Neto and Jacob Teter
The growing literature characterizing bioenergy-water links, such as “embedded water,” “water footprint (WF)”, or “consumptive water use” of bioenergy has helped to raise awareness of increasing water demand to meet bioenergy production. However, generally valid quantifications of the influence of bioenergy on water are complicated because of the multitude of existing and rapidly evolving bioenergy sources, complexities of physical, chemical, and biological conversion processes, feedstock diversity and variability in site specific conditions. Limitations in scope, and inconsistencies in system boundaries, definitions of water use, and methods employed introduce confusion and ambiguity in understanding the true relationships between bioenergy and water use, impacts on water resources and the environment, and the appropriate policies that could be adopted to encourage sustainable bioenergy production. This paper first catalogues the different types of indicators used to inventory water use, focusing on their values and potential weakness. Case studies of bioenergy production using various feedstocks at different locations and scales are adopted to illustrate appropriate uses of these indicators and highlight their usefulness within specific contexts. We then discuss approaches to measure the impact of freshwater use on ecosystem. It is important to realize that no single indicator can give a complete picture of the impacts, and more than one indicator will be necessary to understand the true impacts on water resources and to make informed decisions. Expanding bioenergy plantations can in some regions further enhance an already stressed water situation, while in other regions water availability may not pose a constraint and other factors may require more attention when planting more energy crops is being contemplated or incentivized.
Economic Development And Water Requirements In Beijing (Abstract #207)
Latdaphone Banchongphanith and Shinji Kaneko
Water is regarded as a vital natural resource for sustaining social-economic development. Changes in economic scale and economic structure that associate with the production technology improvement are believed to influence both the direct and indirect water requirement levels. In a national context, economic development in highly economic developed cities could indirectly affect the water depletion in their trade partner regions. By taking the city of Beijing as a case study, this study aims to identify and measure the impacts of economic development on the industrial sectoral water consumption pattern transformation, and the city’s external water (virtual water) requirements level. Hence, the authors apply the environmental input-output model to capture the changes in the water requirement structure. At the meantime, the authors also attempt to measure the virtual water flow between Beijing and the remaining part of China for addressing the stress that Beijing had on its national trade partners caused by its increasing demand. This study compares the analysis results in the years of 1996/97 and 2004/05 for the constraints of the availability of input-output tables, and sectoral water consumption data of both Beijing and China. The results suggest a significant improvement in the water use efficiencies in both Beijing and China. For instance, in Beijing the direct fresh water use decreased from 95.6 tons to 49.2 tons for producing 1000 yuan value of agricultural output. Although Beijing water requirements kept increasing, the results unveil that Beijing had intensively relied on imported virtual water to support its economic growth. Nevertheless, the final demand structural changes contributed to a certain cutback in the water requirements, which implies that the economic structure adjustment from a water resources-conservation perspective brought about overall economic efficiency or a more water-efficient economy in Beijing from the mid of the 1990s to the mid of 2000s.
The Variety Of Industrial Symbiosis Characteristics In Different Regions Of The World (Abstract #208)
Leo Baas
Industrial Ecology in industrial estates has a geographic, resource, and/or industry sector focus. In such geographic and/or industry sector settings industrial ecology is often labelled as Industrial Symbiosis, for example when companies in an industrial area link their utilities and exchange waste/by-products. Also, companies can organize a resource chain such as in the case of using biomass from waste water treatment facilities and restaurants for bio-fuels. A key-organization such as a power plant can organize linkages of their waste flows to other companies. There are examples of planned, uncovered, anchor-tenant and co-siting models in an array of cases world-wide. The presentation compares and analyzes the role of industrial symbiosis in co-siting activities and utility exchanges in the Rotterdam Harbour and Industry complex, the application process of renewable energy and bio-fuel production in the twin cities Linköping and Norrköping in the Östergötland region in Sweden, the renewable energy city of Thisted and the renewable energy island of Samsö in Denmark, the renewable energy and industrial symbiosis application in the city of Moss, Norway, and the Eco-Industrial-Park developments in China and South Korea. The objective of the presentation is whether the different characteristics of industrial symbiosis applications can be synthesized to provide conditional scenarios for new pathways to sustainable economies. In reflection to learning processes from several industrial symbiosis cases about historical settings of companies, trust, industrial symbiosis, academic research and regional stimulation, such knowledge can help further developing the application process of industrial symbiosis in different countries.
Weight Of City Overtime: Spatial Material Stock Analysis Using 4D-Gis (Abstract #210)
Hiroki Tanikawa, Ji Han and Seiji Hashimoto
A huge amount of construction material is required in urban areas for developing and maintaining buildings and infrastructure. Ageing stocks, which were built during a period of rapid growth in Japan (1955–1973), will cause a new waste flow in the near future. In order to assess urban metabolism with regard to building and infrastructure, it is necessary to understand change in its material accumulation both ‘spatially’ and ‘temporally’. In this analysis, material accumulation over time is elucidated using four-dimensional Geographical Information Systems (4d-GIS) data at an urban scale.
Integration Of Life Cycle Inventory Data Into Environmentally Extended Input Output Model For Calculation Of Material Flow Indicators: Results Of The Eurostat Project (Abstract #214)
Karl Schoer, Jan Kovanda, Jürgen Giegrich, Christoph Lauwigi, Axel Liebich, Jan Weinzettel and Stephan Moll
Environmentally extended input output analysis (EE-IOA) is a useful tool for calculating material flow indicators, which include imports and exports in the form of raw material equivalents (RME), i.e. all raw materials needed abroad/in the exporting country to produced imported/exported commodities. The use of simple EE-IOA has, however, a major shortcoming: it assumes that the imported commodities are produced abroad using the same production technology as the identical commodities in the domestic economy. Since this assumption need not hold for a range of products (especially when taking into account imports from developing to developed countries), the results can be significantly distorted. To overcome this shortcoming, there are in general two possibilities: to build a multi-regional input output model, which uses country specific input output tables for the exporting countries, or to integrate life cycle inventory (LCI) data into the model for commodities, for which the assumption of the same production technology does not hold. In this presentation, we show the results of the Eurostat funded project “Conceptual framework for measuring the environmental impact of the use of natural resources and products“. We followed the second approach in this project and integrated LCI data into our model for selected imported commodities, namely crude oil, nature gas, metal ores and basic metals. The model benefits from high level of disaggregation of input output tables and from two ways of treating gross fixed capital formation: as a final demand category and as a category of intermediate consumption. We made the calculation for Germany and EU27 for 2000 and 2005 and show the results for both RME of imports/exports and more aggregated material flow indicators, such as raw material input (RMI) and raw material consumption (RMC).
Using Generative Design To Optimize Energy Requirements Of Buildings (Abstract #215)
John Basbagill, Michael Lepech, Mark Goulthorpe and Kaustuv DeBiswas
Material flows in buildings contribute significantly towards global energy demand. Improvements in the building design process can help to reduce these flows. One way of accomplishing this is by integrating generative design with life cycle analysis tools. Genetic algorithms, isomorphic surfaces, and parametric design are some of the recently innovated computational methods for rapidly generating designs for building components. Lacking integration with the high number of designs afforded by these tools, however, is the quantification of buildings' energy requirements. This barrier prevents generative designers from understanding the environmental impact of their designs early in the design process. Linking generative design computer tools with building energy requirements would allow designers to easily generate many design variations, visualize those components that contribute most significantly to each variation's overall energy requirements, then choose the best variation based on optimally reduced energy, rather than just conformance to design intent or aesthetic appeal. Primary factors weighing into this choice include building materials and building orientation. The life cycle assessment software program Simapro is used to determine the embodied energy of the material quantities of each variation, and an energy analysis program such as eQuest or Energy10 is used to determine the operational energy of each variation. These programs are linked to the design program Generative Components to create the design-analysis tool. By providing designers with an optimization tool that integrates the design process with life cycle assessment, the research reduces building material flows, energy consumption, and emissions, thereby shifting emphasis on the management of sustainable built environments from the construction or use phase to an early stage of the design process.
Assessment Of Resource Use By The Five Aspects: Availability, Recyclability, Substitution, Scale Up And Self Provision (Abstract #219)
Anton Zuser and Helmut Rechberger
In recent years the discussion about the availability of resources has mainly been fuelled by the increasing use of rare metals. So far, no proper assessment tool exists, which gives insight about resource use for products. This work shows an assessment approach which considers five aspects of resource use: Availability, Recyclability, Substitution, Scale up and Self provision which finally sum up to one indicator. These aspects can be quantified using only substance concentrations in products and natural deposits. The consideration behind is: with decreasing concentration production is decreasing whilst energy demand for extraction and prices are increasing. Hence, lower concentration means lower availability which facilitates efforts for recycling. Self provision can be seen as availability just bounded to a defined region and taking secondary resources into account. Substitution indicates the existence of substitutes and their preferability Scale up considers the amount of produced units and competing demands. For example: In the case of a building structure this approach gives insight whether the structure should be made out of concrete, wood ,brick or a lightweight structure. All of these materials are substitutable against each other as they fulfill the same function - housing. But lightweight construction employees aluminum and steel which is, in the case of Austria, limited in self provision. Wood is demanded in several industries and scale up can lead to restrictions. Concrete is reinforced with steel which makes recycling complicated. Therefore, this approach should help to distinguish the use of materials in products and should facilitate a more efficient use concerning resource conservation and management by formulating one indicator. It will not assess ecological and just partly economical aspects of resource use. Its application should be in the design phase of a product and can be applied on a substance, material or product level.
Albedo Changes Offset Lost Carbon Sinks Following Expanded Harvesting Of Boreal Forests For Bioenergy In Norway (Abstract #222)
Ryan Bright, Anders Hammer Strømman and Glen Peters
Expanding forest resource endowments combined with rising concerns for both climate change and energy security has prompted the formation of policies in Northern Europe designed to promote the deployment of low-carbon renewable energy technologies based on boreal forest biomass. However, recent literature has questioned the climate change mitigation-effectiveness of bioenergy, claiming that atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions are reduced only when biomass sequesters “additional carbon” above and beyond what would otherwise occur naturally over the same temporal and spatial scales. Further, with respect to land use and carbon management, it has been suggested that climate forcing impacts of changes in surface albedo related to changing land use could be equally as important as the consideration of terrestrial-atmosphere exchanges of carbon. For instance, recent literature indicates that the negative forcing effects of surface albedo change following deforestation in northern latitude boreal forests may more than offset the positive forcing attributable to a loss in terrestrial carbon sink. Thus carbon accounting alone may not give an accurate representation of the impact of forest cover changes on the total radiative forcing balance impacting the climate system. This has profound implications that could affect both land use and bioenergy policies of Northern Europe. Our research objective is to re-visit an earlier case study of forest-derived biofuel in Norway in order to re-assess climate impacts which are: 1) inclusive of the “additional carbon principle” by taking an atmospheric-flow approach to carbon accounting; and which are 2) inclusive of changes in surface albedo due to increased harvesting of forests for bioenergy. We show how these land use considerations can be modeled and their impacts quantified – at the macro level – for providing policy-relevant advice, potentially leading to more climate-friendly transport in Norway.
Pre- And Post Shift Of Peak Power Consumption In The Stockholm Region 2012 (Abstract #223)
Pia Stoll and Gargi Bag
The commercial and residential buildings contribute a major part to CO2 emissions. In simulations we have seen that reducing the peak demand in the Stockholm region would mean a CO2 emission reduction as more CO2 expensive power generation sources are used during peaks. The peak reduction can be achieved by utilizing local electricity storage and by load shifting. If local electricity storage is used, the storage will be charged when it’s feasible from a CO2 and cost perspective. The peak is then reduced from the grid perspective by consuming the storage’s electricity instead of using grid delivered electricity. In this case we have a pre-shift of the peak load as we charge the storage before the peak occurs. If instead, the loads are shifted from the peak time to a better time in the near future from a CO2 emission and cost perspective, we have a post-shift of the peak. To be able to do the pre- and post shift of the peak, an automated energy management system at the building and apartment level is required, which will pre- and post shift load based on real-time information such as price information, power grid capacity, and CO2 emissions of the current energy production mix. To be able to get a return of investment of the electricity storage factors as the total number of charging cycles, life cycle analysis, and electricity price variations over the day have to be considered. Calculations have shown that with a certain variation in electricity prices over the day, there can be a return of investment of using the storage. The electricity storage solution is currently investigated in a feasibility study in the Stockholm Royal Seaport Urban Smart Grid project and is planned to be implemented during 2012.
The Relevance Of Eco Industrial Parks In Developing Countries (Abstract #224)
Anna Meyer, Michael Ruprecht and Guntram Glasbrenner
In light of the struggle for a global green economy, Eco Industrial Development is an essential element of international development cooperation. The economy of many newly industrialized countries is growing at an enormous rate - often without political framework conditions to minimize the impact for the environment. In the context of government to government cooperation, GTZ (German technical Cooperation) offers advisory services and implements projects on the micro, meso and macro level. In this session, the general topic of Eco Industrial Park development as well as a related project in Tunisia will provide an insight on international development cooperation. GTZ capitalizes on experiences of both, the planning of new industrial parks and the transformation process of existing industrial parks. The policy level is tackled as well as capacity development to enable the park management to improve environmental performance or even encourage the use of by-products. At company level, the tools trigger a systematic management of resources, e.g. through the identification and reduction of Non-Product-Outputs. GTZ is experienced in employing more than 20 tools to foster resource efficiency and emission saving in the context of industrial park development In Tunisia, a country where 50% of industrial companies are based in industrial areas and parks, the park management plays an important role to facilitate the implementation of environmental related activities. It can as well form a link between the political framework conditions and the implementation within the parks. The case study illustrates how capacity development enables the park management, in this case an association formed by the companies situated in the park, to improve the environmental performance of the park, to mitigate emissions, and to promote the attractiveness of the parks. Elements of an industrial symbiosis taken from German examples as well as technology cooperations have been introduced with varying results which will be presented during the session.
The Characteristics Of Food Waste Generation By Food Consumption Behavior (Abstract #227)
Munsol Ju and Masahiro Osako
Many researchers have been interested in recycling food waste as a useful resource. However, the issue of food waste also involves the dark side of inefficient food consumption and environmental load of food waste excluded from recycle. The upstream study about where and how the waste generates is essential for more efficient consumption and recycling. In this study, we paid attention to food consumption behavior to clarify food waste flow because all wastes come from the consumption of the products. The goal of this study is to find the way to clarify the mechanism of food waste generation by food consumption behavior. First of all, we defined “home meal”, “convenient meal” and “eating out” as food consumption behaviors, and then we classified the characteristics of food waste to the three parts of “inedible part”,“leftover in plate” and “decayed food” considering the reason to be wasted. Basic food flow is based on the national statistic of Food Supply and Demand in Japan of 2008. As the first step, distribution coefficient (DC) of each food material by consumption behavior based on the weight of raw food material is calculated using national statistic of Family Income and Expenditure Survey of 2008 and some experimental data. The second step is to apply calculated DC to the basic food flow. And finally, the characteristics and generation source of food waste are decided along the flow by consumption behavior and drawn as a flow chart. In conclusion, the consideration of generation characteristic of food in supply chain is important factor in thinking more efficient system, and this study is expected to be valuable data for establishing food waste management policy or projecting future flow by social change.
The “Co2E-Graph”: An Environmental Tool For Guiding Urban Planning Processes. Application To The Public Space. (Abstract #229)
Joan Manuel Mendoza, Jordi Oliver-Solà, Alejandro Josa, Alejandro P. Arena, Xavier Gabarrell, Alberto Moral, Laura Pablos, Nuria García, Ruben Irusta and Joan Rieradevall
The systematized study of urban morphology has led to the development of integrated tools based on the knowledge of the relation between physical density and urban form. These tools do help planners and decision makers; however, environmental data is rarely included in them. Official predictions of CO2 emissions by cities show that they will increase up to 34% in 2030, where the built environment plays an important role. So cities are a strategic area for action to fight against Global Warming and hence Climate Change. This paper presents the Global Warming Activity (CO2e-graph) of different urban constructive solutions of the so called “civic space” of cities, a method that combines urban planning tools with environmental data, obtained through the use of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The paper develops a case study for the most usual concrete, granite and asphalt constructive solutions which constitute a significant proportion of the public space of cities, exist in most urban fabrics worldwide, and they are urban subsystem poor studied from an environmental life cycle perspective. According to their morphology and their Ground Space Index (GSI) and Public Space Ratio (PSR) values, the contribution of the constructive solution to the Global Warming per square meter of urban development can be quantified and communicated. The CO2e-graph is applicable to all types of urban fabrics and scales (street or square, island, fabric or district), as well as adaptable to any urban infrastructure or subsystem and can be extended to other environmental impacts. This tool would be of great use in supporting decision-making in the urban planning process; its advantages lie in its accurateness, adaptability and ease of interpretation.
Analyzing The Environmental Repercussion Effects Of Metropolitan Consumption Activities: An Interregional Waste Input-Output Approach (Abstract #233)
Makiko Tsukui, Shigemi Kagawa and Yasushi Kondo
This paper proposes an interregional waste input-output analysis focused on a Metropolitan region and other regions and analyzes how their lifestyles in the metropolitan region affect the waste and environmental emissions in the other regions. We constructed 2000 interregional waste input-output table for Tokyo using 2000 input-output table for Tokyo, 2000 waste input-output Table, 2000 environmental input-output table, data on inter-prefectural waste shipments. Using the constructed table, we estimated the impacts of the consumption activities in Tokyo on the industrial outputs, employments, waste emissions, CO2 emissions, and landfill consumptions in the other regions. From the estimation results, we find that the impacts of consumers’ final demand of Tokyo to other regions were not high, considering that the total final demand of Tokyo was 32.9 trillion yen. The final demand of Tokyo induced 17.5 million t-CO2 of CO2 emissions in the other regions which is 2.6% of the total induced CO2 emission, and 2.1 million m2 of landfill volume in the other regions which is 3.0% of the total induced landfill volume. However, these impacts were not negligible. The impact of the consumption activities in Tokyo on the landfill volume in other region was about 5 times as large as that of Tokyo. Although the consumption activities of Tokyo also induced economic benefits in the other regions, Tokyo has a responsibility for those environmental loads in the other regions.
From Static To Dynamic Criticality Assessment: Linking Agent-Based Modelling With Material Flow Modelling Approaches (Abstract #235)
Christof Knoeri, Patrick Waeger, Anna Stamp and Hans-Joerg Althaus
With the increasing scarce metals demand from emerging technologies such as information-, photovoltaic- or battery technologies, a (scientific and public) debate has arisen over the question, if the diffusion of these technologies could possibly be limited by future supply restrictions for mineral raw materials. Recently, several indicator-based assessment methods have been developed to evaluate the criticality of mineral raw materials, for example by the National Research Council or the European Commission. The main drawback of these methods is that they typically provide a ‘snapshot’ of the criticality of a certain material at one point in time by using static indicators for supply risk and impact of supply restrictions or economic importance. Although these methods provide insights into the mechanisms behind the criticality of raw materials, they cannot account for changes in products or activities over time. Moreover, they do not fully consider the evolution of background systems on which these products or activities depend (e.g. energy - and raw material supply chains). The approach we propose goes beyond this state of the art insofar as it includes dynamic interactions between different possible demand and supply configurations as a precondition for the evaluation of criticality. In our integrated framework, demand emerges from individual agent decisions, while the supply chain is represented by material stocks and flows. As a consequence, the framework links an agent-based demand model with a dynamic material flow model. In addition, it also includes a module for the subsequent evaluation of criticality, which is exemplarily specified for the environmental dimension of criticality by applying life-cycle assessment methodology. In our contribution we will sketch the framework and discuss first experiences from its implementation in a case study related to rare earth elements.
The Metabolism Of Urban Water Services. (Abstract #237)
Helge Brattebø, Venkatesh G., Sveinung Sægrov and Zoran Kapelan
Urban metabolism is a field of growing importance in order to understand the sustainability of urban systems (SUS). Urban infrastructures are expected to play an important role in contributing to the urban metabolism, and the urban water services, and its infrastructure solutions are of course at the core of influencing water metabolism in cities. The metabolism of urban water services, which includes not just water flows, but energy, materials, chemicals, pollutants and byproducts, are expected to be largely influenced by socio-economic variables and climate conditions (precipitation, evaporation and water scarcity), but also variables such topography, land use, urban density and population size will influence the metabolism. Due to a large span in technologies there are also differences in how water flows mobilise other flows in the system, like chemicals, energy and byproducts. In order to understand the metabolism of urban water services more fundamentally, and in a well-structured way, our approach is to “open up” the black box of urban metabolism, and examine in-depth critical aspects of the subsystem of urban water services. We develop a generic metabolism model of the urban water services, by use of MFA principles for the whole urban water cycle, including its main nodes from source to sink (water treatment, water distribution, water demand, storm- and wastewater transport, wastewater treatment), examining major flows (water, chemicals, energy, pollutants, byproducts) and their relation to demand and choice of technologies. We propose the use of Sankey META diagrammes to illustrate critical metabolism pathways for each node of the system. We extend the model approach by use of systems dynamics (SD) methods in order to capture drivers, feedback mechanisms, governance options and system changes over time, towards more sustainable urban water services in future. Our research is work in progress; to be applied to a number of European cities as part of the ongoing EU 7FP project TRansition to the Urban water Services of Tomorrow.
Self-Sustainability And Urban Material Stocks In Lisbon Metropolitan Area (Abstract #239)
Samuel Niza, Leonardo Rosado, Inês Costa, Daniel Wiesmann, António Lorena, David Quinn and Paulo Ferrão
Many studies from a variety of disciplines have shown that resource flows and additions to stock due to urban activities are an important cause of resource depletion, ecological degradation, changes to biogeochemical cycles, and global carbon emissions. However, while a great deal of attention has been placed on the inputs (materials and energy) and outputs (wastes and dispersed flows) of this system, little research has focused on the potential for employing existing stocks and associated physical flows toward improving the efficiency with which cities operate. Additionally, though little attention has also been paid to the potential role of these physical assets to act as a buffer against systematic failure of basic urban functions, several studies identify promising opportunities for increasing the resource efficiency while enhancing the overall resilience of contemporary urban centers by managing key energy and material flows. This presentation describes the work being developed in the aim of the project ResiSt - Supporting Urban RESIlience through the management of urban STock resources (Reference: PTDC/SEN-ENR/103044/2008), financed by the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation. The main objective of this project is to develop a scenario-building tool that allows for the assessment of the ability of Lisbon Metropolitan Area (LMA) to resist the shock of events, particularly those related to disruptions of the flow of critical resources. The research question framing the work involves determining if a higher rate of material cycles closing within the LMA consumption system result in greater resilience through less dependency on external resources for raw materials. The presentation will show preliminary results of the assessment of 1)the potential of employing existing stocks and associated flows towards improving the efficiency with which LMA operates;2) the role of these physical assets as buffer against the failure of basic urban functions (resilience).
Exergy-Based Eco-Efficiency Of Bio-Fuels In The Anthropocene (Abstract #240)
Wenjie Liao, Reinout Heijungs and Gjalt Huppes
Eco-efficiency can facilitate sustainability analysis by providing quantitative results to support sustainable strategies, such as dematerialization of product service and decoupling of economic growth from resource demand and environmental impacts. Limitations of eco-efficiency, amongst others, include the difficulty in choosing an appropriate aggregation metric for enumerating the environmental impact as well as an ignorance of the human-nature interaction, such as biophysical constraint and carrying capacity. These limitations may jeopardize the efficacy of eco-efficiency analysis especially when the analysis is implemented for emerging technologies that have an un-substitutable natural resource base and whose evolution in the global economy are likely to create considerable stress in the ecosphere, e.g. new technology for fuel supply. In the context of resource productivity as a variant of eco-efficiency result, we argue that these limitations to some extent can be compensated by adopting an exergy measure, i.e. biophysical resources’ maximum ability to do work, to quantify the measure of resource demand along a product’s supply chain in the variant and to supplement the result with the global anthropogenic exergy budget that may serve as a reference value to the denominator. This argument is demonstrated applying it to global bio-fuel production.
Industrial Ecology Based Road Maps For Urban Services In Developing Countries (Abstract #243)
Paulo Ferrão, Samuel Niza and Maria do Rosário Macário
As highlighted by the World Bank, urbanization in developing countries is a defining feature of the 21st century. Some 90 percent of global urban growth now takes place in developing countries and between the years 2000 and 2030, developing countries are projected to triple their entire built-up urban areas. Central and West Asia countries particularly are a heterogeneous group, with different economic systems and constraints to growth but with three main common economic patterns: they are still transition economies, most of them are landlocked, and most of them have low value added exports (mainly supported in natural resources). A considerable effort on development should be done in the next decades, namely investment in new and efficient infrastructures and associated management models, to overcome these constraints. This presentation describes the methodology developed by a multidisciplinary team towards structuring Road Maps for Central Asia Urban Systems to accelerate the modernization and increase the efficiency of their urban services. Urban Services in this context concern infrastructure-intensive services to feed basic needs as supplying potable water, transporting and treating sewage, managing urban solid wastes and promoting urban mobility. The focus is on the key role of the principles and tools of Industrial Ecology to promote an effective road map for urban systems in developing countries. IE provides an holistic perspective and the analytical foundations that are be strongly supported by quantitative analysis and the establishment of an indicator´s framework (based on DPSIR) that supports the assessment of a sustainable interaction between the urban systems and the environment, as well as the feedbacks from these interactions and where the responses should provide clear policy and investment goals. Preliminary results of modeling the current status and future scenarios will be shown.
The Governance Of Industrial Symbiosis (Abstract #251)
Wouter Spekkink and Frank Boons
One of the core insights in the literature on symbiosis is that, in addition to technical and economic feasibility, the development of symbiotic linkages depends on factors as inter-firm networking, trust and the willingness to cooperate. This insight resonates with evidence from research on collaborative planning, where these factors are conceptualized in terms of institutional capacity. Institutional capacity in industrial systems provides the context in which certain forms of inter-firm organization are feasible but it does not determine the concrete form of organization that will emerge. We refer to the concrete forms of organization as governance arrangements. We propose that there is a reciprocal relationship between governance arrangements and institutional capacity: governance arrangements can enhance the process of institutional capacity building and serve as an instrument to utilize its potential for the development of symbiotic linkages; also, when higher levels of institutional capacity are present, new governance arrangements may become attainable. The research question of this paper is: how do governance arrangements affect the development and utilization of institutional capacity in industrial systems in the Netherlands, under what conditions do changing levels of institutional capacity also change the governance arrangements used and do these relationships differ for different types of industrial systems? The types of industrial systems we will include in our investigation are industrial systems with heavy industry, harbour industry, high value industry and mixed industry. We will collect and analyse data on 10 Dutch industrial parks of each type. Our starting point for the collection of data is a database that contains detailed process data on 233 projects that were performed in a Dutch stimulation program for the sustainable development of Dutch industrial parks. From this dataset we will select the 40 parks for which we will collect additional data concerning institutional capacity and governance arrangements.
Greening The Service Industries: A Case Study Hybrid-Based Life Cycle Assessment Of A United States Engineering Consulting Firm (Abstract #254)
Scott Shrake, Amy Landis and Melissa Bilec
Service industries have become strong economic drivers within the United States and other developed nations. Once thought a clean alternative to manufacturing, it has been shown that service industries have significant direct and indirect environmental impacts. One of the major issues resulting in the underrepresented effects of the service industries is the lack of a clearly defined picture of the expansiveness of service companies. Manufacturing has distinctly visible emissions coming from smoke stacks and other end-of-pipe emissions, thus they – in theory - are easily accounted for and attributable. Services do not always have direct visible end-of-pipe emissions and it becomes easy to overlook the hidden environmental effects. To truly understand the impacts of services it is necessary to develop a clearly defined picture of all of the actions of the service. The research in this presentation addresses some of the findings and issues encountered during a two month study conducting a hybrid based life cycle assessment (LCA) of a 90 employee engineering service firm. The desired results were to both help the firm increase the sustainability of its operations, as well as develop a framework to assess other service industries. Data was gathered on a number of areas such as office energy usage, employee commuter habits and workspace energy usage, supply and material usage, and company bookkeeping data. Data such as commuting mileage, onsite energy use, and quantities calculated from purchase orders are evaluated using process LCA. Other data not appropriately modeled through process LCA (such as miscellaneous office supplies or other consulting services) are analyzed using Economic Input-Output LCA (EIO-LCA). The preliminary findings show the importance of staff and ownership having an awareness of the environmental impacts associated with their work habits, and committed to minimizing those impacts. The project resulted in improving the company’s economic and environmental performance.
Comparison Of Carbon And Water Footprint (Abstract #264)
Ertug Ercin and Arjen Y. Hoekstra
The carbon footprint has become a widely used concept in society, despite the lack of scientifically accepted and universally adopted guidelines. Different stakeholders use the term with loose definitions or metaphorically, according to their liking. The water footprint is becoming popular as well, and there is substantial risk that it goes the same route as carbon footprint. The aim of this study to extract lessons that may help to reduce the risk of losing the strict definition and interpretation of the water footprint by understanding the mechanisms behind the adoption of carbon footprint. Reduction and offsetting mechanisms are applied and supported widely in response to the increasing concern about global warming. However, the effective reduction of humanity’s carbon footprint is seriously challenged because of two reasons. The first is the absence of a unique definition of the carbon footprint, so that reduction targets and statements about carbon neutrality are difficult to interpret, which leaves room for making developments show better than they really are. The second problem is that existing mechanisms for offsetting leave room for creating externalities and rebound effects. In the case of the water footprint, the identification of how to respond is still under question. The strategy of water offsetting will face the same problem as in the case of carbon, but there is another one: water offsetting can only be effective if it takes place at the specific locations and in the specific periods of time when the water footprint that is to be offset takes place. It is argued that the weakness of offsetting in the case of carbon footprint shows that applying both offsetting and neutrality in water footprint cannot be effective solutions and ideas. A more effective tool is probably direct water footprint reduction targets to be adopted by both governments and companies.
Development And Testing Of A Tool Set To Rapidly Identify And Evaluate A Range Of Ghg Reducing Options For Consumer Goods Manufacturers (Abstract #267)
Nancy M P Bocken and Julian M Allwood
Consumer goods manufacturers aiming to reduce the environmental impact of their products are already pursuing incremental changes, but these have only small effects. One strategy to anticipate larger reductions is to prepare a portfolio of innovations providing different levels of impact reduction in exchange for different levels of commitment. This research aims to develop two tools to support this strategy. The first tool aims to facilitate the generation of radical product and process ideas giving step change emissions reductions. The features of products and processes that drive emissions were characterized with a set of indicators. A simple visual tool was created to show these indicators on a sliding scale between best and worst imaginable performance, and a leading question associated with each slider. Users are asked to evaluate current product performance on each scale, and then to envisage design changes that would shift each slider towards reduced impact. The tool’s effectiveness was evaluated in 15 individual workshops and compared with the outcomes of group brainstorming sessions. The comparison suggests that using the simple tool generally leads to a wider range of more radical ideas than emerge from group brainstorming. The second tool aims to predict the environmental benefit of each innovative option against the difficulty of implementation. A simple environmental benefit assessment method based on streamlined LCA was used to analyze impact reduction potential and a novel measure of implementation difficulty was developed. Statistical tests were used to compare the predictions of implementation difficulty against expert opinion and showed that the measure gave sensible results. The outcomes of the environmental gain and implementation difficulty assessment are visualized in a matrix to show the trade-offs of several options. Initial trials of the tool set within Unilever suggest that the tool set facilitates rapid development and evaluation of eco-innovations.
Mapping Flows Of Embodied Emissions Through The Global Production System – A Quantitative Investigation Using A Global Multi-Regional Input-Output Model (Submitted To The Ee Io Session) (Abstract #269)
Andrew Skelton and Dabo Guan
Global, environmentally extended, multi-regional input-output (MRIO) models have recently been used to investigate embodied emissions associated with finished goods (the consumption perspective) and internationally traded goods. Results have been presented as national and industry sector carbon footprints, accounting for both direct and indirect emissions occurring anywhere within the global production system. In contrast, conventional emission inventories account for only direct emissions associated with an entity under investigation (the production perspective). Several studies have explored linkages between regions and industry sectors in order to explain discrepancies between production and consumption perspectives by using Structural Path Analysis (SPA). However, the complexity of the global MRIO framework means that it is impossible to exhaustively quote SPA results. This paper presents a methodological approach that builds on SPA to exhaustively map flows of embodied emissions through the global production system, linking the production and consumption perspectives. The approach allows us to draw Sankey-type diagrams that visually unravel the cumulative flows of embodied emissions that run from the depths of the production system to the point of consumption of finished goods, picking up additional direct production emissions along the way as intermediate goods are processed. These diagrams are designed to ease the communication of results to policy-makers, industry actors and the general public. To illustrate the approach, we report results at the global industry sector level, using an empirical MRIO framework derived from the GTAP Version 7 database for the year 2004, which disaggregates global economic activity into 113 regions and 57 industry sectors. Using the resultant Sankey-type diagrams we explore the interlinkages between global industry sectors and discuss the relative weight of direct and indirect emissions associated with each industry sector through the sequential layers of the global production system. Finally we acknowledge the limitations of the approach and suggest possible future applications.
Mapping Flows Of Business Electrical And Electronic Equipment At End-Of Life In The Eu (Abstract #270)
Richard Peagam, Kirstie McIntyre, Lauren Basson and Chris France
Waste Electronic and Electrical Equipment (WEEE) is regulated in the EU through the WEEE Directive. This gives responsibility for waste arising to Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) producers, who must provide free take-back systems for both consumer and business customers. Take-back is often implemented through collectively financed compliance schemes, however it is recognised that a significant proportion of the WEEE does not reach these infrastructures for collection and treatment. A study into the fate of WEEE indicated that take-back rates from business users were considerably lower than those from consumers, consistent with EU reporting. This would appear to be counterintuitive; regular procurement contracts, unit leasing and maintenance schemes can sustain a relationship between supplier and customer beyond the initial transaction. With a more direct link to the market, and as such the waste stream, and more predictable and shorter use phases there should be fewer barriers to the collection of business than consumer WEEE. To explore the hypothesis that there are more attractive channels for business WEEE than the producer owned schemes, a questionnaire was developed to gather data from three EU countries: the UK, Germany and France. Samples were stratified by organisation size and the questionnaire was aimed at IT managers to identify those responsible for declaring a unit ‘end-of-life’ and overseeing its disposal. These questionnaires were followed up by interviews to map the third party brokers, reuse organizations and recyclers in the network and verify the questionnaire results. This paper presents the study design and analysis, including the mappings of the processes and actors. Points of aggregation, governance and potential intervention for reporting and waste management are identified and discussed in terms of producer responsibility, waste entrepreneurship and conserving resources.
Bioenergy And Land Use Changes: A Novel Approach For Assessment In Consequentional Lca (Abstract #274)
Yalda Shayeghi, Liselotte Schebek and Rüdiger Schaldach
Bioenergy potentially contributes to mitigating climate change and GHG. However, factoring in the topic of land use change GHG savings may be compromised. The issue of land use therefore contributed to a controversial discussion as to methods for assessment as well as a lack of data. To develop a novel approach to assess direct as well as indirect land use changes within the framework of consequentional LCA, we have developed a prototypic methodology for coupling the latter with a land use change model. For this purpose different types of models dealing with land use issues have been evaluated. Economic models such as GTAP, CAPRI or IMPACT that calculate the interdependence between the demands for raw agricultural materials, the agricultural land needed to fulfil this purpose and the price correlations are constrained in regard to their spatial resolution on country or regional level, which is too coarse for a detailed study of environmental consequences of land-use change. In order to overcome this limitation, we use the spatially explicit land-use model LandSHIFT to downscale the output from economic models to the grid level. Consequently, the model drivers of LandSHIFT include information on population and the production of agricultural commodities. Model output is a time series of raster maps of the changing land use pattern which can be processed as input for LCA. Using the coupled LandSHIFT-LCA model we have analysed different scenarios according to multiple prospective bioenergy targets that aim at prognosticating the impact on land use change dynamics and the consequent GHG emissions along the entire process chain in LCA especially due to land use change. Furthermore in our experiments, we analyse whether there is a linear or nonlinear function of agricultural or resource output with increasing bioenergy production targets. Result will be implemented in the methodological framework of LCA.
Uncovering General Patterns In Eips From The Complex Network Perspective (Abstract #275)
lei shi and haijia shi
Besides the classical Kalundborg case, there have been hundreds of eco-industrial parks uncovered and published across the world. Some pioneer work has been carried out to uncover general patterns on EIPs, such as the “3+2” rules put forth by Marian Chertow. However, it is still a puzzle to identify general patterns of EIPs. By choosing 15 EIP cases, including the well-known Kalundborg case, this paper uncovered general patterns in EIPs from the complex network perspective. Firstly, complex networks were created for each EIP by letting the firm or process as nodes and product or waste exchanging as lines. Then, the average degree, clustering coefficient, characteristic path length and other topological parameters were calculated for each networks, and the small-worldness, scale-free and modularity properties were identified. We found that: (1) with the evolution of industrial ecosystems, the small-world pattern merges; (2) unlike the consensus on the small-world patterns, there exists controversy on the scale-free property for industrial networks. All the 15 networks showed a better fit by an exponential distribution than a power-law distribution; (3) the scale dependent effect on topological properties was also observed in industrial networks. Generally, like the natural counterparts food webs, industrial networks are found to have network complex patterns, such as small-worldness.
Veolia’S Water Impact Index: A New Tool For Water Footprinting (Abstract #276)
Edwin Pinero, Jean Baptiste Bayart, Frank Benichou, Julien Grimaud and Emmanuelle Aoustin
The decrease of freshwater resources availability is recognized as one of today’s major environmental issues. The challenge is to find solutions that make a minimum impact on the environment in terms of water resources and energy use while maintaining and promoting economic growth. To be smarter in our decision-making processes, we need to better understand the specific local nature of our water challenges and the specific impacts of our activities on freshwater resources. In order to better understand and manage water resources, the need for calculation methods and metrics has been largely recognized. Although impacts of water use could be expressed as a combination of indicators (i.e. aquatic ecotoxicity, eutrophication, scarcity, volume abstracted); there is a need for a composite stand-alone indicator that incorporates multiple variables. Such an indicator can be used for screening water assessment, or support to decision making or communication, among other uses. Veolia’s new Water Impact Index (WII) is one variation of such as indicator- the first indicator enabling a comprehensive assessment of the impact of human activity on water resources. With this tool, for any product or process, the physical water balance is weighted by a quality index and a water stress index. This methodology is rooted in life cycle concepts and methodologies, taking into account both direct but also indirect water uses of any process. The index has been tested in what Veolia believes to be the first-ever simultaneous analysis of water and carbon on a major metropolitan area’s water cycle. A study of the greater Milwaukee area’s water and wastewater systems (serving more than 1 million people) assessed the interaction of carbon (energy) and water and their associated economic and environmental impacts. The study’s methodology assigned a value to water based on quality, quantity and resource stress. Results will be discussed.
Direct Energy Consumption Of The Chinese Passenger Car Stock Until 2050 – The Impact Of Technology And Lifestyle (Abstract #277)
Daniel Müller, Stefan Pauliuk and Ni Made Dhaniati
Passenger cars are likely to play an important role in China’s future transportation sector and the related fuel consumption and carbon emissions may represent a significant contribution to the Nation’s future energy demand and carbon footprint. In 2005, the transportation sector was responsible for 37% of China's total oil consumption, and particularly road transport accounted for 25% of that figure (IEA, 2007). Passenger car ownership was still at a very low level of 16 cars/1000 people (USA: 770/1000, Japan: 450/1000). We estimated the future Chinese passenger car stock, its energy consumption and CO2 emissions until 2050 using a dynamic, stock-driven MFA model. The parameters include population, vehicle ownership, fuel efficiency for different vehicle types and cohorts, and kilometres driven per car and year. The parameters were estimated using historical statistics for China as well as a variety of industrialized countries, which are used as benchmarks. We developed scenarios that give first estimates on the direct carbon emissions of the passenger car stock. The contribution of demographic development, affluence, and technology (fuel efficiency) is demonstrated both on the absolute and on per capita level. Given a level of 300-600 passenger cars per 1000 people in 2050, the total stock may reach 350 million to 1 billion cars, built up and being maintained by an annual new registration of 30-60 million cars per year. Cars per capita, fuel efficiency, and kilometres driven per car and year have been identified to have the biggest impact on direct fuel demand. This indicates a large potential for urban planning measures (e.g., structure of cities, public transport) to reduce carbon emissions. Gasoline consumption may reach 100...800 Mtoe/yr, corresponding to CO2 emissions of 0.3…2.5 Gt or 0.25…1.6 t/cap. Improvements in fuel efficiency can only compensate for about 30 % of the increase in fuel demand attributed to rising affluence.
Action Research For Waste Management: Applying Critical Theory To Complex Systems (Abstract #278)
Graham Aid and Nils Brandt
This discourse aims to confront a seemingly growing discontent with the rapid fire (and often stand alone) usage of traditional reductionist systems analysis tools (such as life cycle assessment, material flows accounting, and cost benefit analysis) to improve waste management systems in the context of sustainability. It is argued that waste management systems, in their complex nature, inherently require multidisciplinary and participative approaches which lie outside the domain of empirical science. Therefore an integration of critical framework methodologies, before the eventual selection and use (or abstention from) traditional tools, is argued to enable action more suitable and adaptable to the complex technological, political, and social systems of which waste management systems often entail or interact with. First presented is the dominant discourse surrounding challenges in the analysis of waste management systems and their sustainability. Emerging approaches utilizing methodologies and methods from within the critical paradigm are then outlined. One suggested coalescent use of methodologies, a bricolage, integrates action research methodologies in advance of traditional systems analysis methods. A few Action Research methods are explained to give those unfamiliar with them a sense of their weaknesses, benefits, and sources of rigour. In focusing on the dual aims of action and research this bricolage may, to varying degrees, move the researcher further from a (often quite uncertain) descriptive position toward a more normative or even ‘facilitative’ position. While not without its own challenges such as time use and subjectivity, it is argued that applying more inclusive and flexible approaches, such as those outlined, can add to the further development of responsible resource management.
Measuring And Controlling National Consumption Of Global Resources (Abstract #280)
Stefan Bringezu
Still there is no global governance for sustainable resource management. Instead, national policies determine the boundary conditions, and thus the incentives or disincentives for the use of global resources in domestic production and consumption. The presentation will show major global trends of resource use in terms of materials (abiotic and biotic) and land use, and suggest global targets for sustainable use according to the concept of safe operating space. Indicator data showing domestic and foreign resource use for domestic consumption will be presented for the European Union and Germany. Policy targets for economy-wide sustainable resource management are suggested which comprise the "big three", ie global warming potential, abiotic total material consumption, and global land use change. The latter is particularly designed to control the expansion of global cropland, whereas for forestry biomass consumption reference is made to the proportion of global net annual increment which is used for national consumption. Cross-sectoral and sector specific strategies and measures are described which national policies can implement to control the domestic consumption of global resources at levels which can be supplied equitably and sustainably. Depending on the time slot available, also reference can be made to ongoing review of the working group on land and soil of the International Resource Panel co-chaired by the author. The presentation would be rather of a cross-thematic character.
From Environmental Concerns Towards Sustainable Food Provisioning (Abstract #281)
Helmi Risku-Norja
The presentation explores the possibilities of assessing ecological sustainability of agriculture by using two different approaches. In the first approach the MFA-methods from industrial ecology are applied to agriculture, whereas the other is based on the food consumption scenarios. The two approaches were used in order to capture some of the impacts of dietary changes and of changes in production mode on the environment. The methods are applied at levels ranging from national to sector and local levels. Through the supply-demand approach, the viewpoint changed between that of food production to that of food consumption. The main data sources were official statistics complemented with published research results and expertise appraisals. The generic indicators based on commensurate data are unspecific signals that show overall development trends. In order to translate the information provided by the generic indicators into practical measures so as to actually improve the state of the environment the environmentally critical issues and areas need to be identified. This requires more detailed data at local scale. Re-localised food production has been suggested as a strategy for sustainabilizing food provisioning. Instead of focusing on a single environmental issue, only at the plot and plant level or on farming systems, an area-based approach with the focus on the food systems is stressed. A useful unit in this research could be an entire foodshed area including both the rural source areas of food production and the population centres of food consumption. In such a context the many linkages of food to sustainability become obvious and can be translated into a real life situation that is concrete and approachable also in practice. This directs the focus of the research from contentious and ambiguous general environmental costs and benefits to actually promoting sustainability within a particular foodshed area.
Modeling Life-Cycle Inventories Of Hydroelectric Power Plants (Abstract #291)
Vincent Moreau, Gontran Bage, Denis Marcotte and Rejean Samson
Hydroelectric power production accounts for approximately 16% of world electricity output. Despite widespread claims of hydroelectricity being a renewable source of power, very few studies on its potential impact exist. Indeed less than a handful life cycle assessments have been conducted on hydro power plants resulting in poor data quality from inventory databases. The specificity of hydroelectric power makes up for much of this void and lack of data. Hydro power plants come in many different forms and for different reasons. Moreover, large hydropower plants were constructed long ago and even larger ones are built today, multiplying the data collection effort. In this paper, the authors propose a classification of hydropower plants based on characteristics variables such as the type and capacity of a plant, annual production, surface and volume of reservoir if any, most of which are available from public sources for both existing and future power plants. We then estimate the dependent variables of material and energy flows, as well as emissions with models adjusted from spatial statistics instead of process based ones. With data from one of the world's quintessential example of hydroelectric generation, statistical models are tested for a range of characteristic variables. It is found that their descriptive qualities overlap and they can be reduced to one or two independent variables. Furthermore kriging as a statistical estimator, performs better than more common interpolation techniques. Uncertainties regarding the dominant phase in the life cycle of hydro power plants – construction and materials – can therefore be reduced. The added value of kriging is limited in the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions based on the power density of a reservoir hydroelectric plant, however, empirical studies suggest much higher emissions factors than previously reported.
A Mash-Up Approach For Environmental Impact Assessment Of Websites. (Abstract #292)
Jorge Luis Zapico, Nils Brandt and Marko Turpeinen
Internet usage has grown exponentially during the last decade, and its environmental impact is gaining relevance (Malmodin et al 2010). This impact is mostly hidden for both users and developers. To make this impact visible we developed Greenalytics* , an application for generating automatic environmental assessments for web sites based on mashing-up (remixing) existing information. It combines web usage statistics with environmental impact data to automatically calculate an approximation of a website’s carbon footprint. The impact is divided in two parts: 1. The user impact of the website is the environmental impact generated by the users while browsing the site (electricity). The total CO2 is calculated by aggregating the total time visitors from each country spent in the site with how much electricity a computer consumes and with the electricity factor of that country. 2. The server and infrastructure impact is calculated using the total data traffic generated by the site and an approximation of the energy used by internet per data unit, multiplying with a electricity factor of the country where the server is located. Using a mash-up approach for making the analysis had the benefits of: a. Accessing real time data and updating the calculations dynamically as new data arrives. c. It allows users to analyze their own data to check their impact, building a bottom-up set of measures. This type of mash-up environmental impact analysis can become soon possible for other products and services, as more and more data is accessible through web services. Greenalytics is a proof of concept showing the possibilities of such approach and relevant to new paradigms for Industrial Ecology where ICT is central (Davis et al, 2010; Zapico et al 2010). * http://www.greenalytics.org References: Davis, C., Nikolic, I. and Dijkema, G. P. (2010), Industrial Ecology 2.0. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 14: 707–726. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-9290.2010.00281.x Malmodin, J., Moberg, Å., Lundén, D., Finnveden, G. and Lövehagen, N. (2010), Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Operational Electricity Use in the ICT and Entertainment and Media Sectors. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 14: 770–790. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-9290.2010.00278.x Zapico, J. L., Brandt, N. and Turpeinen, M. (2010), Environmental Metrics. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 14: 703–706. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-9290.2010.00272.x
On Definition Of Footprints And Consumption Based Indicators In An Input Output Framework (Abstract #293)
Jan Weinzettel and Troy Hawkins
In recent years a consumption based accounting has gained an increased popularity. The consumption based indicators, often denoted as footprints, are usually defined without any explicit definition of the time frame and spatial horizon. Input output analysis is a very powerful tool in consumption based accounting, since it allows very straightforward calculation of embodied flows with a relatively low data requirements in comparison to life cycle inventory approach. The definition of footprints and consumption based indicators has to be clarified in an input output framework regarding spatial and time frame. The spatial horizon is usually well understood and the footprints are defined regardless the national boundaries, i.e. all induced flows are accounted for irrespective of the region where they occur. The time frame can differ depending on the specific footprint definition. Input output framework is very useful to distinguish flows from the time perspective, but can introduce a misunderstanding as well. In our contribution I will discuss different definitions of footprints regarding temporal perspective, i.e. I will focus on capital formation and depreciation of capital; and the respective adjustments in the footprint calculation procedure. The aim is: (1) to clarify what adjustments are needed when the flows which occurred in past should be accounted for, what are the underlying assumptions and resulting limitations; (2) to discuss what should be included in the consumption based indicators, i.e. what should be treated as consumption for the footprint calculation.
What Are The Rules For Biogenic Carbon Accounting? (Abstract #294)
Eric Johnson
Most assessments of biofuels assume carbon neutrality, that biogenic emissions should be excluded from a carbon footprint. This rings true in guidelines from the World Resources Institute, ISO’s 14040 and 14064 series and BSI’s PAS-2050. It is clear in studies by governments to determine subsidies and support for biofuels. It is confirmed by a survey of over 100 publications by 56 researchers about solid biomass fuels. Only one researcher did not presume wood to be carbon neutral. This ‘carbon neutral’ assumption makes an enormous difference in carbon accounts and in policy. If harvested logs burnt as fuel are considered carbon neutral, their carbon footprint is far lower than that of natural gas. If the logs’ biogenic carbon emissions are counted, then their carbon footprint is much higher than gas’s. Rabl et al note that this can lead to absurdity. If carbon neutrality is presumed, it makes no difference to a carbon footprint if a forest is standing or if it has been chopped down for fuel wood. Some researchers have contradicted the ‘carbon neutral’ assumption. Their opposing view, that biogenic emissions should be counted, has only recently begun to attract significant attention. Probably the most noticed critique was from Searchinger et al (Fixing a Critical Climate Accounting Error. Science, 326, 527–528, 2009), which caught the attention of policy makers, who then instituted accounting rules for land-use change. A recent study by Manomet has prompted the Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources to re-think of carbon accounting for biomass-fired power stations. This paper will review the history and current state of biogenic-carbon accounting rules, including the ISO/CEN rules being developed under the EU Renewable Energy Directive. Without taking sides, it will define the debate for researchers and policy-makers, reflect on its significance and suggest possible means of resolution.
Tosia – A Tool For Sustainability Impact Assessment, Applied To Forest-Wood-Chains (Abstract #300)
Tommi Suominen, Marcus Lindner, Diana Vötter, Irina Prokofieva, Bernhard Wolfslehner, Filip Aggestam, Martina Roubalova and Petr Kneblik
Sustainability impact assessment (SIA) studies how factors such as policy, management or technology development affect the sustainability of a sector or value chain and helps decision-makers to decide which actions should or should not be taken. An approach for assessing the sustainability impacts of changes in Forest Wood Chains (FWC) was developed by combining material flow calculation with indicators of environmental, social, and economic sustainability. The Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment (ToSIA) implements SIA by analyzing FWCs as chains of production processes which are linked by products. In the core of the ToSIA tool is the dynamic calculation of material flows through a FWC. This brings out quantitative differences between processes or the impact of a varying flow for a single process when comparing between FWC alternatives. ToSIA multiplies the calculated material flows with quantified relative environmental, economic, and social indicator values for the processes along the FWC. The results are compared to runs derived with alternative assumptions, which illustrates changes in sustainability indicator values. A change in an indicator result value in response to a changed external driver is a quantified impact. The ToSIA package also includes a database with an interface for designing FWC topologies and chain related data entry. Additionally, there are modules to evaluate results with multi-criteria analysis (MCA), cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and policy analysis. For example, quantified indicator results for alternative FWC options can be evaluated with MCA by different stakeholders according to their preferences for different sustainability dimensions. The ToSIA package serves as an transparent platform for assessing impacts of decision alternatives in policies or FWC technology and it can be applied at scales ranging from local to (inter-)continental. Target users of the tool and its assessments include scientists, consultants and policy makers.
Comparison Of Electricity Allocation Methods For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (Abstract #301)
Jarod Kelly and Gregory Keoleian
The introduction of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) to the consumer market has raised questions about how fuel economy should be calculated. The reason fuel economy is difficult to determine for a PHEV is that this type of vehicle can travel on both gasoline and battery electricity. Correlating electricity to a fuel economy equivalent is difficult because consumers are not accustomed to thinking of fuel economy in its energy equivalent form. But, more important than fuel economy, from an environmental assessment perspective, are the life cycle emissions associated with PHEV energy consumption. The life cycle impacts of gasoline use can be determined through established methods. However, the life cycle impacts of the electricity used in a PHEV are more challenging, primarily because no agreed upon accounting methodology has yet been established. This research explores the differences between several methodologies for determining the life cycle impacts of electricity consumption. Two methods are based on historical average grid emissions information applied to electricity consumption, while two other methods are based on electrical grid dispatch models. The grid average emissions methods examine two characteristics: the total grid average and marginal grid average. The dispatch methods examine an hourly moving total grid average, and an hourly moving marginal average. ‘Marginal’ refers to electrical generators in a grid operating above an anticipated base load generation. Applying emissions rates from marginal electrical generators to PHEVs implies that PHEV load is unexpected and it will only be met by these marginal facilities. Using a grid average approach implies that utility planners have anticipated PHEV demand, thus emissions can be assumed as shared between all generating facilities. We find significant differences (up to an order of magnitude in some case) in emissions predictions using these different methods. This has important implications for the life cycle assessment of electricity demand.
Examining Environmental And Financial Performance Of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles For The Greater Toronto Area Using A Novel Method To Represent Regional Driving Conditions (Abstract #302)
Leon Raykin, Heather L. MacLean and Matthew J. Roorda
The environmental and financial performance of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) is dependent on driving conditions, which can be represented by a driving cycle. However, driving cycles used for conventional vehicle performance testing tend to underestimate the aggressiveness of real world driving and do not take into account significant regional differences. For these reasons, analyses of PHEV performance should be completed at the regional level, incorporating local driving data. We have developed a novel method for analyzing the region-specific performance of PHEVs. Our method involves using linked traffic and vehicle motion models to create driving cycles which are then imported into vehicle simulation software (PSAT) to estimate fuel and electricity consumption. We have applied the method in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) by developing scenarios that represent a wide range of common driving conditions in the region. Through application of the method, we are identifying the most appropriate applications for PHEVs in the GTA. In a preliminary analysis, driving cycles were developed for a congested city commute and a relatively uncongested highway commute in the GTA, both lasting approximately 40 minutes. Results show that, compared to a conventional vehicle, the PHEV exhibits larger reductions in fuel consumption, GHG emissions and operating cost for the city commute (73%, 53% and 55%, respectively) than the highway commute (37%, 27% and 28%, respectively). These differences are attributed to two main factors: 1) the city commute is shorter in length, resulting in a higher electric fraction of vehicle kilometers traveled; and 2) hybrid operation, which is responsible for a substantial portion of the PHEV’s benefits, is superior on the city cycle. Further research will involve examining a larger range of driving conditions and PHEV configurations, and performing more comprehensive analyses of vehicle energy, environmental and cost performance.
De-Centralized Automated Demand Response Control For Residential Buildings (Abstract #305)
Pia Stoll and Nils Brandt
More than 5 billion people have access to electricity increasing their quality of life. But the social and economical advantages have come at a price of environmental disadvantages. 40 percent of the total GHG emissions are today generated by power plants. The Stockholm Royal Seaport is a new sustainable city area to be built between 2009 and 2025. This presentation will discuss the automated demand response solution, a residential building infrastructure project part of the larger Stockholm Royal Seaport Urban Smart Grid project. The solution’s target is to shift and reduce residents’ electricity consumption in a way that reduced GHG emissions at the same time as it saves electricity cost with minimal impact on the resident’s comfort level. A customer specific contract that stipulates demand response settlements will be set up between demand response service provider and demand response customer. The customer can be the household or the building manager and the demand response service provider is typically the utility. Contract specific signals are communicated between demand response service provider and the customer’s energy management system. The energy management system is owned by the customer and calculates what electricity control needs to be locally exercised in order to save the optimal amount of GHG emissions and cost. Simulations have been done to confirm that automated demand response control in the form of shifted electricity consumption and reduced electricity peaks has a positive impact on GHG emissions at the same time as reducing electricity cost. During 2011, the project will set up and validate the de-centralized automated demand response control solution in a lab environment and in 2012 install the solution in residential buildings in Stockholm Royal Seaport. Key performance indicators will be developed by the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) and used to evaluate the sustainability impact of the solution.
Lca, Nanotechnology, And Scale: Assessing The Promise Of Nanomaterial Based Photocatalysis (Abstract #307)
Ben Wender
Abstract – Nanotechnology has been suggested for numerous applications that directly address climate change and renewable energy production. One example is the photo-assisted conversion of CO2 into methane using TiO2 nanotube arrays. If successful, direct photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to simple hydrocarbons could provide a pathway to closing the industrial carbon cycle. However, nanomaterials have been identified as extremely energy and resource intensive to produce. On a life-cycle basis, it remains unclear whether the energy and material requirements to produce nanomaterials such as TiO2 nanotubes will actually be environmentally viable. This determination will be significantly influenced by the extent to which nanomanufacturing processes become more efficient as they increase in scale and experience. Unfortunately, there at present is no consensus with regard to appropriate methods for life cycle assessment (LCA) of rapidly emerging technologies such as engineered nanomaterials. Several recent publications have emphasized the importance of a life cycle perspective when setting a nanotech research strategy. This proposal suggests a unique approach to LCA of emerging technologies by combining laboratory experimentation with experience curve and manufacturing modeling. This novel combination of methodologies will allow me to forecast the environmental implications of large-scale TiO2 nanotube production for photocatalytic conversion of CO2 into useful hydrocarbon fuels while the research and technology development can still be steered towards environmentally benign pathways.
Analyzing Industrial Symbiosis As A Policy Tool For Environmental Efficiency Among Firms (Abstract #309)
Raymond Paquin, Suzanne Tilleman and Timo Busch
Over the past few decades, policy makers have increasingly struggled with finding ways to promote economic development without undue additional environmental burden. One reason is the perceived tension among policy makers and business leaders that environmental protection competes with competitiveness and economic development (Filbeck and Gorman 2004; Walley and Whitehead 1994). While early attempts at balancing these issues were viewed as one of trade-offs (the natural environment v. economic development), organizational scholars have increasingly moved towards viewing environmental and economic matters as complementary in developing environmentally oriented economic competitiveness (Porter and van der Linde 1999; Orsato 2006; Russo 2010). Scholars and policy makers have considered Industrial Symbiosis (IS) as potential one approach for overcoming this tension. IS stresses the advantages of eco-efficiency (Ehrenfeld 2005), or ways firms may seek economic competitiveness while managing / reducing their environmental impacts (Chertow 2000; Cohen-Rosenthal and Musnikow 2003; PCSD 1996). Yet, to date little research has actually explored the benefits firms may accrue through their involvement in IS (c.f., Chertow and Lombardi 2005 for an exception). The work that has been done suggests that despite the ideal of mutual economic and environmental benefit through IS, the benefits to individual firms are uneven (Chertow and Lombardi 2005). To better understand the particular benefits of IS, we analyze 3574 IS projects undertaken by the National Industrial Symbiosis Programme (NISP). In particular, we explore the conditions IS where IS projects generate high environmental and economic return for the firms involved versus other projects. In doing so, we provide greater insight into the types of projects firms and policy makers may wish to pursue for greatest eco-efficiency. This, in turn, contributes to our understanding of how IS may be used as an environmental and economic management tool.
Exploring High-Resolution Urban Resource Demands With Activity-Based Modelling (Abstract #312)
James Keirstead and Aruna Sivakumar
Cities are responsible for a significant portion of global resource consumption and associated environmental impacts. To understand these linkages between urban areas and their hinterlands, researchers often perform urban metabolism analyses that consider the city as a whole and at an annual time scale. These restrictions are largely due to the limited spatial and temporal resolution of available data sets (though this is improving). However, the efficiency of the infrastructure systems that convert these trans-boundary resource flows into the actual services used by citizens can depend on variations in demand at finer temporal and spatial scales. A better understanding of intra-urban resource flows is therefore a prerequisite if water, waste, energy and other systems are to achieve improved performance. This presentation will examine how these intra-urban resource demands might be explored through the use of activity-based modelling. These techniques are traditionally used within transportation and land-use planning, but the outputs they generate can also be used to simulate resource demands at high resolutions (for example, 5 minute intervals temporally and neighbourhood-scale spatially). We will review the key features of this approach, in particular comparing it with agent-based simulation, as well as illustrating how it might be applied in the case of urban energy systems. The results show that activity-based modelling is a promising method for examining urban resource demands, although obstacles remain in data collection, model parameterization and transferability.
Consequential Life Cycle Assessment On Corn Ethanol Expansion In The U.S. Using Multivariate Analysis (Abstract #313)
Junghan Bae, Junbeum Kim, Scott Yee and Sangwon Suh
The new Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) mandates that 15 billion gallons of renewable fuels must be obtained from corn by 2022. The mandate also requires corn ethanol to have 20% less life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than their fossil equivalent. However, the complexity and various assumptions in economic models used in the regulatory life cycle GHG analysis prevent quantifying incremental change in environmental impacts from the models’ applicability in Consequential Life Cycle Assessment (CLCA) on biofuels. The quantification process has to be transparent and elucidated. The aim of the present study is to quantify potential life cycle impacts induced by corn ethanol expansion in the U.S. Using a consequential approach, we examine the incremental changes in environmental impacts induced by drivers of the changes in agricultural commodities by 2022. To gauge future consequence, we analyze causal relationships and sequences in historical changes across agricultural commodities. Our study found that, from 2000 to 2010, the U.S. ethanol expansion resulted in different adjustments in crop production, livestock, animal feed and land use. Of total domestic corn use in the U.S, about 30% loss in ‘corn for feed’ has been used for 35% increase in ‘corn for ethanol’. Remaining 5% was taken from corn for ‘food’ and ‘industrial and seed use’. Corn expansion also affected land use and conversion. For instance, much of extra corn acreage occurred by crop rotations between corn and soybeans. Other sources include cropland used as pasture and shift from other crops such as seed cotton. In order to project consequential environmental impacts, the analyzed historical changes will be described as a function of ethanol demand by 2022. In the study results, the quantified changes will be converted into environmental impacts with LCA and ascribed to the changes in corn ethanol demand.
The Construction And Handling Of Chemical Risk Information In A Paint Supply Chain (Abstract #315)
Kristin Fransson and Sverker Molander
Due to environmental and health concerns, the composition of paint has changed during the last 20 years, going from organic solvent-based to mainly water-based paints. Following this development, the number of chemical substances used for paint production has increased dramatically. The large number of substances emphasizes the importance of information about potential risks connected to the chemicals for all actors involved in the supply chain of paints. Requirements for handling and construction of chemical risk information that affects both chemical producers and paint producers are included in REACH, the European chemical legislation that came into force 2007. Knowledge about how chemical information in the supply chain is formulated and distributed and how the information is perceived is important, since better information and information handling can support chemicals management and facilitate minimizing the chemical exposure of humans and environment. Knowledge of supply chain information processes can also inform companies and governments policy-making when striving to reduce chemical risks. The aim of this study has been to investigate how chemical risk information is constructed and communicated up- and down-stream in a paint supply chain in order to give a generalized picture of the information flows. Several actors in the supply chain have been covered, such as chemical producers, paint producers, paint distributors and users, and also waste handlers. Which chemical properties and information that is requested from different actors in the supply chain has been investigated as well as how the implementation of REACH has affected the handling, construction and content of chemical risk information. Another important aspect that has been analyzed is whether the information differs depending on the intended use of the paint, i.e. private or industrial.
A Methodological Framework For Designing An Industrial Symbiosis-Modeled Configuration Of Forest Biorefinery (Abstract #316)
Anthony Halog and Najet Bichraoui
Attaining industrial sustainability at the local/regional level requires collaborative efforts from participating firms or actors toward common goals including resource conservation, production efficiency, economic viability, low carbon emissions, and corporate social responsibility. To pursue these goals, our existing socio-technical systems should transition or evolve towards achieving industrial sustainability. This study aims to operationalize the notion of system’s sustainability by developing a methodological framework and model for designing an industrial ecology-modeled forest biorefinery system. The weakening forest product industry in Maine is at the core of this proposed eco-industrial park development. This will attempt to demonstrate a conceptual model of the dynamic exchange of wastes and resource utilization to produce sustainable value-added products and systems. We are using this framework to assess sustainability-related impacts within closed-loop material and energy flows as well as to understand and support the evolution of forest products industry to an industrial symbiosis-based biorefinery system. The integrated decision making tool (which is under development) can help in evaluating such system in view of reducing the overall consumptions of energy and natural resources, and improving the economic, environmental and social performance of an eco-industrial park. System dynamics (SD), materials flow analysis (MFA), life cycle assessment (LCA) and agent-based modeling (ABM) are currently being applied to explore their applicability for designing prospective configurations of an industrial ecosystem while taking into account the impact of new actors, and introduction of emerging biomass-based technologies and its relevant energy and environmental policies.
Diversity, Functionality, And Behavioural Responses As Determinants For Resilience And Robustness Of Industrial Network Evolutions. (Abstract #322)
ruud kempener, peter kaufmann and sigrid stagl
Industrial networks that are more resilient and robust are better able to cope with future shocks and shifts. In previous work, we have developed a method to compare the resilience and robustness of different evolutionary pathways by measuring the level of diversity and ‘excess capacity’ of industrial networks at any point in time (Kempener 2008). This method measures resilience and robustness based on the ‘relative’ difference between different evolutionary pathways, but does not explain the mechanism by which industrial networks respond to shocks and shifts. Furthermore, it does not explain how organizational behaviour or network performance might impact the resilience or robustness of industrial networks. This paper has developed an alternative method to explore the resilience and robustness of industrial networks (Kempener, Kaufmann et al. 2009). It examines industrial networks using three network characteristics affecting the resilience and robustness of ecological systems (McCann 2000; McCann 2007) : (1) its diversity; (2) the functional performance of its groups; (3) and, the interactions of its species. However, these three characteristics change over time and are interdependent in industrial network evolutions, which complicate the analysis. First, we developed a conceptual method of regional industrial networks from a supply chain perspective. Second, we constructed an empirical agent-based model of six regional agricultural supply chains in Europe. Third, we developed an analytical method to measure and determine the role of these three characteristics within a common framework. Fourth, the paper explores the consequences of different policy measures for improving the resilience and robustness of agricultural supply chains. The paper will present these four steps and provide the conclusions of this analysis.
Biofuel Production On Marginal Urban Lands (Abstract #328)
Amy Landis, Xi Zhao, Chris Rovensky, Claire Antaya and Jason Monnell
Biofuels have been put forward as an important segment of renewable energy alternatives to replace fossil fuels. However, since current methods for biofuel production consume feedstocks that come largely from agriculture and forestry, large-scale biofuel production generates social concerns such as food security and land use rights. Hence, recent research attention has turned towards marginal and degraded lands. In many cities, urban development gives rise to a large amount of unused degraded lands; in Pittsburgh 10% of land can be categorized as either brownfield or grayfield. Growing biofuel crops on the degraded lands provides an opportunity for producing feedstocks in addition to phytoremediating the land. This research is designed to examine such an idea by utilizing Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. Complimentary experiments are being conducted where sunflowers, soybean, canola, corn and camelina are grown on five experimental plots that are scattered around Pittsburgh with different levels of contamination. The change of the soil conditions where the fuel crops are planted was monitored over several growth cycles. The concentration of contaminants in soil was determined via Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Plant samples were collected throughout the growth season. Each plant will be separated into roots, stem, leaves and seeds for the determination of the contaminant concentration in different parts of the plant. The results from these tests will provide valuable insight into the phytoremediation potential of fuel crops and the feasibility of growing biofuels on marginal lands. Moreover, the laboratory data will be combined with a life cycle model to evaluate the total environmental impacts of biofuels from marginal lands.
Comparative Environmental Life Cycle Assessment Of Conventional Diesel And Electric Mass Transit Buses (Abstract #329)
Gregory Cooney, Joe Marriott and Troy Hawkins
In 2005, there were approximately 50,000 diesel powered public transit buses operating in the United States, consuming over 500 million gallons of fuel annually. As a result of the combustion process alone, transit buses account for 5.9 million tonnes of CO2, 59,000 tonnes of NOx, and 1,300 tonnes of PM emitted to the atmosphere annually. Even though buses only represent 1% of all of the transportation vehicles in the United States, they accounted for 44% of the 50 billion mass transit passenger miles in 2005 and they often operate in dense urban centers where air pollution is significant due to congestion. Many transit agencies have considered adopting other fuels or bus technologies to reduce air pollution emissions. As of 2009, 30% of the buses in the United States were using some type of alternative fuel blend or propulsion technology. Various types of electric vehicles are receiving attention with the forthcoming release of the Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric and the Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles. Advancements in battery technology and volatility in crude oil prices have made these vehicles economically viable and it is likely that the technology will migrate to other vehicle platforms. Life cycle assessment has been utilized in the literature to compare conventional gasoline powered passenger cars with various types of electric and hybrid powered alternatives; however, no similar detailed studies exist for mass transit buses. This study contributes to the existing knowledge on the topic by applying LCA to determine the differences in life cycle air emissions from two variants of a mass transit bus. The research question being studied is whether a battery electric or conventional diesel bus contributes more air emissions for the entire life cycle, with a specific emphasis on emissions associated with Li-ion battery production based on recently published work.
From Liquid Metal To Products: Mapping The Global Flow Of Steel And Aluminium (Abstract #331)
Jonathan M. Cullen
Industry is responsible for one third of the world’s energy and process related carbon dioxide emissions. Yet consumers make little connection between distant carbon belching factories and the products they buy at will. Whether it is a mobile phone, a hybrid car or new apartment that is purchased, these products will have a manufacturing history that effects a release of CO2 to the atmosphere. Industry exists to satisfy the demand for products—products that are complicit in creation of CO2 emissions. Understanding the connections which link the industrial system to final purchased goods is imperative. The production of steel and aluminium goods alone accounts for nearly 10 per cent of global CO2 emissions, related to energy and industrial processes. Our understanding of steelmaking and aluminium production is relatively complete. Primary producers are well represented at the global level and material flow data is readily available up until the point of sale, as ‘finished products’ in the form of bars, beams, and sheet. Part of this research involves presenting this data in the form of a visual map (Sankey diagram) to allow the relative metal mass flows to be compared. More importantly this study continues to track metal flow, through a myriad of manufacturing processes to the ‘final products’ purchased by consumers—exploring links which to date have rarely been studied or quantified. Global maps are produced and CO2 emissions assigned to each flow, which show not only the relative importance of products and processing routes, but also the effect of process efficiency gains, manufacturing yield improvements and product design changes, on CO2 emissions. It is noted that carbon mitigation options are available throughout the metals supply chain, not just in primary metal production as often reported.
Co-Product Treatment In Lcas Of Agricultural Products: A Case Study Of Commercial Beekeeping (Abstract #333)
Alissa Kendall, Juhong Yuan and Sonja Brodt
Co-product treatment has proven to be a critical step in life cycle assessment (LCA) applied to agricultural systems and agricultural products. Agricultural production systems often result in multiple products due to crop rotation, repurposing of residues, or crop processing methods that are designed to create multiple streams of valuable co-products. The challenge of co-product treatment in LCA of agricultural systems is demonstrated in the literature on bioenergy and in the vigorous discussion of co-product treatment in food product and food system LCAs. While undertaking an LCA of honey production in the U.S. we encountered a particularly challenging production system, beekeeping. Typical commercial-scale beekeepers produce two primary co-products: honey and pollination services. We found the only clearly viable method was economic allocation given that pollination services cannot be evaluated on a physical basis, system expansion is not possible because there is no substitutable product or process, and subdivision is not possible because some beekeeping practices cannot be disaggregated and assigned to honey production or pollination services alone. However, a bounded subdivision analysis was possible. By assigning processes that benefit both honey and pollination services to one or the other products we were able to determine a bounded range for honey production using subdivision. When comparing the subdivision-based bounded range to economic allocation outcomes, we found that economic allocation usually fell near the lower bound of subdivision, or fell below the bounded range. We propose that undertaking a bounded-range analysis is a critical step in understanding how a selected co-product allocation method may reflect the actual burdens of production. In fact, by recommending that LCA practitioners test a bounded range for subdivision, the coherence of outcomes for any co-product treatment approach can be tested and explored leading to greater understanding of the role or influence of co-product treatment in an LCA.
Thermodynamic Consideration On Accompanying Elements During Cyclic Use Of Metals (Abstract #336)
Kenichi NAKAJIMA, Osamu TAKEDA, Takahiro MIKI, Kazuyo MATSUBAE, Shinichiro NAKAMURA and Tetsuya NAGASAKA
MFA is an excellent tool to quantify material balance in specific areas. It is also useful to systematically evaluate environmental burdens and resource consumption. Representative studies for metals, such as iron and copper including recycled resources and metal scrap, have provided important information for a better understanding of the structure of resource supply and demand. However, discussions of the complex web of metals and their linkages (relationships of elemental coexistence in natural and secondary resources) have been insufficient in most traditional MFAs, except for a few studies (Nakamura et al. 2008; Reuter and Verhoef 2004). In their extensive works, Reuter and Verhoef (2004) suggested the importance of understanding metal linkages in natural resource processing by introducing the concept of the “metal wheel”. Even these representative studies, however, do not provide sufficient information on the limitations of impurity removal and the recoverability of elements in the recycling of metal products. One of the best tools to predict and understand the behavior of impurities in the recycling of EoL metal products is a knowledge of metallurgical physical chemistry. In our previous articles, we extensively discussed the thermodynamic behavior of impurity elements in the metal, slag, and gas phases of the steel-making process, copper converters, lead blast furnaces, the imperial smelting process (ISP) of zinc and lead (Nakajima 2009), the remelting process of aluminum (Nakajima 2010), and the remelting process of magnesium (Hiraki 2010). To graphically represent the results of our evaluation we proposed a chart named as the “element radar chart” (Nakajima 2010) plotting the distribution tendencies of the metal elements processed by the methods previously described. In this study, we discuss metal resource recoverability and impurity removability in the recycling of metal products based on thermodynamic knowledge. We also discuss a MFA approach combined with the thermodynamic knowledge.
Reconceptualizing Product Systems Using Lca (Abstract #337)
Carla R. Vitolo Coelho and Sarah J. McLaren
Numerous Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies have been undertaken in the last twenty years but very few papers examine the process of undertaking an LCA within an organisation. This paper discusses the experiences of three out of six manufacturing firms that commissioned LCA studies as part of a Life Cycle Management training programme in New Zealand. Implementation of the LCA studies led to reconceptualisation of the product systems under study – with varying degrees of acceptance by the companies: -Manufacturer of high quality outdoor timber: when considering ‘decking’ not only the surface timber sold by the company but also the sub-frame and the chemical treatment of the sub-frame material could play a major role for certain impacts associated with decking. -Manufacturer of hot-runner systems for plastic injection moulding: reconceptualising involved expanding the functional unit from production and delivery of a ‘hot runner system’ to ‘production of plastic caps,’ and demonstrated the negligible contribution of electricity use compared with plastic use (reduced plastic wastage being a feature of this particular technology). -A decorative design company producing lampshades: for this company the shift in perception of the function from ‘production and delivery of a lamp shade’ to ‘provision of light’ yielded insights into the environmental improvement needs of different markets depending on their electricity mixes. During the process of undertaking the LCA studies all the companies exhibited resistance to redefining the functional unit in terms of the expanded functions delivered. They perceived their products in terms of the physical objects provided rather than the functions delivered, and activities downstream in the life cycle were often regarded as outside their control. In the context of Life Cycle Management, this redefinition of functions provided – and acceptance of expanded responsibilities in the value chain – is central to implementation of life cycle thinking.
China’S Resource Use And Its Relation To Economic Growth In The Period Of 2000-2007: A Decoupling Analysis (Abstract #342)
Heming Wang, Qiang Yue, Zhongwu Lu, Seiji Hashimoto and Yuichi Moriguchi
Reducing resource use is an effective way to improve environmental quality at root, because resource use will finally end up as waste and emissions. Accordingly, decoupling resource use from economic growth in absolute term has been one of the top topics with respect to sustainable development in recent years. From 2000 to 2007, China doubled its GDP from 1.2 trillion dollars to 2.4 trillion dollars. It is therefore of great interest to know China’s decoupling performance of resource use under such a sharp economic growth. Indicators derived from economy-wide material flow accounts (EW-MFA) are effective for decoupling analysis of resource use. The decoupling indicator for resource use (Dr, developed by Lu), which equals the decreasing rate of resource use per unit of GDP divided by its critical value when resource use keeps constant regardless of GDP’s increasing or decreasing rate, was used to measure the decoupling degree between resource use and GDP. In this study, by using EW-MFA and Dr, we aim to find the evidence on (de-)coupling of resource use from economic growth in developing China. Results show that in the period of 2000-2007, China’s direct material input (DMI) increased dramatically from 5.6 billion tons to 8.5 billion tons, with an increasing factor of 1.5. With respect to DMI, China’s resource use only decoupled from GDP in relative terms, with Dr of 0.47. According to the condition of each year, absolute decoupling happened in 2001 and 2004 (Dr=1.03 and 1.53), relative decoupling happened in 2002, 2005, 2006 and 2007 (Dr=0.65, 0.22, 0.05 and 0.36), and non-decoupling happened in 2003 (Dr=-1.08). Based on this decoupling condition of China, suggestions for policy making are given to raise China’s decoupling degree of resource use.
Distribution Ratio Of Alloying Elements On Remelting Process Of Light Metals By Thermodynamic Analysis (Abstract #343)
Takehito Hiraki, Osamu Takeda, Kenichi Nakajima, Kazuyo Matsubae, Takahiro Miki, Shinichiro Nakamura, Xin Lu and Tetsuya Nagasaka
Distribution ratios of more than 26 kinds of elements among metal, slag and gas phases in remelting (recycling) process of light metals such as aluminum, magnesium and titanium have been evaluated and the removability of impurities during the process with conventional pyro-metallurgical techniques has been discussed by thermodynamic analysis. For magnesium remelting, it was clarified that calcium, gadolinium and yttrium can be removed from re-melted magnesium alloy scrap by oxidization. Calcium, cerium, gadolinium, lanthanum, lithium, sodium, strontium and yttrium can be removed by chlorination with salt flux treatment. However, the removal of other elements, including aluminum, copper, iron, nickel, and silicon, is difficult since these elements are very stable in magnesium phase. These results support the fact that most impurities contained in magnesium alloy scrap are scarcely removed in practical operation. Another technological option for the recycling of magnesium alloy scraps is magnesium recovery by a distillation process. Based on thermodynamic considerations, it is evaluated that high purity magnesium can be recovered by distillation due to its high vapor pressure, yet there is a limit of recoverability that depends on the alloying elements and the large energy consumption. Therefore, for the sustainable recycling of end-of-life magnesium products, the composition of advanced magnesium alloys should be carefully considered. Discussion will also be extended to remelting process of end-of-life aluminum and titanium products.
Algorithm For Estimating Hourly Electricity Dispatch Using Publicly Available Information For Application To Clca (Abstract #345)
Vineet Raichur, Duncan Callaway and Steven Skerlos
Dispatch models have often been used to simulate operation of the electricity production system and to analyze its response to potential changes. This type of modeling is essential for consequential life cycle assessments (cLCA) involving electricity emissions under significant load changes such as those created by electric vehicles. In this paper, we develop a modeling approach using publicly available information that can be integrated into a cLCA framework for calculating marginal electricity emissions and demonstrate that it is viable under robust variations in power grid characteristics within the United States. Specifically, we identify six major operational constraints (along with other minor factors). The model was used to simulate the production of electricity in Texas and New York for one year and the results show a close match to the known values (these values were not used to populate the model). Additionally, when the set of constraints were totally lifted the sum of marginal emissions over the year was nearly 48% lower than that in comparison to when constraints were in place. Therefore the role of these constraints in achieving quality estimates is therefore established and useful to cLCA models of power systems.
The Evolution Of Facilitated Industrial Symbiosis (Abstract #346)
Raymond Paquin and Jennifer Howard-Grenville
While much work has been done on the conditions surrounding the emergence and development of industrial symbiosis, new attention is being paid to understanding the evolution of industrial symbiosis over time (Baas and Boons 2004; Chertow 2007; Doménech and Davies 2010). We join this conversation by demonstrating empirically how a new facilitated industrial symbiosis initiative developed and evolved over a five-year period. Specifically, we longitudinally explored how the UK’s National Industrial Symbiosis Programme (NISP) supported regional industrial symbiosis development. Our empirical findings suggest that even facilitated industrial symbiosis involves opportunities for serendipitous discovery of potential IS exchanges between firms. Further, as the industrial symbiosis development proceeds, relationships are deepened and more complex exchanges are enabled. These findings affirm earlier work on the role of self-organization and embeddedness in industrial symbiosis development (Boons and Howard-Grenville 2009; Doménech and Davies 2010), suggesting that facilitated and self-organizing systems may show similar patterns of development. However, we also find that the facilitated industrial symbiosis became increasingly directed over time, with the coordinating body increasingly focusing on (engaging) firms and projects that helped deliver on its own overall goals. This more goal-directed evolution can ‘squeeze out’ serendipitous processes, raising questions about renewal within and overall resilience of the industrial symbiosis system. We discuss implications for a more generalized theory of industrial symbiosis development by exploring why and how different evolutionary trajectories may unfold.
Transitions In The Energy And Material Profiles Of Singapore'S Water Resources: An Assessment Of The Past 50 Years (Abstract #350)
Karen Welling and John Fernandez
Singapore is an affluent city-state on a small island in Southeast Asia. As its population and economy have grown, so has its demand for freshwater. Over the course of the past 50 years, Singapore has expanded its water supply by importing water from Malaysia and constructing water desalination and reclamation treatment infrastructure. Internal water catchment in 2009 accounted for only 20% of the water supply for the city and its services, with imports, reclamation, and desalination meeting the remaining 40%, 30%, and 10% of supply, respectively. By 2061, Singapore plans to have replaced all imported supply with water from reclamation and desalination. Each water supply technology exhibits a different consumption intensity of energy and materials. In this study, we establish the material and energy profiles of the different water supplies in Singapore. Using data on the domestic water footprint over the past 50 years, we establish the material and energy burden of the total water supply for Singapore. From this study, we draw conclusions about the resource requirements of Singapore's future water plans. Transitioning to a supply dominated by desalination and reclamation may free Singapore from reliance on land, a resource to which Singapore certainly has limited access, but it increases its vulnerability to material and energy scarcity and other uncertainties. This study provides a framework for considering the water-energy-material nexus. Finally, this study suggests a useful model for examining water intensity for other cities, many of which have been progressing through similar water use transitions.
Material Diversity Metrics For Sustainable Product Systems (Abstract #352)
Erinn Ryen and Callie Babbitt
To date, industrial ecology research has generally focused on ecosystems and symbiosis in an effort to model industrial systems after more sustainable, natural ones. While the ecosystem is an appealing metaphor and has resulted in tools such as material flow analysis (MFA) and life cycle assessment, practical model implementation, like industrial eco-parks, is challenged due to lack of political/social context, scale complexity, diversity of flows, and temporal and spatial heterogeneity. Other ecological concepts, like product-level population ecology perspectives, are potentially useful, but have received limited examination. In addition, characterization of stable system traits, such as diversity, remains focused on ecosystem scales. Therefore, our goal is to construct a new research framework based on community ecology and apply it to test cases in information communication and technology (ICT) product systems. ICT is selected because its diverse, complex end of life (EOL) material stream contains hazardous and valuable substances and is growing and evolving as the products’ forms and functions change. Using this community ecology framework, a new bottom-up Diversity Flow Model, which combines dynamic product/MFA and Shannon-Weaver diversity index, is constructed to illustrate ICT’s EOL structure, composition, and diversity for multiple spatial scales. Results for three ICT products and 15 materials show product diversity and evenness increasing, while material diversity increases and evenness decreases. Therefore, material distribution becomes more uneven with fewer species possessing a majority of material stream mass. Understanding unevenness of material streams may ultimately help streamline EOL processing. However, EOL businesses that depend on high-valued, smaller-sized species or on dominant, larger species may become more vulnerable to system perturbations such as scrap metal prices. Thus, evolution in EOL material diversity has repercussions for EOL business models and product design practices seeking to optimize material recovery and minimize resource consumption, pollution, and waste generation.
Life Cycle Inventories For Cnt Applications (Abstract #353)
Jacqueline Isaacs, Christopher Bosso and Ali Hakimian
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an integral methodology to moving nanomanufacturing to sustainable commercial scale production, with the first step as inventory collection. Preliminary work on the environmental assessment of the fabrication of a carbon nanotube (CNT) switch has been reported. Applications that implement CNTs can have a wide range of CNT concentrations. For instance, the CNT switches in a cell phone may have a lower concentration of CNTs than a CNT polymer mesh material for electromagnetic interference shielding. In this work, life cycle inventories for four additional emerging products (e.g., chemical- and bio- sensors, batteries, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding) requiring differing concentrations of carbon nanotubes are presented throughout their entire product life cycle. The variation in CNT concentration may also alter the product’s environmental impact and require different regulations during use and EOL. Our effort leverages processes that are under development at our institution for novel directed self-assembly processes and techniques for continuous and scalable nanomanufacturing. The reported information highlights drivers associated with environmental burden of manufacturing CNT devices, and this can be used to explore whether processes can be adapted to reduce burdens. By evaluating the environmental impacts, researchers and system developers can work towards optimizing production conditions and processes. Therefore, this work serves as a foundation for development of environmental footprints of manufacturing products using CNTs and can be used to promote responsible nanomanufacturing.
Evaluating The Ability Of Recycling Allocation Approaches To Capture The Timing Of Material Flows And Emissions For Aluminum (Abstract #354)
Colin McMillan and Gregory Keoleian
Allocating the environmental burdens of open-loop metals recycling is a polarizing and contentious issue for the life cycle assessment (LCA) community. LCA practitioners have developed numerous approaches, yet few studies have quantitatively evaluated their assumptions and compared their results. Consequential and systems-expansion approaches, which aim to quantify the indirect effects of recycling, have received very little scrutiny of their suitability for metals. These approaches most often rely on assumptions of market behavior and introduce layers of complexity not encountered in traditional LCA. We analyze the performance of four allocation approaches for calculating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for aluminum. Two of these approaches, value corrected substitution (VCS) and end-of-life recycling (EOLR) have been specifically advocated for aluminum. We find that the VCS approach, as well as the market-based approach, fails to capture the temporal nature of aluminum recycling and GHG emissions. More seriously, the EOLR approach is found to distort the timing of material flows and emissions relative to the recycled content (RC) approach in two case studies. The case study of a hypothetical fleet of aluminum automotive engine blocks finds that emissions associated with initial production account for over 99% of total GHG emissions using the RC approach and 36% to 50% using the EOLR approach. Estimated total GHG emissions in the same case study are 18% and 79% larger using the EOLR approach than the RC approach. The distortion of the timing of emissions has particular implications for climate change, as well as any other emission with time-dependent impacts. Additional analysis of the effects of emissions timing is performed using a time correction factor for carbon dioxide.
Optimal Design And Allocation Of Electrified Vehicles And Dedicated Charging Infrastructure For Minimum Greenhouse Gas Emissions And Life-Cycle Cost (Abstract #356)
Elizabeth Traut, Chris Hendrickson, Erica Klampfl, Yimin Liu and Jeremy Michalek
Electrified vehicles, including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from personal transportation by shifting energy demand from gasoline to electricity. GHG reduction potential depends on vehicle design, adoption rate, driving and charging patterns, charging infrastructure, and electricity generation mix. We construct an optimization model to study these factors by determining optimal design of conventional vehicles (CVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), PHEVs, and BEVs and optimal allocation of vehicle designs and charging infrastructure in the fleet for minimum lifecycle GHG emissions over a range of scenarios. We focus on vehicles with similar size and acceleration to a Toyota Prius under urban EPA driving conditions. We find that under today’s U.S. average grid mix, the vehicle fleet allocated for minimum GHG emissions includes HEVs and PHEVs with ~30 miles (48 km) of electric range. Allocating only CVs, HEVs, PHEVs, or BEVs will produce 86%, 1%, 0%, or over 13% more life cycle GHG emissions, respectively. Unlike BEVs, PHEVs do consume some gasoline; however, PHEVs can power a large portion of vehicle miles on electrical energy while accommodating infrequent long trips without need for a large battery pack, with its corresponding production and weight implications. Availability of workplace charging for 90% of vehicles optimistically reduces optimized GHG emissions by 0.5%. Under today’s U.S. average grid mix, electrified vehicles provide only small GHG emission improvements over HEVs. Under decarbonized grid scenarios, larger battery packs are more competitive and reduce life cycle GHG emissions significantly. This presentation will also address petroleum consumption, life cycle cost, and lifecycle cost-effectiveness of GHG emission reductions.
Modeling The Effects Of Energy Efficiency Improvements On Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Of Products And In Determining Policy Effectiveness (Abstract #360)
Derrick Carlson
While much is understood about energy efficiency, little effort has been exerted to explore its effectiveness relative to alternative policy that reduces greenhouse gas emissions such as renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and low carbon fuels (LCF). Using a three region Multi-Regional Input Output (MRIO) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) model, this research seeks to quantify life cycle greenhouse gas reductions from industrial energy efficiency for consumer products and services at three levels; (1) within the state of California, (2) in the United States, and (3) around the globe. This research also aims to examine how the use and end-of-life phases of the life cycle of specific products influence current policies (specifically RPS and LCF). It is hypothesized by the author that energy efficiency policy achieves greenhouse gas reductions more rapidly and cost effectively in the short term future than the integration of renewables into our current energy production mix. These benefits will also be observable in the long term, although energy efficiency likely will not be sufficient by itself to meet the greenhouse gas reductions that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recommends. The fourth report by the IPCC calls for reductions of 50%-80% of emissions incurred in the year 2000[1] which likely will require multiple solutions including energy efficiency programs. It is also proposed that including the use and end-of-life phases in the analysis of state and national level RPS and LCFS will significantly affect their assessed effectiveness but will not change the findings that these policies do not yield sufficient results [2]. [1] IPCC. (2007). Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press. [2] Huang, A. (2009). Life Cycle Management of Reducing Impacts on Climate Change at a Regional Level.
Can We Design An Effective National Low-Carbon Fuel Standard? (Abstract #362)
Kimberley Mullins, Matthew Kocoloski and W. Michael Griffin
California continues to support a low-carbon fuel standard (LCFS) as its policy of choice for reducing life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from transportation. An LCFS categorizes liquid fuels based on characteristics such feedstock type and source, and conversion technology. In a biofuels context, expanding an LCFS to a national scale offers an opportunity to address regional variability in agricultural practices that are unaccounted for in the current renewable fuel standard under EISA 2007. The question of whether or not an LCFS can be designed to reduce the uncertainty surrounding highly uncertain life-cycle emissions remains. This work uses a model we developed to quantify uncertainty in life-cycle biofuel emissions to produce region-specific emissions distribution functions. Examining the sensitivity of the regionalized models to input parameter distributions reveals parameters to which the outcome is most sensitive. Where these parameters can reliably be reported (which may include fertilizer use, crop yield, or fuel production energy source), a point value can be assigned in place of a distribution, thereby reducing the variance of the output distribution for a specifically characterized fuel type. We evaluate the impact of regionalization by comparing statistics for the regional distributions and the non-regionalized distribution. Preliminary results suggest fixing the parameters mentioned above reduce variance by less than 10%, meaning the uncertainty is dominated by emissions sources (including as land use change) that cannot be pinned down for specific fuels. Additionally, we consider a new complication introduced by such a policy: adverse selection. Fuel producers will likely only report life-cycle emissions that are more favorable than the posted emissions value (or distribution) to receive credit. The emissions data collected and used to update the regulation targets will not represent the true value because of this reporting bias. Intelligently picking the initial emissions targets can incentivize a wider sampling of emissions reporting.
Business Case Of Industrial Sector Engagement In Conservation Efforts Of A Large Marine Ecosystem In The Philippines (Abstract #381)
Rico Ancog
Conservation programs of large marine ecosystems require particular attention owing to its wider geographical scope and biological characteristics, diversity of stakeholder groups involved and the challenge in the identification of suitable institutional arrangements to be implemented. Focusing on the Verde Island Passage (VIP) in the Philippines, considered as the “center of the center of global marine biodiversity,” this study evaluated fringing 70 industries in terms of its environmental performance and corporate social responsibilities (CSR) initiatives and were analyzed in comparison to interviews conducted among concerned coastal local government units. Survey results were validated and focus group discussions participated in by various stakeholders were conducted to provide mutual re-orientation of respective operations so a more unified cooperation could be explored at. Results show that industries are implementing environmental management systems in its operations in observance to international standards and majority of its Corporate Social Responsibility programs are towards environmental quality and community improvement. These, however, need to be fully maximized by the public sector and the contribution of non-governmental organizations where identified necessary to provide catalytic role in bridging such gap. With the realization of the common dependence to the coastal resources, recognition of the existing threats to VIP has been achieved and the need to move forward as partners has been recognized. Alignment of various sectoral concerns: livelihood provision for the fisherfolks and other resident of local government units; strengthened marine conservation efforts for the non-governmental organizations; and an enhanced community reputation for the industries, were found critical to advance collective action towards a more enhanced conservation program.
Substance Flow Analysis On The Tramp Elements Associated With Iron And Steel Scraps Based On Wio-Mfa Model (Abstract #382)
Hajime Ohno, Kazuyo Matsubae, Kenichi Nakajima, Shinichiro Nakamura and Tetsuya Nagasaka
Recently, the amount of steel production has been increasing in the world. On the other hand, the availability of high grade iron ore which is used to produce primary steel by blast furnace and converter has been decreasing year by year. For these tendencies, iron recycle process by electric arc furnace (EAF) will be much more important. In the steel recycle process, various kinds of iron and steel products are treated as secondary iron source. These products also contain other substances as accompanying parts or alloying elements. Therefore sometimes, there will be a risk of contamination of undesirable elements. Especially, copper is one of the most undesirable elements in the steel recycling process as a tramp element because copper makes workability of steel worse at high temperature. Copper is used as electric cable in various steel products. If the copper contained parts are not removed before recycle process, they end up to be mixed into iron and steel scrap. In iron and steel recycle process, once copper melt with iron in EAF, it can never be removed from remelted steel thermodynamically. This situation should be avoided from the view point of resource management. In this study, the possibility of undesirable contamination in the steel recycling process was evaluated by using WIO-MFA model. WIO-MFA model can determine the route and form which materials flow into products. From this feature, the usage of copper in products and the parts which should be removed before recycling can be identified. From the results, we suggest the optimum treatment for iron and steel scraps to save limited iron resource.
Eco-Industrial Park Development In China: Matrix, Environmental Performance And Future (Abstract #388)
Jinping Tian, Binjie Lai and Lvjun Chen
Since the beginning of the 21st century, China’s economy has witnessed a two-digit growth on average. However in the mean time, China has encountered a critical bottleneck of key resource shortage and environmental deterioration. The resources scarcity, environmental pollution and green house gas emission have become a great burden on China’s sustainable development. The Industrial sector is ranked the No.1 sector for environmental pollution and is always criticized. It has struggled to conquer the problem of environmental pollution during the past 10 years, and is looking for leapfrog on environmental promotion during the following 5-10 years. The government started the Eco-industrial park development since 1999 to improve the environmental performance of industrial sector. In China, EIP is mainly preferred to the National Eco-industrial Demonstration Park. The development of EIP is under the joint guide of the Ministry of Environmental Protection, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of commerce. As to now, there are 12 titled EIPs and 30 EIP candidates. What the government most concerned on EIP development is as following: (1) what is the quantitative environmental performance of EIP? (2) In China, there are 222 national industrial areas, 1346 provincial industrial areas, and more than 2000 local industrial areas. What the Chinese matrix for EIP development is? Can an EIP development model suitable to China’s current developing stage be generalized? (3) If there is a Chinese matrix for EIP development, how can it be used to guide the eco-industrial development of the more than 4000 industrial areas and industrial parks? Based on case study of the 12 titled EIPs and 30 EIP candidates, the matrix of China EIP development, its environmental performance and future low carbon development are studied.
Potential Reductions In Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Maritime Transport By Shipping At Lower Speeds (Abstract #394)
Haakon Lindstad, Bjørn Egil Asbjørnslett and Anders H. Strømman
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from maritime transport represent a significant part of total global emissions. According to the International Maritime Organization (IMO), maritime transport emitted 1 046 million tons of CO2 in 2007, which corresponds to 3.3% of the world’s total emissions. IMO’s Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MECP) is currently debating both technical and market-based measures for reducing GHG emissions from shipping. This paper presents investigations on the effects of speed reductions on the direct emissions and costs of maritime transport. The focus has been directed to identifying emissions and cost for the global fleet as a function of speed under various priorities, and the results show that there is a substantial potential for reducing CO2 emissions in shipping: emissions can be reduced by 19% with a negative abatement cost (cost minimization) and by 28 % at a zero abatement cost. Since these emission reductions are based purely on lower speeds, they can in part be performed now. Achieving the full potential will however require more vessels to be built. KEY WORDS: Maritime transport; Speed reductions; Greenhouse gas emissions
Eco-Innovation Of A Paper Mill Through Industrial Symbiosis In Ulsan Eco-Industrial Park Initiative (Abstract #395)
Hung-Suck Park, Shishir Kumar Behera, Seok-Hee Kim, Jung-Hoon Kim and Sang-Yoon Lee
Eco-innovation includes all forms of innovation in an organization that results in reducing environmental impacts and/or optimizing the use of resources throughout the life cycle of each activity. Hankuk paper (HP) has been pioneer of the paper industry in South Korea since its establishment in 1958. Yearly 520,000 tons of base paper and 250,000 tons of coated paper are manufactured in this mill. Traditionally HP mill was using Bunker-C oil as the fuel to run the boiler for its steam requirement. However, consequent upon the Rio earth summit in 1992, HP mill attempted to minimize its pollution generated due to Bunker-C use and in the late 2003s; it received 40 ton/h of steam from a copper smelting and refining company through a spontaneously evolved symbiotic network. In a later stage, subsequent to the introduction of EIP master plan in Korea in the year 2005, the HP mill was supported by Ulsan EIP center to establish more symbiotic networks based on the center’s research and development into business (R&DB) framework. Consequently, the mill pursued symbiotic relationships with an industrial waste incineration company and a zinc manufacturing company that provided the remaining part of the mill’s steam demand (82 ton/h). Besides, the zinc manufacturing company also provided concentrated CO2 (8 ton/h) required for the production of CaCO3 in the HP mill. As a result, there is no need of any associated utility to run its production unit at the moment. This type of planned/designed symbiotic relationship has enabled the HP mill to reach at almost “zero-emission”. This paper has attempted to show the gradual enhancement of eco-efficiency with the evolution of symbiotic relationships, which could be an integral part of eco-innovation in Ulsan industrial park.
Sustainable Industrial Development? Comparison Of A Port-Industry Cluster In China And The Netherlands (Abstract #397)
Chang Yu and Gerard Dijkema
During the last three decades, China has achieved a significant economy growth, accompanied by high pollution and severe resources depletion. Since 2003, the relevant policies of circular economy (CE) have begun to be implemented to relieve the associated environmental pressure. China’s industrialization in many respects resembles industrial development in Europe and the US since the industrial revolution: a development characterized by economic growth and severe pollution detrimental to human health and environment, followed by environmental policy and regulation. Only after two centuries, the ideas of industrial ecology have begun to impact the (re)development of industrial clusters. To elucidate development and intervention strategies, this paper analyses and compares two representative brownfield industrial regions in China and the Netherlands, Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area (TEDA) and the Rotterdam-Rijnmond area. The background of China’s CE policy on EIPs and the Industrial Ecosystem Program in Rotterdam-Rijnmond are introduced. Then this article reviews relevant concepts of IE, such as EIP, industrial symbiosis complexity and institutions. The two cases are analyzed in the terms of institutional technical and environmental dimensions. It is concluded that the rapid transformation of TEDA relies on the China’s top-down reform mechanism, while the sustainable evolution of Rotterdam-Rijnmond harbour industrial complex indicates the importance of bottom-up participation based on comprehensive actors subject to national and EU regulatory regime and market conditions.
Characterizing Stakeholders' Behavior And Coordination Processes Of Ie Projects: Methodology And Case Study (Abstract #398)
Irene Adamides, Sabrina Brullot and Muriel Maillefert
Industrial Symbiosis (IS) is the operational implementation of Industrial Ecology (IE). Such initiatives aim at cycling material and energy flows between companies located on the same territory. However, technically suitable substitution of resources, market mechanisms and geographic localization of industrial actors are not sufficient success factors. A large number of eco-industrial synergies have been identified in the world but only a few have become operational. Hence, we suggest that coordination processes with regard to implementing and maintaining IE experiments between private actors (or private and public actors) are essential to the success or failure of IS. These processes depend on specific organizational and social conditions. Our contribution aims at presenting results of individual behavior specification and coordination process analysis on two French IE projects drawn from the methodology developed within COMETHE (Research project started in 2008 and aiming at developing methodological and assessment tools). Our methodology is composed of two analytical grids aiming at: - Generating a typology of stakeholders according to their ability to lead or coordinate IS projects. Our approach rests on the analysis of three behavioral attributes: power, legitimacy and interest (advantages or benefits resulting from IS). - Assessing coordination processes of actors involved in IS. Our purpose is to analyze their interactions in terms of collective action in order to highlight local strategic properties regarding territorial governance. Applied in ex ante analysis, this methodology sheds light onto the social and organizational context of a territory and may be used as a decision-making tool defining relevant strategies. It can also be used for ongoing projects on advanced territories in terms of IE such as Aube and Dunkirk territories. Our purpose is to analyze coordination processes and stakeholders' specifications from a dynamic perspective in order to make recommendations for IE project management.
Consumers’ Preference Assessment For Environmental Labeling And Recycling Collection Scheme Of Plastic Food Containers Using Choice Experiments (Abstract #399)
Jun NAKATANI, Takayuki ISHINO, Kiyo KURISU and Keisuke HANAKI
In this study, feasibility of novel recycling collection scheme of plastic food containers were assessed from the viewpoint of consumers’ preferences using choice experiments. To perform this analysis, we chose a case study of hypothetical recycling collection of plastic containers with a deposit system at boxed-lunch chain stores. The price of boxed lunches, the amount of refunds of the deposit system, and types I and III environmental labeling of their plastic containers were assumed to be consumers’ choice criteria for the purchase of boxed lunches and the return of their containers. A web-based questionnaire survey for choice experiments was conducted in December 2010. Respondents were asked to choose the most desirable alternative among three alternative boxed lunches that were characterized by the above choice criteria in each choice set, and then were asked whether or not they were willing to return the used plastic containers to the stores. On the basis of the results of choice experiments, consumers’ preferences for environmental labeling and recycling collection scheme of plastic containers and their synergistic effect, as well as the difference of consumers’ preferences between types I and III environmental labeling, were statistically analyzed, and the collection ratio of used plastic containers depending on the amount of refunds of the deposit system and the type of environmental labeling was simulated.
Mining The ’Invisible City’ - Prospecting For Metal Resources In The Urban Infrastructure Of Norrköping (Abstract #401)
Per Frändegård, Björn Berglund, Annica Carlsson, Mats Eklund and Joakim Krook
Urban metabolism and material flow analysis research often stop at the assumption that the difference between the input and output flows of for example metals is stocked somewhere in society. In this article, we scrutinize and locate these stocks in more detail in the Swedish city of Norrköping, and aim for results, which could be generalized to apply for other Swedish cities as well. We present a finegrained material stock analysis of the urban infrasystems and apply a multi-level approach based on studies of GIS-data and digitalised maps, as well as statistical documents and printed maps from the city archive. The focus is on the amounts of copper, zink, aluminum and iron in the urban underground infrastructure. A spatial focus is placed on the industrial area of Södra Butängen, which is the target for a brownfield development project. We assume the possibility for metal recovery in this area to be significantly higher since the ground will be dug up for sanitation purposes as the area is shifted from industrial to residential zoning. Following the characterisation of different urban typologies existent in Norrköping, e.g. suburb, industrial area and inner-city, representative metal quantifications (in metric tonnes/area unit) is calculated for the following systems: the water and sewerage system, the city gas pipes and district heating grid, the telephone and electric cables, the traffic and city lights wires and co-axial cables from the cable-TV networks. Following the methodology described above, we are not only able to calculate the total stock of these metals, but also the quantities in ”hibernation” or not-in-use. The results are presented as concentration gradients of in-use and hibernating metal stocks on a city map of Norrköping. Such knowledge about the magnitude and location of metal resources potentially accessible for recovery is essential for facilitating realization of urban mining initiatives.
An Innovative And Sustainable Strategy To Meet The Need Of Infrastructures Of Territories: A French Case Study Of Use Of Secondary Raw Materials In The Construction Of A Road (Abstract #402)
Sabrina Brullot, Marion Stoos and Gregory Lannou
The French context about the environmental impact of public works is probably similar to other European countries. There is an increasing pressure on resources caused by a growing demand for raw materials in urbanized zones, while at the same time, there are less and less legal authorizations to open quarries. As a consequence, the tendency of this regulation is to encourage the use of secondary raw materials. Our purpose is to discuss an innovative and sustainable strategy to meet the need of infrastructures of territories. We will present a two-year project in collaboration with ADEME (French agency of environment and control of energy), Industrial Ecology Club (guild) of Aube, Eiffage (public works firm) and BRGM (French public organization of geological and mining researches). This project is based on a French case study of road construction where local secondary raw materials have been used, as well as new techniques saving energy: the Troyes’s South-Eastern ring road, which has been rewarded by the French Ministry of Ecology in 2008. At first, we analyze strategies and coordination processes set up by the stakeholders during the construction of the road. We focus on the human (organization and governance) and on the technical context to find out how to facilitate the use of secondary raw materials, especially in French public procurement contracts. Furthermore, economic and environmental efficiency is highlighted. For example, 23 000 tons of raw material and 420 000 euros have been saved for the construction of the road surface. Finally, the result is to discuss how this strategy based on local context (including organizational and technical innovations) could be generalized thanks to the identification of barriers and levers that have lead to the present road (strategies of cooperation, capitalization of knowledge, territorial scale of action, public-private partnerships, etc.).
Review Of Data, Estimation Techniques, And Allocation Methods For Linking Water Use With Consumption Activities (Abstract #403)
Stephan Lutter, Troy Hawkins, Ertug Ercin and Thomas Wiedmann
In a globalised economy, local water depletion and pollution are often closely tied to consumption elsewhere as water used to produce exports results in trade not only of commodities but also of 'embodied' or 'virtual' water. Integrating economic and environmental water data within a single framework allows for modelling the interactions between the economy and the environment in order to quantify the relative benefits of mitigation measures. Multi-regional input-output models can track the distribution of water use within countries and across countries, but they require appropriate water accounts with an acceptable level of accuracy and specificity for policy-making. The present paper tries to answer the following questions: (1) What sources of data measuring water use are available? (2) What imputation techniques are available for creating estimated water use datasets? (3) What are the challenges encountered in allocating water use to consumption activities? We describe different approaches for quantifying water use in different production areas as well as how to associate this water use with consumption activities. Finally, we discuss the adequacy of the presented methods and identify the most important steps towards an evidence-based water policy.
Assessing The Environmental And Economic Sustainability Of Land-Use Systems With A Consequential Life Cycle Approach: A Case Study Of Food, Feed, Fuel, Fibre And Carbon Sinks In The Uk (Abstract #406)
Miguel Brandão, Roland Clift and Llorenç Milà i Canals
In view of the competing demands on land to feed people adequately, sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services and mitigate climate change, there is a clear need for a systematic basis for allocating land use with respect to economic and environmental objectives. This study formulated an integrated environmental and economic assessment of the global consequences of changing current land use in UK with different land-use strategies for food, feed, fibre, fuel and carbon sequestration. Novel operational approaches are proposed for resolving methodological issues, and are applied in the characterisation of the main land-use strategies in the UK. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was used for the environmental assessment, with emphasis on ecosystem carbon balances as the contribution to both global climate change and ecosystem impacts. A parallel economic assessment was integrated with LCA. The results indicate that diverting food to either feed or fuel generally does not deliver improvements in all three criteria (i.e. of mitigating climate and biodiversity impacts, while creating extra economic value), but generally results in greenhouse gas (GHG) emission savings, mainly due to indirect land-use change (iLUC) effects. Intensification in all land uses almost never saves GHGs. Conversely, extensification in all land uses almost always saves GHGs, but results in higher impacts to ecosystems. Expanding arable crops onto grassland never results in GHG savings, and only a few combinations of crops on set-aside will save GHGs. Only intensive strategies present Pareto improvements. Forestry crops always perform well. With very few exceptions, it is best to leave grassland untouched as its output avoids the use of marginal feed production. Expansion onto set-aside is undesirable by arable cropping, but desirable by energy and forestry crops. The former are best used for electricity whereas the latter as carbon sinks, even though no economic value is generated in the foreground system.
Deposit-Refund Systems Revisited: Categorization Based On Objects And Exploration On Further Applications (Abstract #407)
Tomohiro Tasaki, Daisuke Numata and Naoko Tojo
Collection of waste and recyclables is a prerequisite for reuse and recycling. Even if demand for secondary products/materials and recycling facilities exist in society, recycling and reuse as a form of efficient use of resources and materials cannot be achieved without an effective collection system. One prevailing idea to increase collection is to give economic incentives for collection and deposit-refund systems is a typical example. Deposit-refund systems have been applied for various products and materials, and existing understandings on deposit-refund systems may not have captured these variations. This study therefore seeks to revisit the concepts of deposit-refund system by categorizing and characterizing existing systems and to withdraw theoretical understandings from a viewpoint of economics. One of findings from the study is that traditional economic analysis did not take into account the cost of collection and storage of retailers and disposal cost appropriately and that a design of deposit-refund system should start with a consideration on these cost associated with retailers and producers. We present several examples of how existing deposit-refund systems deal with the cost of collection and storage of retailers to reduce burdens of retailers relating to collection. A close examination of the characteristics of the objects under existing deposit-refund led us to characterize them into five: waste, recyclables, reusables, objects whose provider wish to collect, and toxic substances. Taking these characteristics into account, we explore the applicability of deposit-refund systems to objects that have characteristics of two of them - recyclables and toxic substances, The collection of some objects that fall in this category – such as small batteries, mobile phone and small electronics – tend to be low and should be enhanced.
Understanding How Steel Flows Through The Uk Economy – An Economic Analysis Based On Input Output Techniques (Abstract #408)
Alexandra Patel and Julian Allwood
As the environmental agenda matures, academics and policy‐makers are looking beyond efforts to reduce direct process emissions, to understanding the embodied energy in products, in order to seek additional emission reduction opportunities and to better target policy. This paper goes one step further and applies input‐output techniques, that are traditionally used to calculate embodied energy, to calculate the “embodied steel” in final products on the basis of inter‐industry transaction tables for the UK. By deconstructing this “embodied steel” calculation, the paper tracks expenditure on steel through the UK supply chain and calculates the proportion of expenditure that is attributable to the steel sector at each stage. This analysis is then extended to examine the impact of introducing a carbon price on the findings ceteris paribus. The results show that steel is quickly dissipated through the economy and that, as a result, the proportion of expenditure that is attributable to steel, with and without a carbon price, is relatively low even for goods, such as cars and buildings, that we know to be relatively steel intensive. This paper presents the first step in a wider body of work exploring the motivations for material efficiency along the steel supply chain.
Reflection Of Resource Supply Constraints To Macroeconomic Scenario Analysis Using Multi-Sectoral Growth Model (Abstract #417)
Satoshi Kojima, Tsuyoshi Adachi and Takashi Yano
Scarcity and growth is one of classic topics having attracted wide attention. In spite of serious warning of the limits to growth, economic literature tends to draw rosy pictures by emphasising substitutability through technological solution. Furthermore, empirical policy analysis using macro-economic models such as multi-sectoral growth models and computable general equilibrium models generally ignore resource scarcity issues. Considering rapidly increasing resource consumption, particularly in developing countries, however, it is not convincing to ignore potential implications of resource scarcity issues in promoting sustainable development. Policy impact assessment tools, in particular those to assess sustainable resource management policy, shall incorporate resource scarcity issues in order to conduct policy relevant analysis. This paper presents an attempt to reflect resource supply constraints to multi-sectoral growth model, with focusing on iron ore case. We develop a multi-sectoral growth model with mining and steel production sectors as well as major steel users as individual production sectors, and we simulate trajectories of economic variables without supply constraint of iron ore using this model. Then, we develop marginal mining cost curves of iron ore based on empirical mining cost data, and we incorporate the estimated marginal mining cost curve to multi-sectoral growth model. Using this supply constraint extended model we simulate trajectories of economic variables and estimate impacts of iron ore supply constraint by comparing the results of two models. This paper presents a part of a policy study of environmental economics funded by Ministry of the Environment of Japan.
Current Lack And Needs For Better Life Cycle Inventory Data For Water Footprinting (Abstract #418)
Samuel Vionnet, Anna Kounina, Yves Loerincik, Damien Friot, Manuele Margni and Sébastien Humbert
Water is a growing concern in life cycle assessment. Several impact assessment methods have been developed or are being developed to assess the impacts on water. However, current inventory databases (Gabi, Ecoinvent, etc) do provide only limited data on water, mainly on withdrawal, and are all mis-matching the elementary flows requirement of the methods developed recently to address the issue of water impact assessment (such as Pfister et al. 2010, Water Footprint Network, Motoshita et al. 2010, Van Zelm et al. 2010). Furthermore, a lack of sufficient and relevant data is in many cases the greatest factor limiting the ability of corporate water accounting and impact assessment (CEO Water Mandate, 2010). In light of this issue, a project was launched by a consortium of companies - and leaded by Quantis - to create an exhaustive “water” life cycle database. This water database is based on the ecoinvent (www.ecoinvent.ch), for approximately 4’000 processes and will include: - A full balanced water accounting taking into account water flows that are addressed in the recently developed accounting and impacts methods - Wide regionalization possibilities at the country, watershed or archetype defined zone level - A preset choice of impact methods applied to the inventory flows The project is foreseen to deliver a readily usable database in summer 2011. The applications in life cycle inventory and impact assessment ranges from assessing a large number of products easily, assessing the supply chain and indirect water consumption of materials and energy for corporate reporting, water management and risk assessment. The use of this database will also make possible for the researchers to apply and develop further the methods to assess the different types of environmental impact related to water. The availability of inventory data will make it possible to widen the scope of actual “water footprint” (at inventory and impact level) studies and include in-stream and off-stream water uses, consumptive, non-consumptive and degradation water uses in a consistent way. Result on a case study will be presented.
Reflecting Complexity – Challenges For Modelling Complex Industrial Ecosystems (Abstract #420)
Lauren Basson, Alexandra Penn, Frank Schiller, Amy Woodward and Angela Druckman
In recognition of the complex nature of industrial ecosystems, it has been argued that key to their transformation for sustainability is the provision of system conditions that allow them to evolve to preferred configurations through self-organisation. This requires understanding the systems’ dynamics, which is particularly challenging given that industrial ecosystems embody layered social, technical and biophysical systems interacting in a dynamic and multifarious manner. Agent-based models of industrial ecosystems may provide test beds for exploring possible evolutionary pathways resulting from exogenous and endogenous changes. However, developing an agent-based model of an industrial ecosystem that captures its structure and dynamics sufficiently to allow meaningful exploration of possible interventions and their influence on potential evolutionary pathways presents a formidable challenge. This paper presents an analysis of the modelling process used to generate an initial agent based model of the South Humber Bank (SHB), northern Lincolnshire in the United Kingdom. The model and attendant complexity science analytical tools are being developed to support policy making for the sustainable eco-industrial development. The modelling process raised a number of fundamental questions: How should one abstract a complex system for modelling purposes? Which different modelling philosophies could be applied and what opportunities are provided by these philosophies and attendant abstractions? How would the approach selected depend on, for example, which types of questions are being explored? What could be considered requisite modelling for different questions? The paper explores these fundamental questions and discusses how these have been resolved in developing a model to support policy making promoting low-carbon resource-efficient energy provision for the sustainable (industrial) development of the SHB area. It provides critical reflection on the value and range of “complexity science” approaches and constitutes both a philosophical and practical contribution to the nascent activity on agent based modelling of complex industrial ecosystems.
The Limit Of Resource Circulation To Address Resource Supply Constraints: A Scenario Analysis Using A Combination Of Material Flow Analysis And Multi-Sectoral Growth Model (Abstract #421)
Takashi Yano, Shinsuke Murakami and Satoshi Kojima
World's steel demand is expected to grow steadily judging from strong demand particularly in emerging economies such as China and India. In terms of resource endowment there seems no immediate resource scarcity of iron ore, but it is an empirical question whether forecasted drastic growth in steel demand is feasible or not against technological reality. This paper examines this feasibility by combining a multi-sector growth model and material flow analysis. First, we simulate final demand in future using multi-sectoral growth model against projections of key drivers such as population and labour force. Then, we assess feasibility of simulated final demand based on material flow analysis model. Further, we introduce scrap steel recycling to our analytical framework and demonstrate its limitation to address iron ore supply constraints when we distinguish high grade steel which cannot be produced from scrap steel. Finally, we discuss how to feed back the results of material flow analysis to multi-sectoral growth model. This paper presents a part of a policy study of environmental economics funded by Ministry of the Environment of Japan.
Management Of Scrap Mixed Metal In Japan (Abstract #430)
Atsushi Terazono and Aya Yoshida
Recently, the export of recyclable resources from Japan has rapidly increased as a result of economic growth in China and other Asian countries. Scrap mixed metal (zappin in Japanese) is an example of a resource that is commonly exported from Japan to China. The materials contain mainly iron and steel on a weight basis, as well as non-ferrous metals and other miscellaneous materials. In China, they are manually separated and utilized as secondary resources. In some cases, however, the scrap mixed metal may be regarded as waste or hazardous waste in the importing countries because it contains home appliance materials or hazardous materials. In addition, several fires have occurred in the past few years in scrap mixed metal shipments, both during shipment and while in port in Japan. Thus, the export of scrap mixed metal raises both environmental and safety concerns. We examined the items contained in scrap samples as well as the material composition of the scrap to clarify its content and composition from the perspectives of hazardous materials control and material recovery. The amount of industrial scrap was generally high, but the proportion of household scrap was greater (more than half) when the scrap had been collected by traditional scrap dealers who target household scrap. Lead detected in solder and coatings from some electrical and electronic products exceeded the legal criteria based on Basel Law in Japan. From comparison of manual handling and mechanical dismantling, effective domestic material recovery techniques could be applied to some limited items using mechanical methods. In addition, we discuss how the domestic collection in Japan as well as export control could be implemented.
Spatially Resolved Urban Material Consumption In The Residential Sector (Abstract #431)
Daniel Wiesmann, Leonardo Rosado, Samuel Niza, Inês Azevedo, Paulo Ferrão and John Fernández
This work describes a methodology to calculate spatially resolved residential material consumption for a a city or a region. As a case study the methodology is applied to the Metropolitan Area of Lisbon and the results are compared with the bulk Material Flow Analysis (MFA) of the region. In the analysis, consumer expenditure survey data (IDEF 2005) is combined with census data (Censos 2001) and a new product material composition database (MatCat). The methodology consists of three main steps. In a first step individual household expenditure data is used to estimate multivariate econometric models that describe the consumption of different types of products. For each product type, expenditure is regressed on household characteristics which are represented both in the expenditure survey and the census. The estimated regression models can then be used to predict product consumption from census data. The census is disaggregated to a city block level, allowing to spatially resolve consumption of products in the study area. Finally the product composition database is used to translate the consumption of goods into materials. The proposed method offers an alternative way to calculate the residential contribution to urban material flows. The results from this calculations will be aggregated and compared with the bulk MFA of the region. By adding a spatial dimension to material consumption analysis, the residential consumption of materials in different parts of the study area can be compared. This will help to set priorities in planning infrastructure and to design city policies. Possible examples are the placement of waste collection stations and improving recycling strategies.
Effect Of Change Of Forest Carbon Storage On Net Co2 Balance Of Wood Use For Energy In Japan (Abstract #433)
Chihiro Kayo, Toshiya Aramaki and Keisuke Hanaki
This study analyzed the net effect between 2005 and 2050 of mitigating climate change by utilizing energy from wood resources under various scenarios of forest management and wood resource use for energy, considering not only CO2 emission reductions from replacement of fossil fuels but also changes in carbon storage in Japanese forests. According to our model, planting and harvesting for energy production results in significant reduction of carbon storage level in forests although replacement of fossil fuels with wood reduces CO2 emissions. Thus, net CO2 emission reduction effect by using wood for energy becomes drastically smaller. Planting and harvesting conventional trees for energy increases net CO2 emissions relative to preserving forests, but planting and harvesting fast-growing trees may reduce net CO2 emissions more than preserving forests does. When wood is used to generate electricity, displacing natural gas, an energy conversion efficiency of around 15% or more is required to obtain net CO2 emission reductions over the entire period until 2050. When wood is used to produce bioethanol, displacing gasoline, net reductions in CO2 emissions are realized after 2025, provided that heat energy is recovered from residues from ethanol production. These results show the importance of considering the change in carbon storage in the estimation of net CO2 emission reduction effect of the use of wood for energy.
The Computational Structure Of Material Flow Cost Accounting (Abstract #435)
Andreas Moeller, Martina Prox, Mario Schmidt and Tobias Viere
In addition to the „computational structure of Life Cycle Assessment“ (Heijungs & Suh 2002) we want to discuss the computational structure of material flow cost accounting (MFCA). It can be shown that MFCA algorithms can be based on LCI approaches (including cost accounting). The main difference is that MFCA distinguishes two different scenarios: a status quo scenario and an optimal scenario. The optimal scenario consists of modified process specifications. So-called “material loss” is omitted in the optimal scenario. Accordingly, the amount of input materials can be reduced (or the amount of product output can be increased). The LCI calculations of the optimal scenario are based on modified production coefficients. The comparison of the two scenarios provides new insights, in particular regarding the improvement potential of production processes and supply chains. MFCA quantifies the improvement potential in monetary values. Of course, the calculations are not limited to cost accounting. The approach is orthogonal to all basic instruments and evaluations of LCA. First experiments show that in many examples algorithms of LCA can be applied directly. However, in some cases the modification of production coefficients of a process requires an update of production coefficients of other processes. A typical example is recycling or reuse of preprocessed material loss in the supply chain. The production coefficients of the processes, which use preprocessed material as an input must be updated as no material loss is available in an optimal scenario In our contribution we show that concepts of period-oriented material and energy flow analysis (in particular based on the concept of material flow networks) provide a framework to specify flexible process specifications, which can be updated adequately to support MFCAThe results of these calculations provide the data input of subsequent LCI/LCA and cost analyses.
Aisha : A Tool For Constructing Time Series And Large Environmental And Social Accounting Matrices Using Constrained Optimisation (Abstract #438)
Arne Geschke, Manfred Lenzen, Keiichiro Kanemoto and Dan Moran
AISHA is a tool which facilitates building complex input-output models. Users provide traditional or environmentally extended input-output matrix data along with concordance matrices. The software merges these datasets, applies a constrained optimization algorithm to reconcile partially-determined and conflicting data, and produces a balanced multi-region input output table. The AISHA tool can handle large IO tables with up to 20,000 total sectors. This paper describes the software capabilities and details the matrix balancing and constrained optimization algorithms. The AISHA tool has been used to build the Eora global MRIO model but can also be used to vastly simplify the process of building or updating other large or small IO tables. This presentation has been submitted to the EE IO session.
Environmental Impacts Of Changes To Healthier Diets In Europe (Abstract #439)
Arnold Tukker, Sandra Bausch-Goldbohm, Arjan de Koning, Marieke Verheijden, Rene Kleijn, Oliver Wolff, Ignacio Perez Dominguez and Jose Rueda Cantuche
Food consumption causes, together with mobility, shelter and the use of electrical products, the vast majority of life cycle impacts of consumption expenditure in Western societies. The consumption of meat and dairy are amongst the highest contributors to environmental impacts from food consumption. A healthier dietary pattern might have less environmental impacts. We simulated several diet scenarios for Europe applying generally accepted dietary recommendations using as a starting point the per capita food availability by country reported in the FAO Food Balance Sheets. Using the E3IOT environmentally extended input output database developed in an EU study on Environmental Impacts of Products (EIPRO), this paper estimates the difference in impacts between the European status quo and three simulated diet baskets, i.e. a pattern according to universal dietary recommendations, the same pattern with reduced meat consumption, and a ‘Mediterranean’ pattern with reduced meat consumption. Production technologies, protein and energy intake were kept constant. Though this implies just moderate dietary shifts, impact reductions of up to 8% were possible in reduced meat scenarios. The slightly changed food costs do not lead to significant first order rebound effects. Second order rebounds were estimated by applying the CAPRI partial equilibrium model. This analysis showed that European meat production sector will most likely respond by higher exports to compensate for losses on the domestic meat market. Higher impact reductions probably would need more drastic diet changes.
The Global Carbon Footprint Of Consumption: Findings From The Eora Model (Abstract #440)
Dan Moran, Manfred Lenzen, Arne Geschke and Keiichiro Kanemoto
We present a carbon footprint of the global economy and illuminate the major flow patterns of embodied CO2 in international trade. The findings are from the Eora model, a multi-region input output model covering over 160 countries at high sectoral detail. This work attempts to provide the most accurate national-level CO2 footprint of consumption (that is, CO2 emissions inclusive of all upstream emissions) yet calculated. We also present findings on embodied Ecological Footprint in international trade. We show visualizations that illustrate where a country’s Footprint falls around the planet. This presentation has been submitted to the EE IO session.
Building Eora: A Global Multi-Region Input Output Model At High Country And Sector Detail (Abstract #442)
Keiichiro Kanemoto, Manfred Lenzen, Arne Geschke and Dan Moran
There are a number of initiatives aimed at compiling large-scale global Multi-Region Input-Output (MRIO) tables complemented with non-monetary information such as on resource flows and environmental burdens. This paper describes the construction of the Eora model, a MRIO model which: represents all countries at a detailed sectoral level, allows continuous updating provides information on data reliability, contains table sheets expressed in basic prices as well as all margins and taxes, provides confidence intervals, and contains a historical time series. We achieve these goals through a high level of procedural standardisation, automation, and data organisation. This presentation has been submitted to the EE IO session.
A Multi-Regional Environmental Extended Supply And Use Database – Results Of The Exiopol Project (Abstract #443)
Arnold Tukker
This paper presents the results of an EU –funded Integrated Project of various million Euros: EXIOPOL (“A New Environmental Accounting Framework Using Externality Data and Input-Output Tools for Policy Analysis”) that runs between Spring 2007 and Fall 2011. This particularly with regard to its part on environmentally extended input output analysis. The project has integrated environmental and economic data on a scale and detail not seen before. The database includes - 43 countries and a rest of world - Around 130 sectors and products by country - Around 70 primary resource uses by sector - Around 45 emissions by sector The database consists of 3 main blocks: a database where individual country EE SUT data are stored, a routine that links these data together with trade data and a RoW estimate to a global, Multi Regional EE SUT, and a routine that produces a product by product and an industry by industry MR EE IOT. The presentation will give some examples of potential analyses and results of analyses that can be done with this database, such as a detailed assessment of pollution and resources embodied in trade. The presentation will also shortly address the planning of a major follow-up project granted by the EU called CREEA (Compiling and Refining Environmental and Economic Accounts), that amongst others will enrich the EXIOPOL database with material flow data.
Life Cycle Environmental Assessment Of Lithium-Ion And Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries For Plug-In Hybrid And Battery Electric Vehicles (Abstract #448)
Guillaume Majeau-Bettez, Troy R. Hawkins and Anders Hammer Strømman
Our study presents the life cycle assessment of three traction batteries for plug-in hybrid and full performance battery electric vehicles. A transparent process-based life cycle inventory was compiled in a component-wise manner for nickel metal hydride (NiMH), nickel cobalt manganese lithium-ion (NCM), and iron phosphate lithium-ion (LFP) batteries. The battery systems were investigated with a functional unit based on energy storage, thus accounting for use-phase inefficiencies. The NiMH technology was found to have the highest environmental impact, followed by NCM and then LFP, for all categories considered except ozone depletion potential. Some alternative functional units covering only cradle-to-gate were found to alter this ranking, leading to an analysis of the challenges involved in defining traction battery systems. Our results are reported in terms of midpoint indicators. Global warming potentials were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. Detailed contribution and structural path analyses allowed for the identification of the different processes and value-chains most directly responsible for these emissions. Our inventory and results may be either used on their own for environmental benchmarking of battery alternatives, or readily adapted to any power-train.
Projected Water And Land Use In Future Global Agriculture: Scenarios And Related Impacts (Abstract #452)
Stephan Pfister, Peter Bayer, Annette Koehler and Stefanie Hellweg
Global stress on water and land resources is increasing as a consequence of population growth and higher calorific food demand. Many terrestrial ecosystems have already massively been degraded for providing agricultural land, and water scarcity caused by irrigation has damaged water dependant ecosystems downstream of the locations of water use. In this context, we develop four strategies to deliver the biotic output for feeding the globe in 2050. Expansion on suitable areas and intensification of existing areas are compared to assess associated environmental impacts, based on irrigation demand, water stress index under climate change, and productivity-weighted land occupation. These land and water inventory data and impact assessment measures are modelled on high spatial resolution. Based on the agricultural production pattern and related impacts of the different strategies we identified the trade-offs between land and water use. Intensification in arid regions currently under deficit irrigation can increase agricultural output by up to 30%. However, intensified crop production would lead to enormous water stress in many locations and might not be a viable solution. Furthermore, intensification alone will not be able to meet future food demand and must be combined either with land expansion or with a reduction of waste by at least 50% along the food supply chain (assuming current per-capita meat and bioenergy consumption). Suitable areas for expansion of agricultural land are mainly located in Africa, followed by South America. The increased land stress is of smaller concern than water stress modelled for full intensification, if sensitive ecosystems (e.g. rainforests) are protected. A combination of waste reduction with expansion on suitable pastures results as the best option, along with some intensification on selected areas. If in 2050, 1st generation biofuels additionally would replace 10% of current liquid fuel consumption, the added impact on land and water resources would double.
What Is Best For The Climate - Refurbishment Or Replacement Of Buildings? (Abstract #454)
Anne Roenning and Mie Vold
The Norwegian Bank “SpareBank 1 SMN” decided in 2008 to re-establish their headquarters in Trondheim. The key question addressed in the process, was whether to refurbish the existing building or demolish it and construct a new one. Becoming aware of the environmental issues related to the decision, a project was set up to assess the consequences for green building. The analysis concluded that from a climate point of view the most favourable strategy was to replace the existing construction and build a new one. The aim of this LCA project was bipartite. Firstly, to document the GHG emissions from the two alternative solutions, and secondly, to gain experiences from using LCA methodology as a basis for decision making in a feasibility phase. The last aim is especially interesting since most of the building environmental assessment tools are used towards the end of the design process to evaluate the environmental results. A hybrid LCA approach was used as the assessing tool, and in the paper we discuss the methodological challenges facing analyses addressing the issue of comprehensive analytical approaches in order to inform decisions in this respect. To make the model adaptable for choosing materials and solutions in the construction phase, the input data has to be product or producer specific. Simulations are done in that respect. In addition definition of the scenarios representing the life cycle planning of the construction is influencing the results vitally and results from simulations will be presented.
Industrial Ecology Applications Of The Semantic Web And Linked Data (Abstract #455)
Chris Davis, Alfredas Chmieliauskas, Igor Nikolic and Gerard Dijkema
Analyzing socio-technical systems to identify means for steering these systems towards sustainability involves linking diverse information from many sources. To complete an SFA, LCA or Ecological Footprinting of an activity requires documenting the interlinkages and properties of material production chains. Through these studies, we as a community of researchers are collectively mapping our global industrial metabolism. This enormous amount of effort is compiled into separate reports that may describe overlapping sections of the same system, without necessarily providing a means to efficiently link this diverse information into a larger systems view. While we document pieces of a giant puzzle, we have yet to explore the means to put these pieces together. A way forward is to adopt data publishing practices that allow interlinking of structured data, while also enabling the tracking of unstructured information such as data definitions, explanations and ancillary information such as sources and authorship and to allow for the examination and curation of data sets (Davis et al. 2010). This presentation focuses on applications of Linked Open Data and Semantic Web tools to Ecological Footprint Analysis, LCA, energy data, and Agent-Based Modeling of energy and industry systems. Different ways in which these tools can aid the data gathering, examination and curation will be shown. Possibilities to leverage modeling by using these concepts and tools will be illustrated. These live cases show that they allow for individual groups to maintain ownership of their data, while also enabling it to be reused to aid in the construction of a larger systems view and be utilized in models. Using them in a daily workflow gives researchers a quick overview of where they are, and where their models or datasets need attention, improvement or alteration. Reference: Davis, C. B.; Nikolic, I. & Dijkema, G. P.J., Industrial Ecology 2.0, Journal of Industrial Ecology, 2010, 14, 707-726
Detecting A Scarcity Metal Trade Network Essential To Japanese Economy With A Global Link Input-Output Model (Abstract #456)
Keisuke Nansai, Kenichi Nakajima, Shigemi Kagawa, Yasushi Kondo and Sangwon Suh
Establishing a low carbon society, that is, decoupling greenhouse gas emission from economic growth is one of the important challenges for Japanese economy. Toward the decoupling, it is essential that new low carbon technologies and products will be rapidly developed and widely introduced into the Japanese economy. More consumption of some scarcity metals is sometimes necessary to spreading the new technologies like an electric vehicle, a fuel cell and a solar panel. Considering this reality, the scarcity metals needed for the new technologies will be further forced to be dependent on supply from foreign countries. In order to achieve the decoupling in Japan with depending on foreign resources, it should be started to structurally understand the relationship between natural resources consumption in the world and Japanese product supply chain. An environmentally extended multiregional input-output (MRIO) model enables quantification of global resources consumption of Japan through international trade. However, due to the complete accounting framework of MRIO, the development of an MRIO model that includes all countries and defines detailed sector classifications generally is extremely labour intensive and expensive. With this in mind, we applied a global link input-output (GLIO) model (Nansai et al., 2009) to estimate global requirement of a scarcity metal for Japanese economy. The model was designed to reduce the labour required for data compilation by employing a simple accounting framework that differs from that of conventional MRIO models. The accounting framework of GLIO enables the definition of about 800 intermediate sectors of the Japanese economy to be focused in this study, the inclusion of more than 200 nations and regions. As empirical studies, global scarcity metal networks (neodymium, cobalt and platinum) with regard to the Japanese economy were visually identified. Key global network were also found by analyzing the structural characteristic of each network.
Environmental Assessment Of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using Naturalistic Drive Cycle And Usage Pattern Information (Abstract #457)
Brandon M. Marshall, Jarod C. Kelly and Gregory A. Keoleian
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology provides a means of coupling transportation and power infrastructures by charging an onboard vehicle battery from the electrical grid. This coupling mechanism can have both environmental impacts, and impacts on the electric utility system. In order to quantify these impacts a PHEV environmental impact assessment model was developed and applied to the state of Michigan. Two approaches were taken in modeling the PHEV consumption properties. First, average consumption rates were assumed for both fuel and electricity. Average values for fuel economy and battery charge depletion rate were derived from academic papers, manufacturer publications, and EPA fuel economy statistics of both conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. Second, previous work related to naturalistic drive cycles was used to determine electricity and fuel consumption rates in different situations. This previous work developed a stochastic methodology to synthesize naturalistic drive cycles based on actual driving behavior in Southwest Michigan. The synthesized naturalistic drive cycles represent a more detailed characterization of real-world driving behavior than the driving schedules used by the EPA for vehicle fuel efficiency calculations. This study used both the average consumption rates, and the drive cycle informed consumption rates to conduct an environmental assessment for a Michigan PHEV fleet. National Highway Transportation Survey (2009) data was used to determine when vehicles would travel, be parked, and available to charge. Using this, the total electricity and fuel consumption could be calculated, as well as the hourly PHEV electricity demand. We compare the two modeling approaches by examining both the electrical load profile and the pollutant emissions associated with each of the consumption scenarios. The PHEVs compared are both modeled as compact class vehicles with series operation, similar to the 2011 Chevrolet Volt.
Agent-Based Modeling Of Metal Metabolisms (Abstract #460)
L. Andrew Bollinger, Sathyam Sheoratan and Igor Nikolic
Substance flow analysis (SFA) is a frequently used industrial ecology technique for studying societal metal flows, but is restricted in its ability to inform us about future developments in metal flow patterns and how we can affect them. Equation-based simulation modeling techniques such as dynamic SFA and system dynamics can usefully complement static SFA studies in this respect, but are limited in their ability to accurately represent certain important aspects of metal flow systems – in particular, the embeddedness of decision making within the context of boundedly rational actors and the encapsulation of metals in the form of discrete goods. The technique of agent-based modeling (ABM) can help to overcome these limitations by enabling the explicit representation of actors as agents, and of material goods as discrete entities. Within this context, an agent-based model has been developed addressing the following research question: What conditions foster the development of a closed-loop flow system for metals in mobile phones? The results from this model suggest that the most effective path to closed-loop performance is through targeted combinations of interventions. In particular, the most effective strategy combines efforts to raise the motivation of consumers to deposit end-of use phones for collection with efforts to increase the fraction of phones recovered by efficient recyclers in industrialized countries. The results also reveal other interesting features of the system, such as a potential conflict between the financial interests of refurbishers and manufacturers on the issue of reuse. We will also present preliminary findings from a second, more empirically-based model. This model focuses on a more local scale - informal electronics recycling in Bangalore, India. In particular, this model explores the potential for partnerships between formal and informal actors that can lead to more sustainable metal recovery within the specific cultural and institutional environment of Bangalore.
Facilitating Greenfield Industrial Development Using Collaborative Semantic Tools And Agent Based Models (Abstract #461)
Chris Davis and Igor Nikolic
The development of greenfield industrial sites such as Maasvlakte2 (Port of Rotterdam) offers a rare opportunity to create an innovative industrial area, leave behind legacy technologies and steer the technical systems forming our industrial metabolism towards sustainability and resilience. To exploit this opportunity, the regional development authority (RDA) must avoid lock-in to one or few development paths, while uncertainty remains about future energy prices, economic geography, and infrastructure requirements, e.g. for CO2 transport and storage. Developers of the industrial region must try to maximize value while somehow navigating an extensive permutation space of possible futures. To address this dilemma and help the RDA and others we are developing a combination of an Agent Based Model (ABM) and a Semantic Wiki (SW). The ABM allows modeling the possible evolutionary pathways of a greenfield industrial area and the SW enables a unique collaborative workflow which allows the many different types of knowledge from diverse experts to be brought together. The Semantic Wiki allows for a mix of structured and unstructured information to be stored, maintained and queried in a single system. The data is entered and discussed and directly used to build an ABM that simulates companies making site choice decisions and negotiating with the Port Authority. The ABM uses a closed mass balance and realistic economic models to explore development pathways for the greenfield site. Thus a myriad of effects can be explored, e.g. types of networks, effect of infrastructure investment, and variations in energy costs. The approach adopted reduces the gap between the stakeholders and the system modeler because the wiki contains the documentation of assumptions, behavior, and data used. The final result of this project, expected in fall 2011, is a public website where anyone can explore the possible evolutionary pathways of Maasvlakte2.
Resilience Of Energy Infrastructures To Climate Change (Abstract #463)
L. Andrew Bollinger, Igor Nikolic and Gerard Dijkema
As our society gears up to adapt its infrastructure systems to the expected but unknown effects of climate change, it is clear that their resilience will be key. Will these networks be able to operate under an altered set of climate conditions or are they going to fail? The energy systems that we have put in place over the last 100 years and expansions over the coming decades will have to function under conditions of increased summertime temperatures, greater variability in precipitation, more frequent "superstorms" and higher sea levels. The energy infrastructure is a socio-technical system. Technical components such as generators, pipelines, and electricity grids are tightly linked with a social network that includes energy markets, electricity producers, consumers, network managers and others. Ensuring this energy infrastructure is resilient to the effects of climate change is not only about "climate-proofing" of technical infrastructure components by increasing their robustness, but also about enhancing the capacity of the socio-technical network to adapt to the stressors of a changing climate. Agent-based modeling has been proven a powerful technique for exploring the systemic impact of adjustments in the behavior of actors in social networks. By combining agent-based models (ABMs) with tools for analyzing flows and failure propagation in technical networks, it becomes possible to explore the development of climate-resilient energy infrastructures. We will report initial results from an ABM exploring the resilience of Dutch electricity infrastructure to climate change. This model - containing the Transmission System Operator, consumers, producers and import/export linkages - is connected with an electric load-flow analysis program, which enables accurate representation of the functionality and limitations of the Dutch transmission grid. The model examines how seasonal and extreme weather patterns, together with basic economic and grid operation parameters, may affect the resilience of the electricity infrastructure.
Water Management In Swiss Agriculture – Life Cycle Impact Assessment Under Climate Change (Abstract #464)
Danielle Tendall, Stephan Pfister, Ruth Freiermuth Knuchel, Stefanie Hellweg and Gérard Gaillard
Due to climate change, irrigation in Switzerland may increase in future, consecutive to higher temperatures and decreased rainfall over the summer growth period. The resulting potential environmental impacts have not yet been assessed for Switzerland. The objective of this project is to establish an operational method for assessing impacts of agricultural water use in Switzerland and other regions with similar hydrological circumstances. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is chosen as the assessment framework, since it includes several environmental impact categories relevant for agriculture, relates them to a product level, and provides methods for their comparison. Climatic, hydrologic and geologic data for two climatically different case study regions (“Greifensee” and “Broye” watersheds, Switzerland) were analysed using GIS: combined with stakeholder interaction, this allowed identification of impact pathways. Primary results for Broye indicate ecosystem productivity and biodiversity losses as main impacts, resulting from decreased surface flows, reduced flow variability in case of reservoir construction, and increased groundwater consumption. These impacts must be evaluated in a temporally differentiated way due to intra-annual variation, at the farm and regional scales, followed by disaggregation to a functional unit level. For Greifensee, a pathway of importance is the effect of irrigation on eutrophication. Current water use LCA methods are not directly adapted for capturing such specific impacts, since either their spatial and temporal resolution are too low, and do not distinguish fine-scale variations, or because their impact pathways or characterization factors are not adequate for the Swiss situation. Therefore characterization factors representative of the main impact pathways in Switzerland are developed, sensitive to regional and monthly scales, and their application to other regions is discussed.
Environmental Performance Of Integrated Remediation And Resource Recovery Of Landfills- Critical Factors (Abstract #465)
Niclas Svensson, Per Frändegård, Joakim Krook, Mats Eklund and Nils Johansson
Studies concerning landfill mining have historically been focusing on reclamation of land space and landfill remediation. Few studies have been done to evaluate landfill mining combined with resource recovery, and the ones that have are mostly pilot studies or projects with little emphasis on resource extraction. This implies that there are a lot of uncertainties related to the implementation of landfill mining. The aim of this study is to analyze how the environmental performance of a landfill remediation project is influenced by combining it with resource recovery of the waste. This will be done by evaluating different scenarios for realizing the project involving both sole remediation efforts and remediation combined with different levels and types of resource recovery. Such an analytical approach, where the conditions for the project are varied, will enable to identify critical factors for environmental performance. In order to make the assessment both parameter uncertainties as well as scenario uncertainties need to be considered. The environmental evaluation is realized through life cycle assessment and is based on several factors, including global warming potential, eutrophication and acidification. To manage parameter uncertainties we base the approach on Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS). By using MCS we can take all the underlying uncertainties into account and produce results based on probability, as well as study the influences of major parameters. Combined with the use of different scenarios a thorough analysis of integrated remediation and resource recovery of landfills will be presented.
Environmental Implications Of Large-Scale Adoption Of Wind Power: A Scenario-Based Life Cycle Assessment (Abstract #467)
Anders Arvesen and Edgar Hertwich
The literature abounds with unit-based life cycle assessments (LCA) of wind energy systems. While such studies may be appropriate for assessing the impacts associated with the delivery of one unit of electricity, they fall short of addressing the magnitudes of aggregated impacts. In light of the current and anticipated future pace of wind energy deployment, quantifying the economy-wide impacts is of interest. In the present study we investigate the life cycle environmental impacts of a large-scale adoption of wind power to cover up to 22% of the world’s growing electricity demand. The analysis builds on the LCA of a generic onshore wind farm, meant to represent average conditions for global deployment of wind power. We employ a hybrid LCA methodology, that is, we combine physical, process-based inventories and monetary, input-output based inventories. We scale unit-based findings to estimate aggregated impacts of global wind power development towards 2050, taking into account changes in the electricity mix in manufacturing. The energy scenarios investigated are the International Energy Agency’s BLUE scenarios, achieving a substantial degree of climate mitigation. Preliminary results indicate, under given assumptions, 1.5-2.8 Gt CO2-eq climate change, 1.6-2.8 Mt N-eq marine eutrophication, 7.4-13.2 Mt NMVOC photochemical oxidant formation, and 7.3-12.9 Mt SO2-eq terrestrial acidification impacts due to wind power development in 2007-2049. For climate change, construction of new capacity contributes 59-62%, and repowering of existing capacity 31-35%, to total cumulative impact. For the assessed impact categories, figures for impacts that are avoided, assuming wind power replaces fossil power, grossly exceed the life cycle impacts caused by wind energy expansion. This holds despite comparatively high impacts estimated in this work, relative to previous LCA research on wind power.
The State And Future Directions Of Agent Based Modeling In Ie (Abstract #470)
Igor Nikolic and Gerard Dijkema
Agent Based Modeling is a tool from Complex Adaptive Systems theory, based on a generative science approach, in which observed macroscopic regularities are "grown" from parallel interactions of heterogeneous entities, or agents. In the last several years, Agent Based modeling has entered the field of Industrial Ecology as a tool complementing the existing IE instruments. This review paper explores the current literature on ABM in and of relevance to IE and discuss the main differences and similarities, strengths and weaknesses of ABM compared to other modeling techniques. To this end, in addition to the body-of-knowledge of IE we will also explore related fields, such as ecology, economics, industrial networks, social science and socio-technical systems modeling, which have a longer tradition of using ABM. Methodological and practical lessons learned, interesting cases and relevant application domains are inventoried and discussed. Thus, we identify the main areas in IE where ABM can find successful deployment, we create a coherent overview of theoretical underpinnings and practical tools available for building such models. We close the paper with a discussion on a research agenda aimed at enabling the field of IE to profit and grow from this relatively novel but powerful modeling technique and the potential of Complex Adaptive Systems theory.
A Hybrid Lca Approach To Evaluate Housing Companies’ Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Abstract #475)
Riikka Kyrö, Jukka Heinonen, Antti Säynäjoki and Seppo Junnila
The built environment is considered one of the main culprits of anthropogenic global warming with the industry sector’s nearly 40% share of total global annual greenhouse gas emissions. Fortunately, the building sector also has the most potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions than any other field of industry. However, to exploit the potential, further research in the field is needed. This study focuses on the greenhouse gas emissions of urban and suburban housing companies. The motivation for the research is to learn which activities associated with housing companies generate most greenhouse gases, as well as by whom the emissions could be mitigated. Several different types of housing companies (i.e., condominiums, townhouses) with different demographic structures from the Helsinki Metropolitan area are included in the study. Data sets comprise annual economic inputs retrieved from the financial statements of the housing companies, as well as monthly metric consumption data retained from property management. The first phase of the data analysis utilizes an economic input-output LCA model developed by the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). With the model, relationships between the different activities can be established, which allows the activities with the most climate effect to be taken into more detailed review in the second phase. The latter phase uses utility specific consumption data and information regarding the greenhouse gas intensity (e.g., kg/kWh) of the different activities to calculate the emissions generated. This combined method can be described as a tiered hybrid LCA approach. The research confirms that heating energy is the single most significant contributor to housing related greenhouse gases. Furthermore, the study infers that a significant portion of the total annual “carbon footprint” of residents derive from activities associated with the housing companies, limiting the potential of the individual residents to affect their own footprint.
Integrating Product Water Quality Effects In Holistic Assessments Of Water Systems (Abstract #479)
Martin Rygaard, Erik Arvin and Philip John Binning
While integrated assessments of sustainability of water systems are largely focused on quantity issues, chemical use, and energy consumption, effects of the supplied water quality are often overlooked. Drinking water quality affects corrosion rates, human health, applicability of water and aesthetics. Even small changes in the chemical composition of water may accumulate large impacts on city scale. Here, a method for integrated assessment of water quality is presented. Based on dose-response relationships a range of effects from different drinking water qualities is merged into a holistic economic assessment of water quality effects, production costs and environmental costs (water abstraction and CO2-emissions). Considered water quality issues include: health (dental caries, cardiovascular diseases, eczema), corrosion (lifetime of appliances, pipes), consumption of soap, and bottled water. Results show that despite high production costs and increased CO2-emissions, desalination of seawater can be overall beneficial for cities when the new water resource improves the supplied water quality. When water quality is included in the economic assessment it is shown that desalination can provide Copenhagen, Denmark, with an expected economic benefit up to €0.4±0.2 per m3 delivered water. Positive economic outcome is highly dependent on careful design of final product water quality from the desalination process. Similarly, results from Perth, Western Australia, show a potential positive outcome up to €0.3±0.2 per m3. Noteworthy, the environmental cost of increased CO2-emissions were found to be minor in both cases. The results show the need for integrating water quality issues into holistic cost-benefit analyzes and environmental life-cycle assessments of water systems.
Agent-Based Modelling Of A Woodfuel Market – Factors That Affect The Availability Of Woodfuel (Abstract #480)
Bernhard Steubing, Fabian Kostadinov, Amineh Ghorbani, Patrick Wäger, Rainer Zah, Oliver Thees and Christian Ludwig
Woodfuel is a renewable energy source with a substantial worldwide potential to substitute fossil energy. Nevertheless, a large fraction of the sustainable woodfuel potential still remains unused in developed countries. Several factors may explain this fact, such as a lack of demand, insufficient incentives for foresters and private forest owners to supply woodfuel or interdependencies with co-product or competing markets (e.g. industrial roundwood, pulpwood, oil). A systematic investigation of the underlying mechanisms of the woodfuel market is yet missing. However, a better knowledge of the rules that govern the woodfuel market would help to understand the influence of different factors (e.g. demand, fossil energy prices, co-product markets, policy measures or natural disasters) on the availability of woodfuel and thereby help to implement more successful measures to foster wood energy. To close this gap, we apply agent-based modeling to simulate the interaction of different forester and wood consumer agents. First proofs of concept based on standard economic theory have shown, amongst others, that harvest outsourcing and thinning activities may increase the returns of forest enterprises with lower woodfuel prices as a possible consequence, and that high transaction costs (from negotiations between individual agents) encourage the formation of cooperatives. Recently, the model has been expanded to incorporate more realistic agent behaviour (e.g. multi-criteria decision making) as well as a more diverse agent landscape. To conceptualize the model we applied the MAIA methodology, which combines elements from the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) and OperA frameworks to assure that a model possesses the necessary specifications on the global as well as on the detailed scale. In our contribution, we will show how a model of the woodfuel market can be systematically developed by decomposing a complex system into structured elements, and will provide first simulation results with the expanded woodfuel model.
Impacts On Biodiversity From Land Use And Land Use Changes – Did We Forget The First Fundamental Question? (Abstract #482)
Ottar Michelsen
Land use and land use changes are to an increasing extent covered in life cycle assessments, and indicators for land use impact in LCA are needed in particular for production systems with large area requirements, such as forestry, agriculture and renewable energy. Still, there is no consensus on methodologies and the inequalities in different approaches are large. A review of published papers following the outcome of a working group in the UNEP/SETAC life cycle initiative shows almost no converging trend in methodologies on assessing impact on biodiversity. We will argue that one important reason for this is the by-passing of the fundamental, but not frequently asked, question; why should we protect biodiversity? It is possible to identify three main reasons for protecting species; 1) species are sources of marketable commodities such as food and medicines, 2) species are the building blocks for ecosystem functioning and thus a prerequisite for the delivery of ecosystem services, and 3) species have an intrinsic value which gives humankind a moral responsibility to protect them. A suitable indicator for ‘biodiversity quality’ depends on which of these perspectives that are taken. If the main focus is potential for commodities, species rich areas should be prioritized in order to protect a high number of species and thus raise the potential. Threatened species could be given extra weight since this are in danger of permanently disappearing as potential sources. If the focus is on ecosystem services, there is more a question of protecting the right and enough species. Even though this is difficult to identify, it does have the implication that species rich ecosystems are not more valuable than species poor ecosystems per se. The last option is to focus on the intrinsic value of the species. Here the main focus will be on protecting threatened species.
Extracting Tree-Like Structure From Complex Production Network Based On Structural Path Analysis And Triangulation Of Input-Output Table (Abstract #483)
Yasushi Kondo, Anders Hammer Strømman, Shigemi Kagawa and Keisuke Nansai
The structure of a production network involved in supplying a given product may generally be considered as quite complex. The transformation of these networks into a tree-like structure, therefore, offers an effective tool for better understanding how the environmental impact associated with a product propagates throughout the entire economy. Further, the tree structure inherently represents a hierarchy of sectors, and it may be used for prioritizing sectors. This may be useful in assessments regarding supply-chain GHG management like the Scope 3 Standard of the GHG Protocol Initiative. However, extracting a tree from the production network described by an input-output table (IOT) is not straightforward because the network contains feedback loops. In order to deal with this, we have developed a new method to extract and visualize a tree-like structure entangled in a production network, based on structural path analysis (SPA). Moreover, we applied the method to IOTs to exemplify its utility. SPA can be regarded as a disaggregation of the (combined direct and indirect) total environmental impact into individual production paths based on a tree; see, for example, Peters and Hertwich (2006, Economic Systems Research, Figure 1). However, the tree may be too complex to provide insight into the whole production network, due partly to that each sector appears many (typically, infinite) times in the tree. The new method we developed overcomes the imperfections of the tree in SPA; for each sector appears only once in our extracted tree-like structure. Moreover, the method is consistent with the triangulation of IOT (Chenery and Watanabe, 1958, Econometrica). We applied the method to the US and Japanese IOTs and the global link IOT (GLIO table) (Nansai et al., 2009, Economic Systems Research). The results demonstrate how similar the production networks in these countries are and how supply chains depend on bilateral trade.
Waste Prevention Policies As Transition Approach Towards Sustainable Resource Management (Abstract #485)
Henning Wilts
From the beginning concepts of circular economy and high quality recycling have been in the focus of industrial ecology. But still the waste regime is dominated by a logic of safe disposal: the majority of waste is land filled or incinerated, material loops are rather interrupted than closed. A prevention of waste – top priority for example in the European waste hierarchy – does almost not happen at all, all we see is a slight decoupling of waste generation and economic development. Waste management policies have to face the fact that neither public authorities nor economic actors alone have sufficient resources – especially the knowledge – to achieve the necessary transition towards a sustainable resource management. Successful prevention of waste has to tackle the complete lifecycle what can not be achieved by direct waste regulation. The presentation analyzes the social-technical components of the existing waste regime and highlights the relevance of path dependencies caused by existing technical infrastructures like incineration plants. These cause economic incentives hindering eco-innovations beyond end-of-pipe. A new governance approach of planning to overcome these lock-ins could be the strategic management of niche developments: radical innovations developed by new actor co-operations e.g. between producers and recyclers, evolved in protected niches until they can replace the existing waste regime. The empirical basis of the presentation is an ongoing research project on behalf of the German Environmental Ministry which describes 300 of such niche developments in the field of waste prevention as a foundation for a national waste prevention programme (which the EU member states are obligated to develop until 2013). Conclusions are drawn under which circumstances the prevention of waste can be successful, about the main barriers and which consequences result for a planning of sustainable waste policies.
Empirical Comparison Of Residential Construction Carbon Emissions And Consumer Housing Carbon Footprint (Abstract #489)
Antti Säynäjoki, Jukka Heinonen and Seppo Junnila
Buildings account for approximately one third of the total carbon dioxide emissions globally. Use phase dominates the building’s life cycle CO2-emissions. Previous research suggests that construction phase’s share of a building’s life cycle carbon emissions is only ten percent. However, when construction phase emissions are compared to the empirical data of the use phase emissions in consumer carbon footprint calculations, the carbon spike from construction seems much higher. Further research on the subject is needed, but it would seem that higher emphasis on the construction phase emissions in the future might be justified. Carbon emission sources of a construction project are fractured to numerous materials and functions. While several high-intensity materials or functions, such as energy, concrete and steel, may be distinguished and their life cycle wide emissions can be calculated with sufficient accuracy by means of detailed life cycle assessments, their share of total carbon emissions is only around one third. Numerous construction materials and services are usually distinguished as “others” due to massive amount of materials and services needed at the construction site. Subcontractors may also use their own machinery and materials during the constructions process. The emissions of these uncategorized functions are seldom modeled with detailed life cycle analyses. Although the individual shares of these materials and functions are not relevant on their own, their combined share of the total emissions may reach dozens of percents. In this paper we propose an empirical study of the construction phase emissions both to create an accurate hybrid-LCA model for the assessment of construction phase emissions, and to understand better the sources and significance of these emissions in building life cycle emissions. We consider this understanding essential in creating true low-carbon structures.
What Are The Environmentally Optimal Uses Of Different Biomass Feedstocks – Heating, Electricity Generation Or Transportation? (Abstract #492)
Bernhard Steubing, Jürgen Reinhard, Rainer Zah and Christian Ludwig
One important element in the transition to a more sustainable energy supply is the increased and efficient use of bioenergy. Since there are various technological options to convert biomass into different energy types or carriers (heat, electricity, fuel), the following question arises: How should different biomass feedstocks be used optimally from the environmental sustainability perspective? To answer this question, we developed a model of the energy system for the case of Switzerland. The principal model inputs include a) energy demand scenarios for 2010 and 2035, b) the fossil and renewable technologies used to meet the energy demand, c) a comprehensive array of potential bioenergy technologies, d) life cycle assessment (LCA) data for these technologies and e) the available biomass potentials. For each scenario the use of biomass within the energy system was optimized to reach a maximal reduction of environmental impacts (by the substitution of fossil technologies). The optimizations were performed for four environmental impact assessment methods: global warming potential, Ecoindicator ’99, ReCiPe and the Swiss method of Ecological Scarcity. The results show that from a resource perspective the conversion efficiency of biomass to energy is crucial for the reduction of environmental impacts. Consequently, biomass with low water content (e.g. woody biomass) should be used for direct heating or – if the heat is used efficiently – for combined heat and power generation rather than for the production of transportation fuels. This conclusion is robust, since even in an optimistic green future scenario enough energy carriers with high environmental burdens (e.g. heating oil) remain for substitution. Wet biomass shows similar environmental benefits when used for heating, electricity generation and transportation. In Switzerland, biomass could substitute 8-18% of fossil heat, 1-7% of fossil electricity and 1-5% of fossil transportation fuel, depending on the energy demand and the environmental optimization criterion.
Developing A Generic Systems Process Tool For Diverse Quality Management: Challenges And Opportunities (Abstract #495)
Philip Sinclair and Michael Peters
Systems processes such as Multi-Criterion Decision Analysis (MCDA), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) and Multi-Objective Decision Making (MODM) utilise limited numbers of qualities which are insufficient for informing decision-making. For example: MCDA utilises options, alternatives, criteria and attributes; and LCA utilises assessments, cycles, lives and functions. These processes do not utilise the quality costs, for which CBA may be used. Indeed, for any non-generic systems process it is always possible to find a quality that is not utilised. A generic systems process framework could enable: (1) unlimited quantities of qualities to be generated, (2) qualities from diverse choices to be programmed, and (3) participants to be informed. In this paper the possibilities inherent in developing such a quantity-and-quality generic systems framework are to be analysed and assessed with particular reference to participatory case studies in bioenergy, waste and construction. Challenges for participatory processes will be identified, including particularly those concerning risk communication and uncertainty. A focus will be provided for discussions regarding the case studies on informing governance and on developing opportunities for sustainable development with reference to realistic near-term and far-term scenarios. It is hoped that the discussions will lead to preliminary recommendations for action regarding the development of the systems framework.
The Application Of An Environmentally Extended Multi-Regional Input Output Model To Investigate The Role Of Technological Change And Consumption Practices In Delivering Low Carbon Futures For The Uk (Abstract #497)
Frances Ruth Wood, John Barrett and Elena Dawkins
The official way of accounting for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is established under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). While the UNFCCC system generally takes into account all greenhouse gas emissions from UK territory it fails to account for emissions embedded in UK imports consumed in the UK. While UK territorial emissions are reducing consumer emissions continue to increase. This paper establishes the implications of UK climate change strategies on the UK's consumer emissions. It presents the findings and policy ramifications from three key research questions: firstly what impact do territorial mitigation pathways have on the UK's consumption based emissions; secondly how can changes in consumption levels and profiles contribute to mitigation; and thirdly how much carbon leaks out of mitigation efforts due to imports from countries that operate outside the UNFCCC (defined here as non-Annex B countries)? To explore these questions we present the application of a "Multi-Regional Environmentally Extended input output model" coupled with a set of scenario tools to quantify the impact of future mitigation efforts in the UK and globally on UK consumption emissions. The scenario tools include models to quantify the impact of greenhouse gas mitigation policies on the direct environmental impacts of industry; future changes in both the level and type of consumption in the UK; the origin of goods and services consumed within the UK and the impact of changes in energy supply on the transactions between energy providers and consumers. The research demonstrates the emission reductions that can be achieved through strategies developed to deliver territorial emission reductions for example through the decarbonisation of an energy system and the level and type of consumption that could be supported by this system to remain within a carbon budget.
Industrial Symbiosis For Improving The Co2-Performance Of Cement Production (Abstract #498)
Jonas Ammenberg, Mats Eklund, Roozbeh Feiz and Anton Helgstrand
Cement production is one of the largest contributors to global CO2-emissions. However, the context and characteristics of the production vary a lot and so does its CO2-performance. This provides an opportunity for improvement of the entire industry. The choice of fuels, the share of industrial by-products in the ready cement and beneficial use of waste heat are examples of important factors that determine CO2-performance of the cement production. Since the industrial symbiosis research area contains tools for identifying and analyzing relations in an industrial system we make use of that in constructing and studying three different scenarios for cement production: - The first scenario is a production chain focused on one major conversion path from limestone to cement using fossil energy sources and it represents a common, straightforward cement production. - The second scenario is based on existing cement production in Germany where a lot of different wastes are used as fuels and blast-furnace steel slag is replacing clinker. This scenario represents a more synergistic and complex approach. - The third scenario is constructed based on survey of best practices in the cement industry in combination with knowledge of local and regional conditions and opportunities in a German context. It aims to assess the potential of the industrial symbiosis approach. Using LCA, applying a cradle to gate perspective and focusing on climate impact, the study generates insight into the methodological challenge of quantifying environmental performance of different production approaches and basically what CO2 improvement potential cement industry has by taking industrial symbiosis measures. Different aspects of integrating waste fractions into the product are analyzed. For example, it might be appealing from a climate and economic perspective to reduce the amount of limestone and replace it with granulated blast-furnace slag. However, there is always a risk for problem shifting in such measures.
The Weee Laws: An International Comparison (Abstract #500)
Panate Manomaivibool
A number of countries have passed legislation to govern the management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Although principles and strategies of Industrial Ecology such as extended producer responsibility (EPR), reduce, reuse and recycle (3R’s), and life cycle thinking had guided the law making process, they did not ensure that similar (or even compatible) legal provisions would be enacted across political areas. Take the European Union (EU) as an example. Despite the WEEE Directive, the national laws do differ considerably between individual Member States. This paper compares 16 pieces of legislation governing the management of WEEE in Europe (5), North America (6), and Northeast Asia (5). The main purpose is to understand various options available and the combinations that have been implemented using a systematic and comprehensive framework. The comparison covers 10 aspects: (a) purposes, (b) definitions of key terms such as “producer”, “recycling” (in total 76 terms), (c) product scope, (d) requirements related to products’ characteristics and marking, (e) waste collection, (f) waste treatment, (g) financial mechanisms, (h) authorization and reporting requirements, (i) characteristics and functions of new entities established for the implementation, and (j) offences and penalties. In addition, to better capture WEEE-specific issues the EU Directives on waste packaging, end-of-life vehicles, and waste batteries and accumulators are put under the same framework. This exercise provides valuable lessons for both developed and developing countries to recast existing policies or to develop a new WEEE policy.
The Development Of Scenarios To Examine The Role Of Technology Change And Consumers In Delivering Cumulative Emission Reductions And Adapting To Climate Impacts Under A 2O & 4 Oc Future. (Abstract #502)
Frances Ruth Wood, Alice Bows, John Barrett, Elena Dawkins, Sarah Mander, Carly McLachlin, Mirjam Roeder and Kate Scott
The rate of emission reductions required to deliver a global temperature stabilisation target of 2oC and even o4C are substantial. For stabilisation at 2oC, published global emission reduction rates range from 3% per annum globally to over 9% per annum for developed countries. Delivering these targets will be challenging, technically, socially, economically and politically. However, if mitigation policies fail to deliver a 2oC stabilisation, a different challenge is faced, that of adapting to the impacts of 4oC plus. These inter-related challenges are exemplified in the food system which is both a major source of emissions and is susceptible to future climate impacts. This paper presents a scenario methodology developed to produce coherent storylines of how technological change to reduce the climate impact of the supply chain coupled with changes in consumption practices, with particular reference to food, could deliver consumption based emission reduction pathways commensurate with 2o & 4 oC in the UK. Qualitative scenario storylines are developed using a backcasting framework with a series of workshops and interviews with key stakeholders and consumer focus groups. These are quantified where possible using a multi-region environmentally extended input-output model to capture consumption based emissions. A number of iterations are used to ensure the technology and consumer changes are commensurate with the chosen cumulative emissions pathway under 2 and 4oC futures. The scenarios highlight the differing roles of technological change and the consumer in delivering emission reductions and the differing climate impacts and thus adaptation requirements associated with 2 and 4oC. The results can be used to assess the gap between the emission reductions delivered through existing territorial based emission reduction strategies and those required if taking a ‘consumer’ based view and to assess the trade-offs between higher mitigation rates and differing adaptation challenges.
Infrastructures, Evolution And Industrial Ecology (Abstract #503)
Gerard Dijkema
Transport, energy, water, and ICT infrastructures are complex, layered, interconnected, dynamic socio-technical systems. To date, however, the structure, function and evolution of infrastructure systems only sporadically has been the object and focus of study of industrial ecologists. Leading industrial ecologists are aware of the impact of infrastructure development on society (e.g. Allenby, 1998,2008,2009), but the inspection of the titles of the 261 papers selected when using the word "infrastructure" in a search of the Journal of Industrial Ecology reveals that industrial ecology researchers largely address the metabolism enabled by infrastructures (e.g. Kennedy et.al., 2007) rather than the metabolism of infrastructure development. They have investigated the LCA of products or services manufactured through some infrastructure. Some researchers offer to create an infrastructure to perform certain studies (e.g. Kraines et al., 2001). Other authors address the impact of society, the use of fossil fuels, water use on land use and ecosystems (e.g Erb et al., 2008; Lenzen and Peters 2010). With the exception of a few papers (e.g. Ashton, 2009; Kempener et al. 2009) that address the design, structure or evolution of an infrastructure, the dominant focus appears to be to elucidate system performance, system metabolism, system impact or product life-cycle impact. We will review the body-of-knowledge of Industrial Ecology on infrastructures and develop a framework for coherent presentation thereof. Ecology, economics, complex system sciences, artificial intelligence and social science are then explored to identify concepts and leads that appear promising to develop some IE on infrastructures; application to energy infrastructure and industry cases will ameliorate the framework. This IE connects the technical and social, addresses the interconnection and mutual interdependence, symbiosis and competition between infrastructures, and provide directions for research on infrastructure analysis, design and development, if not evolution, to help sustainable infrastructure materialize.
Energy Efficiency Versus Gains In Consumer Amenities Examples From Passenger Cars In Sweden (Abstract #507)
Frances Sprei
Technological development is often conceived as both a cause of and a solution to climate change and other problems of modern society. The double nature of technological development can be studied from many perspectives. This paper explores what share of technological development results in increased energy efficiency rather than offsetting improved consumer services in the form of gains in consumer amenities. This trade- off is quantified for new cars sold in Sweden between 1985 and 2007. Both market and technological approaches are used by combining sales statistics with a detailed database over vehicle model parameters. Statistical analysis and decomposition is used to compute the relationship between consumer amenities, technological development and fuel consumption. Car parameters connected to consumer amenities, such as passenger space, acceleration capacity, weight and maximum power increase during the whole period. At the same time there is a reduction of specific fuel consumption. During the 22 year period, changes in service features offset 62 % of the technological and design changes related to specific fuel consumption. Thus only 38 % resulted in actual lower fuel consumption. Looking specifically at 2002 to 2007 (and onward) we see a slight change of trends, however, the main change in consumer preferences is a shift toward diesel engines and flex-fuel cars, not a change of trend away from increasing parameters connected to consumer amenities.
Linking Environmental Extensions To Input-Output Tables Using External Cost Values (Abstract #512)
Wolf Müller, Philipp Preiss and Rainer Friedrich
The environmental extension of monetary input-output tables (IOT) with data on emissions leads to the creation of satellite accounts. However, the characteristic of the environmental data in terms of physical units does not allow for a direct linkage to the monetary values of the IOT. In order to provide this linkage, the impacts caused by the environmental pressures have to be quantified and estimated in monetary values. These so-called external costs have been derived in terms of Euro per tonne of emitted substance and differ between damages to human health, damages to the ecosystem and the impact on climate change. As the damages to human health and the ecosystem are highly dependant on the location of the emitting source, the geographical characteristics of the site and even more so the density of the affected population need to be taken into account. In order to account for this spatial issue, the sectors of the IOT have been allocated to different categories with respect to the location of the source in urban or rural areas and the height at which emissions are released. This differentiation allows for a precise assessment of the damages and the resulting external costs. The calculation of external costs has been carried out using the integrated assessment model EcoSense. The model follows the impact pathway approach from spatially and temporally defined emissions whose dispersion and deposition is estimated by chemical transport and transportation model and which lead to changes in concentrations across Europe. These concentration changes are linked to impacts applying concentration-response functions for all regions of Europe. Finally, the impacts can be valued in monetary terms relying on willingness-to-pay studies for human health effects. In summary, external cost factors for airborne pollutants in 43 countries have been estimated. The abstract is submitted to the EE IO session.
Embodied Impacts Of Construction Projects On Energy, Environment And Society: Scenario Projections For China In 2015 (Abstract #513)
Yuan Chang, Robert Ries, Yaowu Wang and Xue Zhang
The construction sector is one of the pillar industries in the Chinese economy, and it is also important for creating the conditions for the social development and economic growth of the nation. To understand the embodied impacts of construction projects in the coming “12th five-year plan” period, this study uses the empirical embodied impacts of construction projects quantified by an input-output LCA model based on the 2002, 2005, and 2007 economic benchmark data and estimates upper and lower bound scenarios for 2015 for energy (total energy consumption, coal, coke, crude oil, gasoline, gasoline, diesel, kerosene, fuel oil, natural gas and electricity); environmental pollution (SO2, NOx, CO2, industrial waste water discharged, industrial waste water below the discharge standard, industrial solid wastes produced, and industrial solid waste discharged); social impacts (accidents, fatalities, science and technology personnel employed, full time equivalent research and development personnel employed, funding for science and technology activities and expenditures for science and technology activities). Results show that compared to 2007, construction sector demand in 2015 will increase by 50% to 190%, embodied energy will increase by 10% to 130%; embodied pollution, and accidents and fatalities may increase or decrease, from -60% to 130%; science and technology and research and development personnel, as well as funding for science and technology activities will increase from 25% to 250%. The share of national impacts embodied in the construction sector in 2015 compared to 2007 is relatively stable. However, mainly due to national policies, the proportions of embodied fuel oil decrease and embodied NOx increase. The potential for improving accidents and fatalities are significant; however, accidents and fatalities may also increase and the outcome is likely to depend on the extent and effectiveness of occupational safety education.
Assessing The Potential Of Social Mfa (Abstract #515)
Laura Schneider, Matthias Finkbeiner and Marzia Traverso
Conventional life cycle assessment (LCA) models the complex interaction between a system and the environment, e.g. with a product or system perspective. To assess social impacts, the so-called Social LCA was developed. Material flow analysis (MFA) on the other hand assesses the whole system of flows and stocks of materials e.g. in relation to a specific substance or economy. The assessment of social consequences and interrelations is very complex. Unlike many environmental impacts, social consequences have no direct relation to a product or process as the overall market situation has to be considered. Thus, as social consequences are also related to an economy-wide perspective, a combination with MFA methods offers potential for further developments. Several examples of how the analysis of material flows and social aspects could be connected and how a comprehensive assessment can deliver additional value are proposed and evaluated. The aim of this study is to assess different options to integrate social consequences and MFA methods. As an exemplary approach country specific social performance could be assessed. MFA comprises several indicators to describe the characteristic of economies. Those indicators can be assessed with regard to their social relevance. Furthermore, with a dynamic MFA changes in the development of stocks and flows could be described. By assessing social aspects associated to those material flows and material flow indicators, the situation or dynamics of social performance in relation to a country or a material could be assessed. This work focuses on the possibilities to assess social aspects within MFA and furthermore the option to describe social aspects by means of MFA and deliver input for conducting social LCA.
Ecological, Water And Carbon Footprints Calculated By A Multi-Regional Input-Output Model – Framework And Data Integration (Abstract #517)
Kjartan Steen-Olsen, Jan Weinzettel, Troy Hawkins, Thomas Wiedmann, Alessandro Galli, Brad Ewing, Ertug Ercin and Edgar Hertwich
The ecological, water and carbon footprint indicators have been developed separately as different measures of the environmental burden carried by single products or whole nations. In the pursuit of sustainable development it is however crucial that environmental impact analyses address not only a specific environmental concern, but rather several concerns simultaneously, in order to avoid problem shifting, thus ensuring that one problem is not solved by creating another, as has for instance been a much debated issue with biofuels. Furthermore, analysts should be able to capture not only direct, but also indirect impacts occurring upstream in the supply chain. The ecological and water footprint methods have so far had limited coverage of the latter kind. We have attempted to overcome these issues by creating a model which unites these three footprint accounting methods in a common, standardized framework, based on a comprehensive multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model with global coverage. Alongside the MRIO model we have created corresponding tables of use and trade of primary agricultural and forestry products in physical units, which are coupled both to the MRIO tables and to the individual footprint indicators. This enables utilizing the strengths of input-output modeling in representing supply chains and performing advanced contribution analysis, whilst at the same time maintaining the high level of detail available for primary products in the source data. We will present the model, its methodological foundation, how it was created from a substantial set of statistical data and three different footprint accounting systems, and finally how it currently operates to calculate a set of direct plus indirect footprints for a given final demand.
Industrial Symbiosis In Europe (Abstract #520)
Wouter Spekkink, Frank Boons, Leo Baas, Henrikke Baumann, Sabrina Brullot, Pauline Deutz, Chris Davis, Mats Eklund, David Gibbs, Saeid Hatefipour, Ralf Isenmann, Gijsbert Koorevaar, Guillaume Massard, Elena Romero, Dalia Sakr and Veerle Verguts
In January 2010 a workshop was organized in Rotterdam to bring together an international group of researchers that share an interest in industrial symbiosis (IS). As an outcome of the workshop, the researchers from Belgium, Egypt, France, Germany, Great Britain, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands decided to develop a collaborative research project that entails a comparative study of IS in Europe. The research project investigates IS at three analytical levels. At the level of individual actors we ask how actors define industrial symbiosis and what skills and qualities they use to develop and promote IS and influence relevant policies. At the level of industrial systems we study the evolution of symbiotic linkages, the social dynamics this entails and context factors such as policies and the physical environment shape the possibilities of individual actors. At the national level we ask how IS as a concept diffuses through societies and study how different cases of IS evolved in different countries. An additional interesting feature of the research project is that it uses a Semantic Mediawiki as a platform for communication, organization of collected data, and discussion on the project’s theoretical framework and research questions. In the coming months each member of the group will collect data on IS developments in his or her own country. By using the Mediawiki for the organization of the data, the Mediawiki has the potention to evolve into a solid source of data for the group’s own research and potentially that of other researchers. At the conference we will present the first results of the project and we wish to discuss the merits and challenges of our research approach. Instead of presenting a traditional paper, we would prefer to present discuss our findings in a workshop-session if that is possible.
Attributional And Consequential Life Cycle Assessment Of Recycling Copper Slag As Building Material In Singapore (Abstract #521)
Harn-wei Kua
The need for alternate building materials to address the shortage in sand supply has prompted many companies in Singapore to use waste copper slag (CS) as a building material. This work is an attributional (ALCA) and consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) on the use of CS as a replacement for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) or sand (as fine aggregates in concrete mixture). The ALCA showed that replacing OPC with CS can reduce the global warming potential by about 86%, stratospheric ozone depletion by about 64%, and ionizing radiation by about 100%. However, the trade-off one has to face is that this replacement will increase the other impacts between 10% and 77 times. Due to the long distances of transportation, replacing sand with CS actually increases all impacts. Most significant increases were observed in freshwater sediment ecotoxicity, freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity, human toxicity, and marine aquatic ecotoxicity. Four scenarios of likely consequences were considered for the CLCA. It was found that when CS replaces OPC and the extra OPC replaces gypsum boards, acidification potential, global warming potential, depletion of abiotic resources, ionizing potential, ozone depletion and terrestrial ecotoxicity can all be reduced. However, this will increase human toxicity and freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity potential. Plaster gypsum boards were also found to have higher negative environmental impacts than fibre gypsum boards. Surprisingly, landfilling of waste CS produces less impact than recycling it as building material. These results have multiple implications. For one, the industry should avoid producing “cement sludge” and consider switching to an alternate business model of selling precast concrete components containing CS. It is also advisable to source for nearer sources of CS, which helps to reduce the need for long-distance transportation. This analysis also revealed that, compared to concrete blocks, plaster gypsum boards have higher ecotoxicity, acidification potential and ozone depletion potential.
Life Cycle Assessment Of Biomass-Derived Polyethylene (Abstract #522)
Masahiko Hirao, Yasunori Kikuchi, Kenji Narita, Eiji Sugiyama, Sueli Oliveira, Sonia Chapman, Rita M. Marzullo, Mariana M. Arakaki and Leonora M. Novaes
Biomass-derived plastics have been regarded as alternative materials toward sustainable chemical industry due to the substitution of renewable raw material for fossil resources. In this regard, the environmental impacts originating from such plastics production must be accessed through the life cycle of products including not only biomass cultivation, but also plastics production. An industrialized large-scale chemical plant producing biomass-derived ethylene (bio-ethylene) from sugarcane ethanol started operation in Brazil, and biomass-derived polyethylene (bio-PE) polymerized from the bio-ethylene is now in the market. In this study, we aim at revealing the environmental performance of the bio-PE production from bio-ethanol using life cycle assessment. In the boundary of the bio-PE life cycle, it is produced in Brazil, shipped to Japan, and used by consumers as containers and packaging and then applied Japanese existing recycling system including thermal recovery. The results demonstrate that the bio-PE has less greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in its life cycle than that in the life cycle of fossil-derived PE. It is also revealed that the transportation of bio-PE from Brazil to Japan does not have large contribution to the total GHG emission of the life cycle. Based on this result, we conclude that the adoption of bio-PE can reduce the GHG emission without changing existing production, consumption and recycling systems utilizing PE.
Penetration Of Technologies For Climate Change Mitigation And Criticality Of Associated Metals (Abstract #524)
Seiji Hashimoto, Kei-ichi Sabase, Shinsuke Murakami and Yuichi Moriguchi
Concomitantly with the penetration of technologies such as electric vehicles and solar photovoltaic (PV) power for mitigation of climate change, it is expected that the demand for metals that are necessary for those technologies will increase considerably. Among other problems, potential instability of rare metal supplies has been pointed out as an important associated problem because of limited production capacity and uneven distribution. A strategy must be developed to accommodate the penetration of mitigation technologies considering resource supplies. We produced a framework for identifying critical rare metals for mitigation of climate change, applied it to several technologies, and identified critical rare metals. (1) The US National Research Council proposed a framework to evaluate the criticality of a given mineral using impact of supply restrictions and supply risk. For supply risk, several factors have been pointed out, including exhaustion in absolute terms, controllability of production scale, unevenness of distribution, substitutability using other elements, and recyclability. We proposed a framework to identify critical rare metals for mitigation of climate change using the metrics to describe the supply risk factors above, and using potential CO2 emission reduction through the penetration of technologies that require those metals to describe the impact of supply restrictions. (2) We applied this framework to technologies such as those for batteries (lithium) and permanent magnets (dysprosium and neodymium) for new generation vehicles, fuel cells (platinum), and solar PV power (indium and gallium). Demand for those metals and potential CO2 emission reduction under the penetration scenarios of these technologies were estimated. Results show that metals used for electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are of critical importance: recycling and substitution should be considered for these metals.
Embodied Energy Of Water Supply Systems (Abstract #525)
Qiong Zhang, Weiwei Mo, James Mihelcic and David Hokanson
Water and Energy are intrinsically linked together and depend on one another in modern society and critical for societal prosperity and economic development. It is important to quantify the energy consumption associated with water provision from system perspective to reveal the true energy profile of different water supply options. Previous studies have evaluated the energy embodiment of different water supply alternatives, driven by the specific regional needs. However, there is no direct comparison of total embodied energy of two major water supply alternatives, surface water and groundwater. In this study, an input-output based hybrid analysis with structural path analysis was used to evaluate the embodied energy including both direct energy (energy used onsite for setting up and operating water supply systems) and indirect energy (energy used to provide all the materials and labor services) for a groundwater supply system and a surface water supply system. The results were compiled with previous studies to give a relative comparison of embodied energy for all major water supply options. The two systems evaluated have comparable total energy embodiments based on a million gallons of water production. However, the onsite energy use of the groundwater supply system is approximately 27% greater than the surface water supply system, mainly due to the extensive pumping requirements. This is consistent with a national estimation. On the other hand, the surface water system uses approximately 44% more energy indirectly, mainly through the required use of chemicals during treatment processes. It was found that embodied energy varies a lot from study to study since different systems were evaluated using different estimation methods. Even though, it still shows that desalination is the most energy intensive water supply option in term of total embodied energy. Surface and groundwater supplies are comparable with the water recycling and importation options.
Mass Flow Analysis As A Practical Tool For Urban Sustainability Practice (Abstract #528)
Lawrence Baker
In the 21st century, we will need to move beyond end-of-pipe treatment of point sources of pollution to more holistic methods of reducing pollution. Key drivers include the need to reduce nonpoint source pollution from both urban and agricultural landscapes, to reduce emissions of CO2 and NOx (both difficult to control after combustion), and to conserve non-renewable resources, such as petroleum and phosphate rock. Mass flow analysis (MFA) is a valuable tool in seeking solutions to these problems and to create sustainable cities. I will present five case studies to illustrate how MFA can be used. These include: (1) reversal of groundwater nitrate contamination during the transition from agriculture to urbanization; (2) reduction of salt buildup in municipal water systems to prevent salinization caused by wastewater reuse; (3) development of a conservation scenario for P in the Twin Cities, to help avoid an impending “brown devolution”, (4) the use of whole-watershed P balances as a tool for improving water quality, and (5) C balances for 2,000 Twin Cities households, part of our ongoing Twin Cities Household Ecosystem Project. Along with MFA, urban sustainability for materials and energy will also require including better understanding of behavioral drivers that influence consumption, a new framework for translational research, and adaptive management supported by exponentially improving capacity to acquire, store, and process information.
Regional And Temporal Disparities In The Available Amount Of And The Need For Mineral Recycled Aggregate In The Building Sector (Abstract #530)
Georg Schiller, Clemens Deilmann and Jan Reichenbach
The development of housing stock is largely determined by demographic and economic conditions. These are currently subject to major changes. For the coming years enormous spatial and temporal disparities are to be expected in this respect in Germany. With the recycling loops for building materials being limited in their spatial extension, widely diverging regional material balances must thus be expected in the construction sector. Under these circumstances, the challenges and opportunities for the urban mining will be regionally very different. Although mineral construction waste in Germany is used for secondary applications in considerable quantities, recycling often takes place at a significantly lower level of quality, for sub-base in road construction, as backfill and on landfills. Until now, the goal of creating closed loops in the construction industry are hence insufficiently met. Using the example of german building stock development, a current study undertaken by the Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development (IOER) adresses the question, what the technical potential for a high-grade recycling of building rubble in building construction can be in the light of the emerging demographic trends. The results show that the availability of recylced aggregates and potentials to use them for concrete applications in building construction vary spatially and over time significantly. Against the backdrop of long-term disparate developments, the strengthening of planning security will gain in importance in the form of an extension of the spatially and temporally differentiated knowledge basis. This requires the consistent further development of appropriately formulated analysis approaches, taking into account all those sources and options which have a significant influence on the framework for high-grade recycling. Keywords: urban mining, mineral resources, MFA, high -grade recycling, construction waste, building stock development, regionalized approach
From Macro Batch To Micro Conti Manufacturing: A Novel Path To Eco-Efficient Chemical Processes (Abstract #532)
Laura Grundemann and Stephan Scholl
Due to their versatility and low production costs for small capacity products, batch processes prevail in the fine chemicals and pharmaceutical industry. In batch vessels, however, heat transfer and mixing are limited resulting in long processing times, inhomogeneous concentration and/or temperature distributions and high energy costs. Since most batch plants are operated as multipurpose plants, a purging step is initiated after each production run. This leads to a high specific amount of cleaning agent. Using the example of writing ink, a continuous production was set up allowing for heat integration. Thus, the amount of energy for processing itself can be reduced by 85 %. A campaign manufacturing scheme enables the production of similar products on the same plant. Employing micro process devices, the specific cleaning agent production was reduced due to the small hold-up of the equipment. However, the micro conti plant requires more elaborate equipment than the macro batch plant leading to a high environmental impact on the production side of the equipment itself and to high capital investment. In order to quantify the differences between the two manufacturing alternatives, an ecological and economic process assessment was conducted. The system boundaries included the upstream and disposal stages. During process development the studies were consequently updated with data taken from experiments. Vice versa, by applying ecological assessment methods in combination with material flow and scenario analysis promising experiments as well as potential for improvement was identified. After process finalization the results will also serve as support for the final investment decision. Our results show that transferring macro batch to micro conti manufacturing schemes leads to highly eco-efficient processes indicating its significance for a wide range of industries. The paper provides crucial information about strategies for process design and the main influences on eco-efficiency.
Environmental Extended Input-Output Matrix Of The Brazilian Economy (Abstract #540)
SIMAS Moana, FRANÇA Camila, VICENTE Bruna, MOUETTE Dominique and PACCA Sergio
This study combines the 2005 Brazilian input-output economic matrix with jobs, greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, and primary energy multipliers per unit of BRL 1,0000,000 product. The economic input-output matrix, which comprises 55 sectors, was prepared by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Environmental and social aspects are based on 2005 results from the Second National Inventory of Greenhouse Gases of the Ministry of Science and Technology, which was released in 2010; the National Energy Balance of the Ministry of Mines and Energy; and employment data from the Labor Ministry. The matrix resulting from our work provides a comparison of each sector according to their socio-environmental characteristics. Data are based on official records. Results might be used in the assessment of policies, projects and products in order to enhance their sustainability. According to our assessment, sectors related to manufacturing activities have a strong indirect labor component per unit of final demand, whereas services related sectors have the highest labor per primary energy ratios. Raising cattle is the most GHG intensive activity, emitting over 11,000 tons of CO2 equivalent per unit of production, followed by agriculture and cement production. In addition, most GHG emissions from transports and some energy-intensive industries are generated indirectly over the supply chain. Sectors with the greatest jobs creation potential are commerce and public administration, which employs, directly and indirectly, 95 and 92 people per unit of product. Among the manufacturing sectors, dressing and textile are the ones with the highest labor/primary energy ratio per unit of final demand, employing 0,71 and 0,55 persons/toe (tons of oil equivalent), respectively. In the future, we plan to apply our work in the assessment of domestic GHG emissions reduction targets.
Equity Within Planetary Boundaries: Introducing Converge (Abstract #541)
Brynhildur Davidsdottir, Sigrun Maria Kristinsdottir and Kristin Vala Ragnarsdottir
The push for sustainable development is gaining momentum with each year passing as environmental pressures continue to mount. Rockstrom et al. (2009) in their paper “Planetary Boundaries: Exploring a safe space for humanity” define a safe operating space for humanity, based on nine defined environmental pressures and assessed planetary boundaries. But how to allocate resources (or natures services) and constrain consumptive habits to ensure that we stay within defined planetary boundaries? What is known is that resources are by no means equally distributed worldwide, and environmental and socio-economic conditions differ. Some nations clearly are using more of the world´s nature services than can be considered their “fair” share, and others are using far less. For humans to flourish on this planet we somehow need to resolve how to distribute natures bounty in an equitable way, and at the same time remain within planetary limits. This presentation introduces the CONVERGE project, which is a transdisciplinary research project which examines the concept of global ‘convergence‘ – how communities can move towards consuming fairer shares of Earth‘s limited resources and thus promote sustainable development. The project builds on Aubrey Meyer’s Contraction and ConvergenceTM for CO2 in the atmosphere. The project however moves the concept further by framing the idea within the dynamics of the system in which communities live, and assessing if and how this concept can by applied to other resources and environmental issues. The mechanisms and tools that can aid movement towards convergence are identified, and a framework towards convergence is designed and tested in five different communities. The CONVERGE project is a collaboration between a small interdisciplinary group of academic and NGO partner organisations from five participating countries. CONVERGE is an EU funded Framework 7 project.
From Sector Development To Integrated Environmental Policies: A Norwegian Case Study (Abstract #545)
Hilde Opoku
This paper assesses the use of industrial ecology principles, theories, and analysis in environmental policy intervention and planning in Norway. Beginning with the introduction of a national radical reform of the waste sector in Norway and the local response by the municipality of Trondheim - introducing source sorting as its environmental policy in the 1990´s, the paper takes us to the governments recognition of Trondheim as a national pilot for its holistic approach to environmental issues and Siemens declaration of Trondheim as the world’s first Smart (energy) City The study focuses on two unique aspects of Trondheim´s journey from developing its waste management policy to practicing Integrated Environmental Policies: First, its regular feed of industrial ecology principles, theories and analysis into the planning process; And second, its priority to consciously developing comprehensive and complementary policy plans for climate, transportation, waste, education etc. before implementing large scale changes. While there is a common understanding that there is a shift from government intervention towards more governance in western countries, the study concludes that the process has been enabled through political will, administrative competence, a radical – but pragmatic approach to occurring windows of opportunities and the openness to a multi stakeholder approach. Though the approach is described as holistic, it is currently not as systemic as aspired. This is because the local population, and hence volumes of waste, passengers for public transportation etc is not large enough to develop optimal environmentally and economically efficient systems. Another seemingly contradictory technical implication of the waste sector being integrated in a more holistic environmental policy is that a number of source sorting services has been reversed.
Firm-Level Ecosystem Services Valuation Using Functional Substitutability – Dynamic Systems Ecological And Decision Analysis Modeling (Abstract #549)
Stephen Comello and Michael Lepech
Firm currently have little incentive to incorporate environmental considerations into management decisions beyond those that are either regulated or subject to public perception. This lack of incentive exists due in part to the absence of: i) clear understanding of the connections between project ecological impacts and how these impacts damage firm/project assets; and ii) ability to include the effects of project ecological impacts in operational decisions. In response, we apply the concept of ecosystem service monetization as an approach to capitalize the relationship between industry and the natural environment. The presented firm-level ecosystem services framework consists of: i) lifecycle assessment to quantify project ecosystem impacts; ii) fundamental biophysics and biochemistry to characterize the component processes of ecosystem services, and iii) functional substitutability to assign monetary value to such services. The framework builds on previous work and is applied to a project-level decision between alternative designs for surface parking. The focus of this work is the computational modeling of the chemical and physical interaction of processes which aggregate to perform the ecosystem service of water treatment via site soil. The ecosystem functions dynamically modeled are sedimentation, filtration, adsorption and microbial degradation. The basis for the parameterized modeling of such ecosystem functions is identical to the engineered system equivalent, which in turn allows for a market-based value assessment. We describe natural ecology as industrial ecology, using fundamental processes common to both. We show that by reducing an ecosystem service to its constitutive components, the descriptive and predictive capabilities of the model – when combined with market-based pricing – are able to inform project-level decisions. The additional ecosystem value determined by the model provides an ability for the firm to rationally increase sustainable management and development. Suggestions are also provided for future research, required to solidify the foundation and assess the robustness of the approach.
Dissipative Copper Releases In The United States (Abstract #555)
Matthew Eckelman, Ermelinda Harper, Zeke Hausfather and Reid Lifset
While industrial ecologists strive for an industrial system made up of closed loops for important technological resources, dissipation into the environment is an inconvenient truth. Dissipation of metals is particularly troubling, both as a loss of valuable material and as a driver of potentially serious environmental consequences. Metal dissipation is also notoriously difficult to quantify, even more so than metals used in products, recycled, or disposed in landfills. Here we describe an historical study of dissipative releases of copper in the United States over the quarter century 1975-2000. This study characterizes the routes, quantities, and significance of copper releases relative to other anthropogenic flows. It also reveals how dissipation patterns have changed with regulation, industrial and agricultural practices, and consumer trends. Copper, a technologically crucial and bioactive metal, is released into the environment in a dissipative form through a number of different pathways. Some of these releases are intentional, such as through the application of Cu-based pesticides on crops. Others come from unintentional losses associated with the use of Cu products, such as corrosion of Cu roofing and pipes. In addition, some dissipative releases occur when a Cu-contaminated product is combusted, where Cu itself is a mere hitchhiker on an unrelated produce use. The major sources examined here include brake lining wear, vehicle tire wear, pipe corrosion, marine paint leaching, pressure treated wood leaching and combustion, releases of industrial effluent, pesticide and fertilizer application, animal feed, and copper releases from various industrial combustion processes. While important categories of dissipative uses have decreased, such as copper-based pesticides designed to be highly ecotoxic, as a whole 1975-2000 witnessed an increase in dissipative releases of copper to the environment. This dataset is fundamental for ongoing efforts in understanding the environmental and human health risks of dissipative copper releases, and thus for public policy.
Sustainable Demand For Wood? – The German Case (Abstract #558)
Witold-Roger Poganietz and Silke Feifel
One strategic goal of the German government is to achieve a sustainable energy system by increasing the use of renewable energy carriers: The share of renewable energy carriers at total energy demand shall increase to 60 % in 2050, compared to about 10 % currently. Next to wind and solar energy one important energy carrier will be wood, due to its rather high energy density, compared to other potential biomass-based energy carriers. The increased demand for wood for energy uses could and will compete with the demand by traditional industries, but also – in the future – by wood-based biorefineries, if they can reach the market entry. The possible consequences are unclear. A crowding out of traditional user of wood could happen as well as an increased demand for “fresh” wood or, most likely, a mixture of different effects. In Germany in the last years the demand for wood was below the sustainable level of wood use. Thus, an increase of demand for wood is seen widely desirable as long as it will not surpass the sustainable level. That could happen taking into consideration the different expectation of inter alia the German government and industries. The objective of the paper is to elaborating the conditions under which the expected demand for wood will surpass the sustainable level of German use of forest. Next to the development of demand for woody products and resource efficiency, the life time of woody products and their distribution over time is crucial. They will determine the supply of wood waste and could, together with residuals, depress the demand for fresh wood. The discussion will make use of a set of scenarios and a dynamic process based material flow material stock model of Germany.
Policy Relevant Network Approaches For Industrial Ecology (Abstract #563)
Frank Schiller, Alex Penn, Angela Druckman, Lauren Basson and Amy Woodward
Network analysis is often carried out as an asocial exercise. Yet, several recent studies have combined both material and social aspects. Since it is equally applicable across disciplines network analysis can integrate both, but this presents particular challenges for policy relevance which must be addressed. As an organisational concept, networks are said to stand between markets and governmental hierarchy. There is a strong case for improving the environmental performance of industrial networks, which needs to consider their structure and their social embeddedness. In order to succeed, we must take into account the particular biases of methods and of network actors when using the approach for policy intervention. The impact of policy advice will ultimately depend on our generalised formal descriptions and explanations of these networks and, crucially, also on the empirical data provided for developing models and potential future scenarios for particular cases. Dynamic social contexts, or embeddedness, are crucial in this regard. Several dimensions of embeddedness have been distinguished in industrial ecology. Though in principle this approach seems to be a way forward, it must be noted that, firstly, the different dimensions of embeddedness interact, and, secondly, depending on the aims of the industrial ecology analysis, the networks under consideration may appear to have different structures. This presents a challenge for studying and modelling these networks from (social) data gathering onwards. Although embedded structures are known for facilitating win-win situations, networks may still have to anticipate strategic or even non-cooperative interaction. For instance, if in the course of their dynamic development regulators become part of them, information provided by stakeholders may be a strategic resource. How can we deal with this? Distinguishing between different types of information appears key to refining policy-relevant scenario development for industrial ecology. We will discuss the advantages and pitfalls given the challenges outlined here.
Trade-Offs Between Impact And Service: Buildings And Infrastructure (Abstract #564)
James Kallaos
Buildings and infrastructure are responsible for a major share of global negative environmental impacts, but they also represent some of the main providers of positive social and economic services. The current method of sustainability assessment generally consists of an attempt at quantifying the efficiency of resource use or environmental damage. While resource use, energy transformations, emissions, and other environmental damages can likely be quantified, the actual benefits provided are less simple to assess. In many cases, a simple metric, such as square meters for buildings, serves as a proxy for service provided, when it may not actually be very meaningful. If an environmental assessment is conducted with only a vague understanding of the goal of that assessment, the results are then questionable in their usefulness or validity. Environmental assessments are hampered by issues with clarity and precision, mainly a lack of willingness to define what is actually meant by sustainability. Assessment of the somewhat vague notion of sustainability can only be successful with a quantitative approach, defined benchmarks, and a clear definition. This fundamental, underlying interpretation of sustainability should be explicit and transparent. This paper provides an initial inquiry into environmental assessment of buildings and infrastructure, and especially the treatment of trade-offs – namely between environmental impact and service provided.
Forest Bioenergy Or Forest Carbon? Assessing Trade-Offs In Greenhouse Gas Mitigation With Wood-Based Fuels (Abstract #565)
Heather MacLean, Jon McKechnie and Steve Colombo
The potential of forest-based bioenergy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when displacing fossil fuels must be balanced with forest carbon implications related to biomass harvest. We integrate life cycle assessment (LCA) and forest carbon modeling to assess total GHG emissions of forest bioenergy over time and apply this method to case studies of wood pellet and ethanol production from forest biomass. In all cases investigated for a forest region of Ontario, Canada, forest carbon reductions due to biomass harvest (and associated GHG emissions) initially exceed avoided fossil fuel emissions, resulting in a temporary increase in overall GHG emissions. Electricity generation from wood pellets, displacing coal, reduces overall emissions in the long-term, although forest carbon losses delay net GHG mitigation by 16 years (if sourced from harvest residues) or 38 years (if sourced from standing trees). Ethanol produced from standing trees increases overall emissions throughout 100-years of continuous production, while ethanol from harvest residues achieves a net reduction only after a 74-year delay. Forest carbon impacts of harvest more significantly impact bioenergy life cycle emissions when biomass is sourced from standing trees compared to harvest residues and when less GHG-intensive fossil fuels are displaced. Achieving timely GHG reductions with forest bioenergy therefore requires selection of appropriate biomass sources and targeted displacement of GHG-intensive fuels. In all cases, forest carbon dynamics are significant and we recommend that forest bioenergy studies undertake an integrated LCA/forest carbon approach.
Industrial Symbiosis: Towards Locally Optimal Solutions (Abstract #566)
Guillaume Massard and Suren Erkman
Within the conceptual framework of industrial ecology, the approach of industrial symbiosis aims at establishing physical exchanges of materials, energy, water, and/or by-products as well as mutualisation of services and infrastructures among economic activities that are co-located or spread through a zone or a region. In the last years, many examples of uncovered and potential symbioses were described in academic publications, presented as efficient solutions to improve the use of resources. However, little work as been done to demonstrate that they really represent an optimum in their local contexts. This paper elaborates on the experience initiated by the Canton of Geneva (Switzerland). From 2004, the Geneva Agenda 21 has been promoting a project aiming at detecting and implementing industrial symbioses at the local level («local» referring to the territory of the Canton of Geneva, ie ~300 km2). However, Switzerland benefits from highly developed and efficient waste collection and recycling systems, well supported by numerous public policies. In this context, industrial symbiosis does not always represent the more environmentally efficient solution. This presentation details the symbiotic potential of 18 categories of flows, including chemical products like acids and solvents, wood products, used oil, pigments, inert materials, energy and water, which have been studied in Geneva. On this basis, a referential has been developed for assessing the technical, environmental, economical and legal dimensions of the potential symbioses. It aims at providing accurate information for a more efficient use of resources and to avoid promoting non-optimal solutions. The results by category may be useful to advise decision makers involved in industrial symbioses, eco-industrial development and more broadly in economic development and land planning.
Beyond Materials Stewardship - Translating Life Cycle Thinking Into Strategy And Action Plans For The Mining, Minerals And Metals Value Chain (Abstract #571)
Jim Petrie, Lauren Basson and Roland Clift
Through the International Council for Mining and Metals (ICMM), leading companies in the minerals and metals value chain have expressed their commitment to materials stewardship for sustainable development. This requires members to take a systems approach to decision making, to build on existing networks and partnerships, to seek to optimize existing operations, and to communicate effectively with stakeholders. These are all worthwhile aspirations, and are supported by a set of proposed actions. In this paper, we analyse what this commitment means in practical terms, and across the entire value chain. A number of questions arise. What are the implications for companies whose business model is limited to mining and primary metals production? How are value chain impacts quantified, system-wide benefits leveraged, and trade-offs handled? What is needed to get such companies more actively engaged and integrated with metal-product designers and fabricators, and metals recyclers? How can technology- and system-wide innovation be encouraged? And, perhaps most importantly, how should the primary sector work more effectively with consumers to understand the implications of unfettered growth on sustainable resource management, materials stewardship, and the attendant environmental and social costs (both positive and negative) for which this sector is accountable. We explore these questions via a number of case studies, covering technology innovation, product design, sales/marketing, and a stakeholder / community focus. These case studies are informed by the critical drivers and constraints which face the sector – including climate change, resource security, policy and regulation. We make use of life cycle management tools, including multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), to articulate our argument and demonstrate the consistency of our approach.
Optimal Replacement Of Residential Air Conditioning Equipment To Minimize Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, And Consumer Cost In The Us (Abstract #572)
Robert De Kleine, Gregory Keoleian and Jarod Kelly
A life cycle optimization of the replacement of residential central air conditioners (CACs) was conducted in order to identify replacement schedules that minimized three separate objectives: life cycle energy consumption, greenhouse (GHG) emissions, and consumer cost. The analysis was conducted for the time period of 1985-2025 for Ann Arbor, MI and San Antonio, TX. Using annual sales-weighted efficiencies of residential central air conditioning equipment, the tradeoff between potential operational savings and the burdens associated with replacing with new, more efficient equipment was evaluated to minimize the objective. The optimal replacement schedule for each objective was identified for each location and service scenario. In general, minimizing energy consumption required frequent replacement (4-12 replacements), minimizing GHG required fewer replacements (2-5 replacements), and minimizing cost required the fewest replacements (1-3 replacements) over the time horizon. Scenario analysis of different federal efficiency standards, regional standards, and Energy Star purchases were conducted to quantify each policy’s impact. The results of the analysis support the establishment of regional efficiency standards to cost effectively reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions. The results also show that proper servicing should be a higher priority than optimal replacement to minimize environmental burdens.
Integrating Partial Equilibrium Modeling And Lca To Evaluate Forest-Based Biofuel Policy (Abstract #573)
Mason Earles and Anthony Halog
In the next decade, forest-based biofuel production is expected to significantly increase in the U.S. The magnitude of this change in production, however, will depend on the definition of eligible biomass. Currently, there are two competing definitions. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 specifies a restrictive definition, while the 2008 Farm Bill is less restrictive. In fact, about 45 million versus 215 million acres of forest are potentially eligible, respectively. Depending on the definition, additional demand for timber could affect existing wood product markets domestically and internationally. Shifts in magnitude and country of production can result in indirect economic and environmental impacts. This study utilizes an integrated partial equilibrium and LCA framework to evaluate U.S. forest-based biofuel policy. An existing partial equilibrium model, the U.S. Forest Products Module, projects changes in production among thirteen forest product sectors across 180 countries resulting from EISA 2007 and 2008 Farm Bill types of biofuel policy. These changes in production are then characterized using life cycle inventory data. The final result is a spatially, temporally, and sectorally resolved projection of indirect environmental impacts associated with producing ethanol under each forest-based biofuel policy scenario. Indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts will be presented to demonstrate the method developed. We find that domestic lumber and plywood sectors could experience significant growth (up to 80%) in response to both policy scenarios, due to their production of waste residues which can act as a feedstock for ethanol. Other domestic sectors that depend on pulpwood, such as paper and composite panels, experience a competitive effect which could significantly reduce production (up to 70%). These changes in production result in unique GHG emissions by sector. Globally, we find that indirect GHG impacts could represent over 20% of direct GHG emissions from ethanol.
‘Uncovering’ Industrial Symbiosis In The City Of Guelph: Revisiting The Theory (Abstract #574)
Katelyn Harris, Khosrow Farahbakhsh and Nonita Yap
The city of Guelph in Ontario, Canada has a mixed-use industrial profile. The local context was examined to assess evidence of nascent industrial symbiosis, largely through extensive document review and interviews with local business leaders from a range of sectors. Symbiotic activities were identified but they do not suggest the emergence of an industrial symbiosis network. Local firms' corporate hierarchies and their supply chain take precedence and there is limited recognition of the value of a local industrial network. Also, neither social mechanisms nor coordinative mechanisms exist to support the identification of synergistic opportunities. This paper is predicated on the assumption that industrial symbiosis is an innovation not just in processes and technologies but also in attitudes and management systems. It argues, as many authors have, that while material and energy exchanges are clearly the basis for an industrial ecosystem, additional conditions are necessary for the emergence of industrial symbiosis. The paper will analyse recent case studies of industrial symbiosis reported in the literature, the literature on network analysis, collective learning and the role of the state, to explain why under current conditions, an industrial symbiosis network is not likely to emerge in Guelph and other similar contexts.
Challenges In Introducing Effective Ghg Performance Rules For Biomass-Based Products (Abstract #576)
Sampo Soimakallio
Greenhouse gas (GHG) performance of products can be identified with life cycle assessment. Different types of voluntary standards and criteria-based GHG performance over life cycle of various products have been implemented in recent years. These include ISO standards 14040-44, The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative, PAS 2050 and 2060 by BSI Standards Solutions, and Environmental Product Declaration (EPD). In 2009, the EU introduced the first ever mandatory criteria for life cyclic GHG performance, namely, for transportation biofuels and other bioliquids as a part of the Renewable Energy Directive of the EU. The key feature in appropriate emission regulation is the ability to verify and monitor the realized emissions. This requires retrospective analysis. Determination of GHG performance related to biomass-based products is challenging in particular due to connection to land use and organic carbon stocks, and due to the inertia involved. Biogenic carbon dioxide emissions are typically excluded in life cycle assessment (LCA) based on the assumption that carbon release and sequestration are in balance. However, instant biomass cultivation and harvesting may result in remarkable changes in carbon stocks of forests or soils for decades or even for centuries. These kinds of carbon stock changes take place in relation to a particular determined virtual reference scenario. Besides the instant carbon stock changes, the future land use as well as the life time and end-of-life use of the product affect the GHG balance of biomass products. Consequently, future-related assumptions are required in order to consider these issues in retrospective LCA. In this study, the related challenges are explored.
Attributing Ghg Emissions From Deforestation To Countries Importing Biomass (Abstract #577)
Laura Saikku, Kim Pingoud and Sampo Soimakallio
International trade affects the global environment increasingly and in many ways. The biomass product sector, including forest and agricultural products, is highly international and hence interesting in this regard. At the same time, forest products, food, feed, energy, and ecosystem services are competing for the scarce land resources. Land-use change emissions account for around one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. This is mainly due to destruction of tropical forests and peat swamps. When setting national greenhouse gas emission targets, emissions are typically allocated to countries based on their production. Thus, consumption of goods and services trough international trade is overlooked. However, there is leakage of land-use change impacts of the biomass consuming countries to the countries with deforestation. Regarding land-use and land-use change, action of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD) is developed under the UNFCCC. However, there is no experience of its full implementation, nor a guarantee of its success. In this study, a method is developed, where the responsibility of emissions from deforestation are attributed to countries importing biomass, form such countries, especially of agricultural products. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies. A simple but transparent method is developed where the embodied land-use emissions are attributed to countries importing biomass products.
Organizational Forms And Likelihood Of Industrial Symbiosis From The Perspective Of Transaction Cost Economics (Abstract #579)
Han Shi
The research conceptualized intra-firm waste recovery, inter-firm waste exchange, and commercial waste recycling/disposal as the hierarchy, hybrid, and market modes of industrial waste management. For the empirical testing of the relationships between transaction attributes and organizational forms of waste recovery and disposal practices, I spent nearly three years compiling a dataset that contains 123 energy, water, and material related waste recovery/disposal activities at the plant level in a leading eco-industrial park in China - Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area (TEDA). TEDA was founded in a salt pan in 1984 in China. TEDA is located 130 kilometers southeast of Beijing city facing the Bohai Bay. TEDA has an area of 41 square kilometers, divided into an industrial zone (26.4 km2), a residential zone (11.3 km2), and a campus and forest park zone (3.1 km2). Symbiotic exchange was first formed in 1992. Altogether, 81 symbiotic exchanges were identified as having been formed surrounding the utility and four key industrial clusters of TEDA. Among which, 7 are energy-based synergies, 12 water-based exchanges, and 62 material-based synergies. In 2008, TEDA was nominated as one of the three national eco-industrial parks in China. Ordinal logit regression analyses were carried out to test the hypotheses concerning the relationships between asset specificity (divided into physical asset specificity, site asset specificity, human asset specificity, procedural asset specificity, and brand name capital asset specificity), frequency of exchange, and organizational forms of waste recovery/disposal practices. The findings of the empirical research show that physical asset specificity, site asset specificity, and human asset specificity are significant determinants of organizational forms of waste management practices while procedural asset specificity, brand name capital asset specificity, and frequency of exchanges do not have definitive impacts on the organizational forms of waste recovery/disposal activities.
Assessing Whole Building Sustainability: A Hybrid Lca Approach (Abstract #580)
Barbara Lippiatt and Sangwon Suh
Building stakeholders need compelling, practical metrics, tools, and data to support investment choices and policy making related to sustainable building designs, technologies, and regulations. Tackling this topic is hard because buildings are complex systems of interacting subsystems with energy performance that varies with technology, level of design integration, geographical region, and time. Assessing building sustainability performance adds more complexity due to the wide range of potential environmental, health, and economic impacts. The U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is addressing this high priority national need by extending to whole buildings its metrics and popular tool for selecting sustainable building products known as Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES). The idea is to assess the sustainability performance of energy technologies and systems in an integrated building design and operation context. This involves developing whole building sustainability metrics based on innovative extensions to LCA and LCC approaches involving hybrid LCA and building energy simulation. So far, more than 8000 commercial building energy simulations have been run to estimate energy use for 12 building types in 228 U.S. cities, with 3 building designs evaluated for each building-location combination. The hybrid LCA approach evaluates these building designs by integrating a “top-down” I/O database for 42 building types with bottom-up, process-based LCA data into a first-ever hybrid matrix for the U.S. building/construction industry. The new metrics assess the “carbon footprint” of buildings as well as 11 other environmental performance metrics, and integrate economic performance metrics to yield science-based measures of the business case for investment choices in green buildings.
Time-Dependent Phev Energy Consumption Estimation From National Travel Patterns (Abstract #581)
Jason MacDonald, Jarod Kelly and Greg Keoleian
One promising technology to address peak oil, global warming, and energy security is the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV); however, the impact of PHEVs on greenhouse gas emissions and the petroleum that they directly displace is uncertain. PHEV gasoline and electricity consumption are dependent on the technological characteristics of the vehicle and the user’s charging/driving behavior. Additionally, there is uncertainty in the emissions associated with the generation of electricity for PHEVs as the time of day and geographic region of vehicle charging impacts emissions per kilometer driven. The present study describes a method for estimating the gasoline and electricity consumption of a fleet of PHEVs by tracking the state of charge over a single day of approximately 170,000 vehicles taking nearly 700,000 trips from USDOT’s National Household Transportation Survey. This results in a scalable, time dependent, PHEV charging demand that indicates the additional load a utility may expect, as well as PHEV gasoline consumption. Over 40 scenarios were examined that account for variation in on-road energy consumption, battery size, charging power, where vehicles can charge, and time dependent charging behaviors, including minimum dwell time and charge onset delays. The scenarios determine the amount of energy consumed, the percent of travel driven electrically, and when charging occurs. Average vehicles with a 10.4 kWh useable battery size consume from 48 to 61 kWh per week, and from 10.2 to 14.8 liters of gasoline per week. This also indicates that the PHEV would drive between 56% and 70% of its kilometers on electricity. Fleet charging load is also compared to the current non-PHEV load in Michigan. Recommendations on vehicle design and charging for manufacturers, utilities, and consumers will be presented based on scenario analysis results.
Accounting And Modeling Building Stocks For The Lisbon Metropolitan Area (Abstract #595)
Antonio Lorena, David Figueiredo, Daniel Wiesmann and Samuel Niza
Even though buildings stocks are one of the largest physical and economical capitals of a society, there is a lack of aggregated information and tools for accounting these stocks and related material flows. These studies can be useful for early recognition of environmental problem, investment planning in production and waste management infrastructures, among others. To this date, no comprehensive studies of the building stocks of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (LMA) have been made. We propose a methodology for accounting building stocks and related flows in LMA, based on the existing GIS, National Census and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Municipalities of the LMA already manage comprehensive GIS, with detailed information at the building level. Where this information is not available, we use the National Census to estimate useful floor area (UFA). Once UFA is determined for all buildings, these are characterized according to age (4 categories) and use class (6 categories). For each combination of these categories, nine material intensities (tons/UFA) are defined through a LCA approach; data for the inventories is collected through a combination of actual construction specifications and best practices in construction. The information collected through this methodology is used to establish a model of building stock dynamics, conceptually similar to the one presented by Sartori et al. (2008). The model considers two exogenous variables (GDP and population), three basic processes (new construction, refurbishment and demolition), and two material flows (resource demand and C&D waste production). These processes affect the main variable, the building stock, which is characterized by an age-class distribution (Bradley and Kohler, 2007) and corresponding rates of demolition and refurbishment. Data from the National Statistics Institute and municipalities, combined with sampling, is used to calibrate and validate the model. The end-result is future building stocks, resource demand and C&D waste production according to various scenarios.
A Product Attribute To Impact Algorithm To Streamline Ict Environmental Footprinting (Abstract #598)
Elsa Olivetti, Melissa Zgola, Christopher Weber, Sarah Boyd, Jennifer Mangold, Ramzy Kahhat, Eric Williams, Jeremy Gregory and Randolph Kirchain
While cost, quality and performance remain the primary drivers for product decision making within information technology (IT) firms, changing market dynamics stemming from volatile energy prices, pressure from consumers and private groups, and rapidly developing labeling efforts are raising firm focus around quantifying environmental performance as well. However, executing quantitative measurement and identifying primary drivers of environmental impact present particular challenges within this industry due to the complexity, and dynamics of products and supply chains. This presentation describes the activities of an ongoing partnership among academia, IT companies, as well as governmental and non-governmental organizations convened to develop an efficient approach to life cycle assessment of IT. The project’s first phase aims to develop a near term, quantitative approach for environmental performance evaluation to support strategic decision-making and labeling. The approach initially intends to resolve the global warming impact among product types (as opposed to SKU-level) for laptops. We aim to determine impact with minimum data collection and minimum user input while providing actionable insight. Data collection is minimized through probalistic triage, leveraging existing data and its associated uncertainty to estimate impact and then targeting data refinement on the highest impact activities. To minimize user input, product attribute to impact algorithms (or PAIAs) are developed linking product attributes to components, components to the bill-of-materials and process (or bill of activities, BOA), and the BOA to impact. This presentation focuses on PAIA development, which provides a form of streamlined LCA because the method enables an input, for example, of screen size rather than a full LCD bill of materials. The relevant attributes we identify are those that have a significant impact on the results, are viewed as critical by stakeholders, and are measureable at “low” cost. Results indicate the feasibility of this triaged approach and that PAIAs effectively limit user input.
Non-Price Material Scarcity Metrics (Abstract #601)
Nathan Fleming, Elisa Alonso and Randolph Kirchain
Economic theory suggests that price is an effective signal of material scarcity—that increasing scarcity leads to increasing scarcity rent, which increases price; however, decreasing extraction costs due to technology improvement can lower prices and mask the scarcity rent. Furthermore, price often does not reflect the environmental costs of mining and metal production, which tend to increase with scarcity as lower quality ores are used. Firms that use metals who are concerned about risks to their business from material scarcity have an interest in finding additional metrics for material scarcity, particularly ones that indicate scarcity in advance of price. In particular, since it takes firms time to respond to the scarcity, they benefit from a metric that provides evidence of scarcity in advance of price. Policy makers concerned with the environmental impacts of mining or strategic planning also have an interest in such metrics. Our research examines the degree to which a number of non-price market metrics characterize metal scarcity. These metrics are tested with a systems dynamic simulation of a model commodity market. Initial results indicate that firms and policy makers should consider measurements of physical quantities, such as depletion index and recycling rate, and institutional structure, such as the size and number of firms in the market. Historical case studies of a few industrial metals test the validity of the model findings.
Transition To Low-Carbon Cities: Applications Of The Purge Model (Abstract #605)
Eugene Mohareb and Christopher Kennedy
Global cities are taking action towards mitigating their contributions to climate change. Conventionally, accounting of city greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has been undertaken from a steady-state perspective. Policy measures for reducing future emissions, however, need to recognize the transient, or temporal, factors that affect the rate of potential change. These temporal factors, which impact GHG inventories, include changes in the existing building stock, historically accumulated waste-in-place, the rate of diffusion of low-carbon technologies, and the maturity-based rate of carbon sequestration in biomass. Understanding of these temporal factors is critical in answering the strategic question of how quickly GHG reductions can be realised. The Pathways to Urban Reductions in Greenhouse gas Emissions (PURGE) model has been developed to incorporate the temporal components of policies aiming to reduce GHG emissions through the transition to low-carbon technologies. Parameter selection for technological diffusion (assuming sigmoidal adoption curves) has been completed based on historic and current rates of adoption of comparable technologies, as well as city-specific stock change. The PURGE model estimates demand for selected technologies based on GDP, population growth, and changes in electrical infrastructure. This allows for the creation of various scenarios for technological change towards low-carbon cities. The decline of GHGs has been estimated, using business-as-usual rates of technological change, as well as aggressive scenarios. An example using the Greater Toronto Area for an aggressive scenario, assuming low-carbon building construction (all new single detached homes construction to the Nordic Passive House standard), incorporating the building stock age profile and a rate of new construction that ranged from 1.5 to 2.2%, yielded a 40% drop in single family housing-related emissions by 2050. This suggests that replacing houses at the current rate of renewal with highly-efficient alternatives alone will not produce the emissions reductions in that sector at the scale recommended by the IPCC.
Comparing Geographic, Hybrid, And Full Consumption-Based Greenhouse Gas Accounting Methods For 45 U.S. Cities (Abstract #606)
Abel Chavez and Anu Ramaswami
Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission inventories for cities and city regions are confounded by the small spatial scale of cities and by trans-boundary infrastructures, travel, and trade-of-goods and services between cities. This study will compare three GHG emission methods in 45 U.S. counties side-by-side, to evaluate: • Implementability – How does data availability facilitate method implementation in each county. • Policy Relevance – How can the GHG inventory findings be used for policy relevant decisions. • Inter-City Comparability – What are the best available metrics for comparing GHG emissions across cities. The three different methods are: • Traditional geographic based methods measure GHG emissions occurring from end-uses of electricity and fossil fuels from buildings and surface transport, community-wide, and are similar to production based inventories. • A geographic-plus (or hybrid) GHG inventory, builds upon WRI GHG protocols. The method includes most policy-relevant trans-boundary activities such as commuter & airline travel, and life-cycle based embodied energy of key materials such as transport-fuels, water, shelter, and food, used in all cities. Both the geographic and geographic-plus methods, consider the entire community together, including all residential-commercial-industrial activities. • In contrast, consumption-based GHG inventories, measure GHG emissions resulting from economic final-demand, dominated by household consumption, all trans-boundary GHG’s, including international imports. Unlike geographic-plus, here the community is divided, with commercial-industrial activities for exports not counted in local boundary. The side-by-side comparison will help address the practical value-added of all three methods in helping cities measure and reduce GHG emissions.
Environmental Due Diligence For Co2 Mitigation (Abstract #607)
Edgar Hertwich, Anders Arvesen, Bhawna Singh and Thomas Gibon
Today's energy system threatens climate stability and causes significant environmental problems in the form of health effects and ecological impacts. The challenge is to reduce these environmental impacts while ensuring an adequate supply of clean, affordable energy to the world's growing population. Energy efficiency, alternative energy sources and new conversion technologies are required to meet these goals. New energy technologies can also bring with themselves environmental costs and resource requirements, and these costs should be adequately considered in energy and climate policy. The International Resource Panel is currently conducting an assessment of the environmental and resource impacts of a large-scale implementation of selected mitigation technologies, including a number of renewable energy sources, CO2 capture and storage (CCS) and a few energy efficiency measures. Based on clean energy scenarios, the required infrastructure, land, water, fuel, material and other input requirements, and associated emissions/wastes are modelled on a global level and where appropriate through regional case studies. The presentation provides an overview of the work procedure, which comprises the identification of critical issues, the modelling of life-cycle impacts and validation via expert workshops, and the scenario modelling. The approach is illustrated using CCS and wind power as an example. These case studies illustrate a trade-off, with reduced impacts on some accounts for CCS and for most investigated indicators for wind power, but increases in resource use and selected emissions for CCS. Aestethic concerns and land fragmentation issues are noted for windpower. It is demonstrated that the emissions and resource use associated mitigation technologies are relevant on a global scale and imply that even 'clean' energy technology cannot provide unlimited and unproblematic energy supply.
The Real Face Of Eco-Industrial Development (Abstract #608)
Jaspal Marwah and Tracy Casavant
The Corporation of Delta in Metro Vancouver, BC, looked to eco-industrial principles as a solution to redeveloping technically challenging and underused lands into a model of industrial sustainability – “Zone C”. The resulting eco-industrial strategy knits the landowners, ecology and economy of the area into an innovative brownfield redevelopment plan that strengthens the community. The municipality identified a need for creating a policy framework to support their vision for eco-industrial development activity. One component of this framework was an opportunity to create design guidelines to help shape future development in manner that supports eco-industrial objectives. This presentation will introduce the Zone C project and the process for creating the design guidelines, and the role of policy frameworks in supporting eco-industrial development, and contributing to the development and management of sustainable cities. The presentation will also discuss and demonstrate how these guidelines are being used to address eco-industrial development principles such as: industrial symbiosis & waste reuse, ecological design, green development, green infrastructure and more.
Mineral Scarcity, Back With Vengeance (Abstract #611)
Rene Kleijn, Ester van der Voet and Gert Jan Kramer
Extremely high metal prices during the so-called "Great Metals boom" of 2002 - 2008 and the recent geopolitical struggle for rare earth elements have put mineral scarcity back on the political and research agenda. One could argue that the economic importance of resources is very limited and has decreased over time. However, although we are more and more living in cyberspace, we cannot eat bits, nor can we live inside computer chips. If the supply of materials would fail, society as we know it, including cyberspace, would come to a grinding halt. Worries about the supply of basic commodities are as old as the human race. Time after time human ingenuity through technological innovation has solved the problem of scarcity. Although the work of the Club of Rome in the 1970s was heavily criticized, it made clear that exponential growth in resource use is, by definition, unsustainable. However, resource prices have decreased the last 200 years or so indicating that new discoveries, technological innovation and substitution have outran increased demand and degrading ore quality. The fact that the optimists have been right so far does not necessarily mean that their predictions will hold in the future. Next to the economic reality of the resource economist there is a physical reality in which we are now reaching some fundamental boundaries to the exponential growth in resource use. These boundaries can be found when one has a closer look at the factors that caused resource prices to decrease over the past centuries. We will explore the debate between resource economists and environmentalists and argue that the time of cheap and readily available resources might well be coming to an end.
Energy Saving From A Roof Top Greenhouse In A Public Building Of Barcelona, Spain. (Abstract #612)
ILEANA CERON, JORDI OLIVER-SOLÀ, CARLES MARTÍNEZ, ESTHER SANYE, LLUIS GRAU, JUAN IGNACIO MONTERO and JOAN RIERADEVALL
In recent years the cities exert enormous pressure on the natural environment destroying ecosystems, green areas, biodiversity and consuming resources. Current food model is produced and processed through a linear urban metabolism, which involves the use of water, waste, GHG emissions and energy costs during its life cycle greenhouse. One way to reduce the ecological footprint is integrating these agricultural areas to the city. This study proposes the approximation of horticultural products to consumers through construction of greenhouses on the roofs of buildings. The main objective of the study is to assess the energy savings from this strategy in a public building located in the city of Barcelona, Spain. This assessment focuses on the study of the roof thermal performance and its effects on the building internal climate. Once characterised the different structural systems and materials of the building and greenhouse, three evaluation scenarios were defined: (1) The existing roof structural system (steel and plywood). (2) The new roof structural system (mortar, concrete, polystyrene, air chamber and plywood). (3) The Implementation of a roof top greenhouse with the new roof structural system. Those scenarios were modelled in the "DesignBuilder" energy simulation program. DesignBuilder uses the EnergyPlus dynamic simulation process to generate performance data . Climate data and thermal characteristics of the materials were introduced in the program. Preliminary results indicate a 37% saving on scenario three compared to scenario one. In terms of energy saving the influence of the new structural system was greater than that of the greenhouse. Additional benefits from the greenhouse could be provided to all areas of the building if the greenhouse and the building were connected; this would allow the interchange of energy fluxes and further energy savings.
The Importance Of A Standardized Framework In Biofuels Studies (Abstract #613)
Bianca Sayan, Gorrety Dias and Geoff Lewis
As the biofuels industry grows, there is an increasing number of studies that try to quantify the environmental impacts of biofuels. These studies use various “life cycle” approaches, such as energy analysis and carbon accounting. The lack of adherence to a consistent way of approaching the analysis and reporting the results on the environmental impacts is problematic, and this is becoming apparent through the range of results that are found in the literature. A significant number of studies have published results that do not explicitly or transparently state or describe geographic conditions, the agricultural or technology system being analyzed, material and energy inputs and outputs, or descriptions of data origin and quality. This limits the utility of the study as it becomes difficult for policy-makers to make informed decisions about biofuels and for researchers to understand and interpret results, so that they can build on the existing body of research on biofuels. We will use the ISO series LCA framework and existing literature that focuses on LCA guidance to propose a standardized and appropriate way of reporting and sharing the studies and results for biofuels. We will also use this framework to explain how the adoption of standardized practices can help in the understanding and interpretation of the variation in results among studies of similar systems. LCA frameworks require that studies address and disclose many details that are known issues in biofuels literature such as geographic boundaries, clear descriptions of system boundaries, and specific description of technologies involved. Additionally, the inclusion of frameworks for reporting and describing agricultural activities and data quality are also pertinent for biofuels. The use of a standardized reporting framework will help researchers publish more meaningful studies, extend results from other studies, and therefore help provide policy-makers with more reliable and interpretable data.  
Sustainability Analysis Of Redeveloped Brownfields (Abstract #617)
Thomas Brecheisen, Thomas Theis, Susan Kaplan and Chris DeSousa
A brownfield is defined as real property the redevelopment of which is complicated by contamination. It is often stated that brownfield redevelopment is inherently more sustainable than conventional land development because the cleanup and reuse of brownfields reduces the need to develop new land in open spaces or farmland. In this way, redeveloped brownfields can meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability for future generations to meet their own needs. However, the manner in which redevelopment takes place is an important aspect of sustainable projects. There is an increasing interest in designing brownfield projects that incorporate sustainable characteristics to reduce adverse environmental impacts associated with land development in an urban landscape. In order to determine the conformity of brownfield redevelopments to the sustainability paradigm, multiple redeveloped brownfield projects have been examined through comprehensive case studies of material and energy flow analyses and life cycle assessments. Life cycle assessments quantify the material and energy inventory throughout all stages of brownfield redevelopment and use while assessing the associated environmental impacts. In this study, we present trends for sustainable design and best management practices of redeveloped brownfields. Data were gathered from redeveloped brownfield sites for comparison based on a common set of indices, including material and energy consumption along a temporal gradient. Data on material and energy are analyzed through categorization as stocks, flows, emissions, and energy used. This study examines the results and assesses the consequences of various brownfield redevelopment practices with an overall goal of discerning the comparative directionality (i.e. more or less sustainable) for alternative practices and outcomes.
Temporal Implications Of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions For Lignocellulosic Ethanol Pathways With Carbon Storage (Abstract #618)
Ghasideh Pourhashem, Sabrina Spatari and Paul R. Adler
Lignocellulosic biofuel technologies are under development to support energy policy goals of mitigating the greenhouse gas (GHG) and energy security risks associated with petroleum fuels. Recent literature has identified the importance of treating the time-dependent flux of CO2 to the atmosphere, which can occur as steady annual releases or as large pulses (1). Conversely, carbon storage in soils may require treating the time-dependent stock accumulation in the form of credits. We examine temporal issues in life cycle GHG accounting of biofuel pathways that increase soil organic carbon (SOC) storage through the use of a carbon-rich land amendment using time-series SOC change data (measured in CO2 equivalents, CO2e) generated using the DAYCENT model; and a method (2) that adjusts differences in annual GHG emissions by estimating the cumulative radiative forcing caused by the GHG emissions and atmospheric residence time over the biofuel time horizon chosen. Two cases of corn stover-to-ethanol are examined. In the first, 50% of the corn stover is removed from land for bioconversion to ethanol and the lignin portion of the feedstock is used for process energy and an electricity co-product. In the second case 50% of corn stover is removed from the land for bioconversion to ethanol, the process is powered by a natural gas boiler and purchased electricity, and the C-rich lignin by-product is separated from the feedstock and returned to the land to replace SOC. Owing to slow degradation of lignin, results show that the land-amendment scenario has a lower radiative forcing over the analysis period, in spite of the need to use natural gas for process energy. This analysis shows the potential for reducing life cycle GHG emissions and improving SOC using lignin byproduct-land storage in combination with biofuel production. References 1. M. O’Hare et al 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 024001 2. A. Courchesne et al. 2010, J. Ind. Ecol., 14(2):309-321
Sustainable Development Information Flows Along Product Chains At Eka Chemicals (Abstract #620)
Ulrika Palme, Henrikke Baumann, Karin Andersson Halldén, Johanna Martinsson and Sofia Petersson
The TOSCA project aims at demonstrating how large companies work with sustainable development aspects in supply chains. The project is carried out in cooperation between AkzoNobel, SCA and Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden, and is supported by the EU Life+ programme. The project includes a multitude of activities, including investigation and demonstration of the use of various management and systems analysis tools in the two companies as well as the development of a knowledge portal. Within this larger project, a subproject has been carried out, focusing specifically and in detail on the flows of sustainable development information along product chains within Eka Chemicals, one of the business units within AkzoNobel. The study is based on in-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews with (to date) 10 persons in strategic positions at Eka. The study is primarily descriptive, aiming at generating a clear picture of the sustainable development information network, from a life cycle perspective, and to locate redundancies as well as deficiencies in this system. To achieve this, however, it has also been necessary to investigate how different actors define sustainable development information and, to some extent, what their attitude is towards this information. Preliminary results point to considerable variations in attitudes and perceived need for sustainable development information at different sub-business units or divisions, and indicate a well developed information network. The project continues until mid May and will be ready for presentation in June.
Infrastructure Ecology: A Conceptual Model For Understanding Urban Sustainability (Abstract #621)
Ming Xu and Josh Newell
Cities are an ever evolving complex mix of people, nature, and built structures which all have to synergize to fulfill changing societal needs. In the past, we designed, built, and operated infrastructure systems as if they were wholly separate systems. But urban systems are like ecosystems: Infrastructures like species are highly interconnected with each other in complex ways. The water-energy nexus has been studied for some time now, but there are other interdependent systems that have not been well researched, such as the interdependencies of engineering infrastructure (e.g., transportation, buildings, etc), urban ecosystems (e.g., parks, green spaces, etc), and socio-economic conditions (e.g., real estate values, job market, business environment, tax revenue, etc). For cities to be sustainable and resilient over time even when faced with uncertain challenges, we need to understand the linkages between individual components within cities, similar to food chains in ecology. A conceptual model of urban infrastructure ecology is introduced. This model characterizes the interactions among and between urban system components, including engineering infrastructure, urban ecosystems, urban dwellers, socio-economic conditions, and global economic, social and environmental drivers (e.g., climate change or financial crises). The two presenters, representing the disciplines of engineering and geography, provide an example of how sustainable engineering modeling can be combined with spatially explicit resource and demographic mapping to further our understanding of urban sustainability.
Environmental Impacts Of Natural Gas From The Marcellus Shale (Abstract #626)
Alexander Dale, Melissa Bilec and Radisav Vidic
Gas shales represent large, if unconventional, potential reserves of natural gas throughout the world. Producing gas from these shales is a relatively new process which includes the production of water which is very high in salts, metals, and chemicals, both as part of flowback and during production. Environmental impacts for shale gas have not been adequately quantified, making it difficult to create solid environmental policy on the use of natural gas. We present life-cycle environmental impacts for production of shale gas in the Marcellus shale, including drilling and operational impacts as well as management of the water. We look in particular at the sensitivity of results to distance from water sources and existing pipeline infrastructure, and at the impacts of reusing or recycling flowback water. While shale gas production is somewhat similar between shale plays, care should be taken in generalizing the results, as we have not examined variability between shales, focusing instead on variability between companies operating in the Marcellus region.
The Sustainability Of Bioethanol—So How Does The Pig Farmer Fit In? (Abstract #628)
Lise Laurin, Kiyotada Hayashi and Susumu Uchida
The National Agriculture and Food Organization of Japan has been piloting a variety of biomass utilization projects throughout Japan. Several of these projects have expanded boundaries to include not only biofuels production but also coproducts such as fertilizer, polyphenols, and livestock feed. These highly complex systems affect the environment of different regions and stakeholders in a wide variety of positions. The use of Life Cycle Assessment combined with Total Cost Assessment has enabled a robust analysis of the sustainability of several of these projects from environmental, social, and economic standpoints. In one case, multiple uses of sweet potato biomass affect local starch production, the local community, pig and cattle farmers and local and regional sweet potato farmers to name a few. Building on a Life Cycle Assessment of the ethanol production a Total Cost Assessment workshop brought together many of these stakeholders into one room to identify the risks and opportunities for each. In addition to assigning Bayesian probabilities and stakeholder-based weighting to social, environmental, and economic impacts, the approach stimulated mutual understanding and consensus building within the group, reflecting a transdisciplinary approach.
Industries Involvement Into Industrial Symbiosis Projects (Abstract #631)
Karine Markewitz, Jean-Francois Vermette, Jennifer Pinna, Marie-Chantal Vincent and Claude Maheux-Picard
Since 2005, Centre de transfert technologique en écologie industrielle (CTTEI) has managed a web-based waste exchange program in Quebec, Canada called Bourse des résidus industriels du Québec (BRIQ). This system, with the participation of more than 100 firms proposing waste material, allows the realization of more than ten new synergies per year throughout the province. The BRIQ method is supported by a computing system that favors the contact between waste s and potential receivers. Since 2008, nine industrial symbiosis projects were developed in Quebec using this tool optimized: One in an industrial park (Becancour project), three in town area (Rivière-du-Loup, Shawinigan and Sorel-Tracy projects) and one associating partners from five areas (D’Autray, Montcalm, Joliette, L’Assomption and Matawinie projects). These projects present differences in the kinds of industries involved. Some territories are dominated by heavy industries (metal transformation, petrochemistry) with a dense industrial concentration while others take place in more rural areas based on wood or food transformation industries. In all cases, the objectives consist in optimizing waste management and proposing synergies between firms. More than 200 industries are part of these initiatives, and over 150 synergies were identified. Some of them are currently implanted. This presentation aims at introducing these projects and the methodologies employed, focusing on the industries involvement. Indeed, whereas, some industrial symbiosis (i.e Kalundborg), developed spontaneously, others need to be supported and firms’ participation are essential in symbiosis success. In these Quebecer projects, parameters studied are: the way of transmission of the information to the industries, the stakeholder responsible for the contact with the industries and the process until data collection and finally, the diffusion of information about the project to the community, non-direct stakeholders of the project. Their influences on industries involvement were analyzed. These results will be also presented and the state-of-advancement of the projects.
U.S. Electricity Infrastructure Flow Analysis: How Fast Must We Build? (Abstract #634)
Catherine Izard, Constantine Samaras, Inês Azevedo, H. Scott Matthews and Chris Hendrickson
In recent years, proposed US climate policies (ACES, CEJAPA, CLEAR) have set emissions reduction goals without due consideration of the physical realities of the amount of electric infrastructure construction required to meet those goals. For any CO2 emissions reductions goals in the power sector, it is important to understand the how the severity of emissions constraints affects the physical flows of electricity capacity construction required to comply. Four decision variables primarily drive the amount of construction required to meet emission reduction goals: the magnitude of reductions, the timing of reductions, demand growth, and technology choice (including associated technology costs and performance). We present a methodology for analyzing the effects of these decision variables on infrastructure flows. The method, termed “integrated infrastructure flow analysis” (IIFA), extends the core tool of material flow analysis to create a multi-criteria decision-making tool that can evaluate the implications of decision making on infrastructure flows. Our results show the impact of these decision variables on the level of early retirement of existing electricity capacity and the amount and timing of new electricity capacity construction required. If the US desires an 80% reduction in electric sector emissions by 2050 and waits to start mitigation until 2030, then the US will have to build between 70%-110% as much zero-carbon capacity every single year between 2030 and 2050 as we have ever built of any kind of capacity in a single year historically. Starting mitigation in 2015 reduces the annual zero-carbon construction required to the comparatively more manageable 40-70% as much construction as our historic, single year maximum. Our results provide further evidence that early action is necessary to feasibly and economically reduce GHG emissions to acceptable levels, and provide a guideline for policy and decision-makers to draft realistic and achievable policy goals for GHG reduction pathways.
Gauging Attitudes And Subjective Norms About New Approaches Relating To Data In The Life Cycle Assessment Community (Abstract #635)
Steven Young and Bianca Sayan
The internet presents exciting new opportunities in the way we communicate and report LCA studies. This study examines the perception of needs and attitudes within the LCA community, in order to support and best facilitate the development of new tools. An online survey was conducted with LCA professionals to gauge their general attitudes about communication and reporting, specifically on themes of data, sharing, and perceptions of areas for improvement in the field. The survey asked questions about current practices and perceived gaps in existing LCA tools and practices. Results from this survey allow us to begin to develop a formal dialogue on major issues of concerns about LCA data, the community's willingness to share data and specific barriers against doing so, and their awareness of new technology approaches in the field. Initial results suggest that there is a perception of need for improvement in data, as existing data formats do not provide the full capability that practitioners feel are optimal. Respondents also recognized the importance of sharing data while also pointing out major barriers relevant to their own experiences. The survey exposed a need for more transparency, and for ways of facilitating better levels and understanding of data quality. Issues of quality and reliability might result from open frameworks. The study highlights areas of concern within existing LCA work, and points at directions for future work on development of tools, data formats, and practices. Also explored is the possibility of growing LCA communities around data frameworks that accommodate members’ needs, pose minimal barriers to access, and maximize the utility of community participation.
Energy, Emissions, And Cost Tradeoffs Of Potential Us Modal Freight Policies (Abstract #641)
Rachael Nealer
This paper estimates the total embodied modal freight requirements across the supply chain for each of over 400 sectors using BTS Commodity Flow Survey data and the BEA economic input-output tables. For example, the total embodied freight transportation for production of an average $20,000 automobile in 2002 is estimated to have required 71,000 ton-km of freight transportation, of which 25,000 ton-km is used to deliver the assembled vehicle to a sales lot and the remainder of the transportation occurs across the automobile supply chain. Of the 25,000 ton-km delivery, 55% is the share moved by truck, 21% by rail, and 24% by international water. For all sectors, domestic truck and rail are similar in magnitude for embodied freight transportation of goods and services. Furthermore, most freight has contributions from truck, rail, and water modes which may allow potential shifts away from truck to rail and water. Relating the total embodied transportation required by mode to energy, emissions, cost, and time shows the consequences of modal shifts per sector for these important metrics. By adjusting various assumptions shifting away from truck transport, multiple scenarios are created and analyzed. Two sectors sensitive to truck modal shifts, food and non-metallic minerals, were chosen for more detailed investigation. Overall, shifting 13% of direct truck transportation evenly to rail and water reduces energy use, GHG emissions, and cost an average of 2% each across all sectors. Targeting the top problem sectors reduces the energy, emissions, and costs more, at an average of 8%, in the best case scenario. Finally, the uncertainty of the estimates and avenues in which to incentivize these shifts are explored.
Analyzing The Optimal Use Of Biomass To Provide Regional Energy Services In The United States (Abstract #643)
Aranya Venkatesh, Kimberley Mullins and Amy Nagengast
In an effort to reduce dependence on foreign fossil fuels and mitigate climate change impacts, the United States is currently investing in energy infrastructure to promote fuel resources that are less carbon intensive and domestically available. Biomass represents a feasible alternative to fossil fuels as it can be grown locally in large quantities, can be processed in order to meet various energy service demands in the transportation, heating and power industries, and can potentially reduce life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The key factors that limit the growth of biomass in this context are (1) current technology costs of biomass growth and conversion to end-energy use (e.g. heating or power), and (2) the availability of arable land. A multi-objective optimization framework is required to understand the tradeoffs between achievable reductions in life cycle GHG emissions by the use of biomass, associated production and processing costs and land use area. In this study, the lowest cost and life cycle GHG emissions scenarios for using three types of biomass feedstock (corn, switchgrass and miscanthus) to satisfy 5% of all energy demanded by the regional heating, electricity, and transportation industries in the United States are investigated. A non-linear programming problem to estimate optimal quantities of particular biomass feedstock to meet a specific energy demand is developed. The key constraints in this model are available land and associated biomass yields. A parametric study is performed to understand how sensitive results are to modeling assumptions. Preliminary cost minimization results indicate that the contributions by each feedstock are highly influenced by the assumed biomass yields. By using the model developed to predict a Pareto front of lowest cost and emissions options, the impacts of a carbon tax can be understood, which provides insight into policy development.
Impact Of Allocation In Lca Of Textiles Products (Abstract #652)
Rachel Arduin and Sérgio Pacca
From the 1990s, with the standardization of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology LCA studies for textiles and garments products started to emerge. The development of many of these studies in the private sector entails in restricted access to the results, and especially to the variables considered. Consequently discussions on which allocation method was chosen, and the reasons for this choice, are hardly ever exposed. Considering that allocation cannot always be eliminated through subdivision or system expansion, as suggested in ISO 14040, and that different allocation methods can influence the final results, this work compares allocation methods applied in a LCA of a t-shirt made of recycled material. In comparison to allocation criteria based on mass and energy criteria, allocation based on economic criteria is more consistent in LCA studies applied to textiles. Regardless of the allocation method selected, it is recommended to conduct a sensitivity analysis at the end of the LCA to verify if the selected method affects the final outcome of the study. In addition, the justification for the choice of the allocation method should be clearly stated.
Reducing Combined Sewer Overflows Using Green Infrastructure (Abstract #657)
Mallory Squier, Carli Flynn and Cliff Davidson
Many cities around the U.S. have combined sanitary and storm sewers. During rainstorms, water flow in the combined sewer system may exceed the maximum flow that can be treated in the local sewage treatment plant. The resulting flow, which is essentially raw sewage mixed with rainwater, reaches surface waters such as streams, rivers, and lakes where it contaminates ecosystems. Solving the problem by constructing separate sewer systems for stormwater and sewage is often prohibitively expensive, as is building more sewage treatment plants to handle the excess capacity. Furthermore, both of these solutions require large amounts of concrete and other construction materials, and there are continuing operating costs associated with higher capacity sewage treatment. In this research, we explore another option, namely the use of green infrastructure to reduce stormwater runoff before it has a chance to enter the sewer system. Our testbed is the city of Syracuse, NY, where sewage flows into Lake Onondaga during Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) events. The problem has been exacerbated in recent years by construction of ever more roads, buildings, and parking lots; rainwater which once percolated into the soil in vegetated areas around the city now runs off of these impervious surfaces and enters the sewer system. The county is currently proposing numerous projects to alleviate the problem, including replacement of impervious concrete used in parking lots with pervious material, construction of green roofs on a number of buildings, and establishment of rain gardens to allow stormwater to infiltrate the soil. We plan both modeling and experimental work to understand changes in water flow occurring as these projects progress. We also plan surveys of city and county residents to learn what they understand and do not understand about CSO and the changes planned for the region.
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Policy Optimization Using Particle Swarms (Abstract #659)
Hosam Fathy, Jarod Kelly, Saeid Bashash and Gregory Keoleian
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been identified as a mode of personal transportation that can facilitate CO2 emissions reductions while allowing users to maintain their typical travel patterns. PHEVs couple an electric motor and internal combustion engine together in order to travel on energy from either battery electricity, or gasoline. By demanding electricity to charge its battery the PHEV imposes a new load on the grid, thereby impacting the shape of the grid’s load curve. This, in turn, influences the types of electricity generators that will meet demand, causing changes to the amount of CO2 emitted by the grid. This study examines the aggregate load imposed by a large number of PHEVs on the electric grid. It assumes this load to be dispatchable, and seeks a dispatch policy that simultaneously minimizes: (i) PHEV CO2 emissions, (ii) total unmet PHEV electricity demand, and (iii) a load leveling objective. We compute these objectives using 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) vehicle trip data combined with previously-developed models of on-road PHEV power management, grid and PHEV CO2 emissions, non-PHEV grid loads, and generation asset dispatch. We focus on the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) as a representative power grid, and repeat the optimization for various PHEV market penetration levels. Because the above optimization objectives are mutually conflicting, we trade them off using a simple multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm. This furnishes a Pareto front of feedforward PHEV dispatch policies. The Pareto front elucidates some fundamental tradeoffs in aggregate PHEV load dispatch, and can form the foundation for future research on more robust dispatch policies employing feedback control. The findings further suggest that Pareto-optimal CO2 emissions are less sensitive to the policy variables than the unmet demand, and load leveling objectives.
Material Flow Modeling Of British Columbia’S Forest Products Industry: Volume Balances Of Wood Fibre In 2007 (Abstract #660)
Yu Li, Hugues Petit-Etienne and Paul McFarlane
Material flow analysis (MFA) may be used to provide an understanding of the flow of materials through an industry. This study used MFA to investigate the wood fibre through British Columbia (BC)’s forest products industry in 2007. Four sub-level (Primary Sawmilling, Pulp and Paper, Structural Panels and Other Mills) models were developed and integrated into a provincial level model of the BC forest products industry. In order to facilitate material flow balancing, conversion factors (m3 Green Roundwood Equivalent (GRWE)/units of final forest products) were evaluated and applied to convert volumetric and weight data to m3 GRWE for all material flows components. The use of a consistent volumetric unit also enabled each sub-level to be readily compared. BC is a globally significant supplier of forest products. In 2007, 78% of the net industrial roundwood input to the sector was converted to lumber in sawmills. With an average provincial lumber yield of 47%, 26.7 Mm3 GRWE sawn timber was produced, while 24.7 Mm3 GRWE of mill by-products in the form of chips, shavings and sawdust served as raw materials for pulp and paper manufacturing. Only 9% of the input to pulp and paper manufacturing was in the form of roundwood with a total wood fibre input to this sub-level of 30.2 Mm3 G RWE. The Structural Panel sub-level consumed approximately 11% of the BC’s industrial roundwood input. The Other Mills sub-level included chip and pellet mills. Pellet mills directly consumed 0.4% of the by-products from lumber manufacturing, while 4% of the roundwood input went to chip mills to support the pulp and paper manufacturing. The development of this provincial material flow model and four sub-level models has improved our understanding of the complexities of the forest products sector material flow web and helped to optimize resource utilization to meet fluctuating market demands.
Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transportation Modeling (Abstract #664)
James J. Corbett, James J. Winebrake, Arindam Ghosh, J. Scott Hawker, Karl Korfmacher, Earl Lee and Jordan Silberman
We will discuss intermodal transportation and logistics sustainability issues within an international and North American context using the Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transportation (GIFT) model. The GIFT research team has employed a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based model that integrates three transportation network models (road, rail, water), joined by intermodal transfer facilities (ports, railyards, truck terminals) in a single GIS “intermodal network” modified to capture energy and environmental attributes. Along with the intermodal transportation network model, GIFT provides models of trucks, trains, and marine vessels, capturing their emissions, energy use, operating cost, and operational characteristics such as speed and freight capacity. By combining these in a Geographic Information System (GIS) with built-in route optimization computations, GIFT can find transportation routes that are the shortest distance, least emissions, least time, least operating cost, and least energy. Adding in models of the freight volume and shipping origins and destinations, GIFT helps agencies and researchers understand the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of freight transportation and tradeoffs of alternate improvement decisions. We will present and discuss several case studies that illustrate how the modeling framework can be tailored with region-specific detail to evaluate carbon footprints, energy conservation, and time delay elements of alternative logistics. We will suggest how a modeling framework can help vision a future freight system that may include modified elements such as: i) Intermodal infrastructure renewal and modification; ii) Fuel alternatives for low-carbon, better life-cycle performance; iii) Technology changes in fleets and prime movers; iv) Operations factors contributing to co-benefits or tradeoffs; v) Logistics implications and drivers enabling sustainable freight choices; vi) Demand factors that may serve as motivators or barriers to system sustainability. Industrial ecology research needs will be identified for both engineering and social sciences.
When Does It Pay To Electrify Auto-Mobility? (Abstract #665)
Renato Orsato and Vered Doctori Blass
Electric vehicles (EVs) have long been regarded as the ultimate “green cars” and the most suitable solution for improving the sustainability of mobility systems. When electricity is generated via hydro, solar, wind or atomic energy, EVs present the lowest carbon emissions of all powertrain technologies. Nonetheless, after loosing the race for the internal combustion engine in the early days of the 20th century, EVs never came back as a mass consumption item. Curiously, the enthusiasm for EVs emerged again in the last few years. In this paper we discuss three trends explaining the renewed enthusiasm: (i) diversification strategies by global automakers; (ii) new value propositions in mobility systems by new business entrants, and (iii) the growth of low carbon energy production and the development of smartgrids aiming to increase the efficiency in energy distribution, storage and use. One of the most remarkable examples is Better Place, a company that develop private infrastructure for EV charging and battery exchange, planning to provide mobility services and smartgrid management. Although the efforts to electrify auto-mobility are expected to reduce CO2 emissions (public benefits) while generating private profits for companies such as Better Place and manufacturers of EVs, the evidence is still feeble. We shed light into this issue by analyzing the cases of Israel (where most of the electricity is generated by coal and oil) and Denmark (country with the highest percentage of electricity produced by wind mills) – the first too countries to implement the EV recharging network of Better Place. Finally, we discuss the rationales behind the eventual “technological recombination” between the energy and the mobility sectors by critically examining the environmental consequences of the new system configurations that might emerge. We conclude with suggestions for policymakers and companies to examine when it pays to electrify the mobility sector.
An Environmentally Extended Input-Output Carbon Calculator (Abstract #666)
Sergio Pacca, Sergio Vicente, Peter May and Chris Jones
The focus on consumption has gained momentum in the quest for sustainability. Input-output models combined with environmental indicators are excellent methods to assist in the evaluation of household consumption. One example is the CoolClimate Calculator of the University of California, Berkeley http://coolclimate.berkeley.edu. The construction of environmentally extended input-output tables is developing quickly in countries such as Brazil. However, the level of aggregation of these tables is greater than that of tables available in other countries, which makes it difficult to narrow the analysis to specific consumer products or services. Nevertheless, Brazil is one of the largest carbon emitters due to its land use and forest profile and it is important to inform the population on the impacts of their individual consumption patterns. In this work, conducted on behalf of Amigos da Terra-Amazonia Brasileira with support from Forum SYD (Sweden), we have adapted the www.eiolca.net input-output table to the Brazilian context. We have substituted emissions arising from the Brazilian electrical generation mix for that of the USA, and we have added some of the most significant land use change related emissions, particularly those due to cattle ranching expansion in the Amazon and cerrado regions. We have compiled official data from household consumption surveys in Brazil and have identified which economic sectors are responsible for supplying goods and services to meet this final demand. Finally, we created a web based tool that calculates the carbon footprint of households in Brazil http://carbonocalc.org/AdTcalc.html. The tool determines the carbon footprint based on average income levels but the user can customize the amounts spent on each of the disaggregated goods and services so that she calculates a more precise figure. In addition to food, other consumer products, energy, and transport, the tool presents some behavioral options (“take action”) that could lead to individual household emission reductions. In comparison with other countries, energy efficiency measures are not as relevant in Brazil to achieving such reductions. Measures dealing with food choices and transportation are more effective.
Opportunities For Utilizing Oil Sands Coke: Technological, Environmental And Financial Implications (Abstract #667)
Jennifer McKellar, Joule Bergerson, Janne Kettunen and Heather MacLean
Coke is a potential byproduct of upgrading oil sands bitumen. Over 64 million tonnes of coke are stored in stockpiles [1], equivalent to over 1.9 billion GJ. Using coke could generate financial benefits for the producer and government, and, if carbon capture and storage (CCS) is implemented, environmental benefits as demand for conventional fuels is offset. This study uses a novel combination of life cycle and real options analyses to investigate the potential to achieve those benefits. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) are employed to investigate systems utilizing coke to produce: synthetic natural gas; hydrogen; energy and hydrogen inputs for oil sands operations; and, electricity. Metrics include greenhouse gas (GHG) and sulfur emissions, and financial cost. Based on financial return to the coke producer (excluding costs of GHG emissions), initially the most promising opportunities are hydrogen production for the oil sands and chemical industries, and electricity generation in China using integrated gasification combined cycle. These systems, with and without CCS, are then investigated in more detailed LCA and LCC analyses. Preliminary results indicate that these systems could have net present values ranging from approximately $-670 million to $2.1 billion (2008 US). In systems with CCS, GHG emissions are about 1300 to 1700 kg(CO2E)/t(coke) less than those of conventional fuel systems producing the same output, suggesting there are opportunities for coke utilization to achieve positive financial and environmental results. Real options analysis will be used to investigate the impact of uncertainty in natural gas and carbon prices on decisions regarding coke utilization; technological risks are not modeled. Oil sands coke is a large energy resource that could become of significant value through the identification of appropriate uses and market conditions. [1] Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB). 2010. Statistical series 43: Mineable oil sands annual statistics. Calgary: ERCB.
An Understanding Of Multi-Scale Urban Metabolism In Singapore (Abstract #668)
BinBin Jiang
The material and energy inputs and outputs of hundreds of households in the Jurong Lake District, Singapore are gathered through surveying and waste weighing. This area was selected by the urban planning agency of Singapore, the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA), for commercial and residential redevelopment over the next 15-20 years. The goal of this project is two-fold: 1) Develop a sustainable waste plan for the district and relate it to Singapore’s overall waste strategy in the future, 2) Understand the structural relationship between household level consumption of material and energy, the district level, and all of Singapore. Regression analysis and group comparison methods will be used to make estimates and predictions of waste generation, as well as to classify clusters of households in their material consumption. A comparison of material flow analysis results from the household, district, and nation-wide level will be used to understand to what degree the material and energy consumption in Singapore is a nested or non-nested hierarchy.
Assessing Resilience And Adaptive Capacity Of Developing Industrial Ecosystems: A Case Study In The South Humber Bank, United Kingdom (Abstract #670)
Alexandra Penn, Frank Schiller, Amy Woodward, Angela Druckman and Lauren Basson
The South Humber Bank (SHB) is a large, active and diverse industrial area, which was one of the first foci of the UK’s industrial symbiosis programme. It is thus an ideal location in which to study the development and response to external and internal drivers of an industrial ecosystem. The Yorkshire and Humber region is one of the UK’s most important energy hubs, with strategic energy generation facilities and infrastructure; it thus faces significant challenges and opportunities with transition to a low carbon economy and national energy security as current key policy issues. Development of the region is affected by, and affects, linked biophysical, industrial, economic, social and governance systems, which are populated by diverse actors. Determining how to manoeuvre this complex system through transition in the context of potentially conflicting goals of different stakeholders with regards to different dimensions of sustainability will be crucial in decision-making for the region. One of the core aims of the Evolution and Resilience of Industrial Ecosystems programme is to develop system-level evaluation criteria for potential developmental pathways. One key property to explore is the system’s “resilience”, defined here as capacity to adaptively reorganise in response to change whilst maintaining its essential structure and functions intact. Resilience is well characterized in biological ecosystems, but only preliminary steps have been taken to apply these ideas in industrial ecology and ecological economics. We present initial analysis of the ongoing development of the SHB industrial ecosystem, identifying and characterizing its structure and dynamics and discuss various measures of the system’s resilience and adaptive capacity in economic, social and environmental terms. This work explores both how resilience thinking can be applied to functioning industrial ecosystems and how resilience may be used as a criterion for evaluating potential action as the system undergoes substantial change.
Cost Effective Recycling System Utilizing Unused Local Resources And Facilities (Abstract #671)
Minoru Fujii, Tsuyoshi Fujita, Xudong Chen and Satoshi Ohnishi
We proposed a concept, smart recycling system which was named according to the analogy with smart grid. Smart grid utilizes existing electric power generation plants and transmission grids and strengthens them by installing information equipments and control instruments in order to minimize the construction of infrastructure. By this reinforcement of the transmission system, smart grid can adjust electricity supply-demand balance and enable the introduction of a large amount of renewable but fluctuating energies such as photo voltage and wind power. Since similar strategy will be of great help in establishing a cost-effective recycling system, we proposed the system named smart recycling. The system which can utilize potentially recyclable wastes as much as possible is of advantage because the use of them is ecological but the amount of wastes generation and the demand for recycled products fluctuate. Smart recycling system is supposed to accept organic municipal solid wastes on a large scale and utilize them effectively at low cost for a long term. For realizing such recycling, a smart recycling center where waste plastics and mixed paper (paper packaging, envelope etc.) are collected and processed into recycled resin and solid low material and fuel (SMF) will be a key component to connect arterial industries and wastes generation sites widely distributed across the country. The SMF are produced to meet standards on size, calorific value, chloride concentration and so on. With this standardization, arterial industries can procure the SMF from any smart recycling center across the nation. That means it becomes easier to adjust the supply-demand balance. We will show the results on evaluating the cost effectiveness of smart recycling system from a long term view point and discuss about generalization of the concept of smart recycling to other unused recyclable resources and facilities in a region.
The Implications Of Climate And Population Change On Water Resource And Water Use Impact (Abstract #673)
Yi-Wen Chiu
Multiple environmental and social-economic variables can lead to increases in the uncertainty of water availability. Given that water is a regional resource, the absolute level of water availability estimated by the large-scale models is not an adequate indicator for local or state-level water management and planning. Additionally, water availability and withdrawal cannot be isolated from various socio-economic, technical, and demographic factors, but previous studies generally ignore such inherent linkages in planning. Therefore, to understand the future water availability and water use impacts, there is an urgent need to connect water use, its impacts, and the background variables from social-economic and environmental aspects. This study focuses on investigating local water balance and use impacts in response to changes in population and climate. A spatially-explicit framework coupling system dynamic model and geographic information system was established to simulate daily water availability and withdrawal on a watershed level by taking climate and demographic factors into account. This study uses Minnesota as an example and applies the ecological water use impact factor proposed by Pfister et al. (2009) on all 81 watersheds. The results indicate that water withdrawal by 2030 would increase by 28% from the average level in 2000 under the designated climate change scenario, 126% under the population scenarios, and 134% under the joint climate-population effect. Approximately 80% of water use impact was caused by power generation and public supply sectors. Therefore water conservation planning should be prioritized in these two water use categories.
Feasibility Of Using The Ecological Footprint In The Flemish Regional Environmental Policy Context (Abstract #674)
Theo Geerken, Veronique van Hoof, An Vercalsteren, Ann Van der Linden, Thibault d'Ursel and Dirk Cleymans
On 20 August 2009, the European Commission released its Communication “ GDP and beyond: Measuring progress in a changing world” : in the context of easily understandable indicators and public awareness creation, composite indicators like the Ecological Footprint and the Human Development Index have a role to play. Meanwhile nations are challenged to improve their performance through yearly publication of national Ecological Footprints and available Biocapacity by WWF. The Flemish Public Environmental Administration commissioned a study towards the feasibility to use the concept of Ecological Footprint within the Flemish regional environmental policy. The study addresses the possibilities and limitations for use of the Ecological Footprint as a representative indicator of the environmental progress in a region like Flanders. The links between Ecological Footprint calculations and existing or planned environmental policies aimed at either production or consumption are explored and assessed. Based on Flemish scenario’s for existing and planned policy for CO2 emissions until 2030, the development of the share of carbon uptake land has been calculated. Environmentally extended input-output analysis has been used to deliver more detail on contributing consumption categories and will also be used to determine the possible contributions of new high potential policy areas to reduce the Ecological Footprint of Flanders. The policy recommendations will complement the study to be finished in February 2011. The presentation will provide the main findings and recommendations of the researchers of this study.
Projected Natural Resources Demand From Large Scale Penetration Of Solar Power (Abstract #675)
Hyung Chul Kim and Vasilis Fthenakis
Recent major analyses of energy policy assign to solar electric technologies a critical role on mitigating carbon emissions. Zweibel et al (2008) proposed a revolutionary transition to solar power that could supply 35 percent of the US energy demand by 2050. The International Energy Agency (IEA) (2010) predicts that photovoltaics (PV) will generate 11 percent of the global electricity demand by 2050. Generating electricity by solar devices in a large-scale evidently entails a great potential of carbon mitigation, with 2.3 Gt of CO2 emissions avoided annually in the IEA “green” scenario. Realizing these scenarios not only depends on economic and political leverages but also on availability of natural resources: land, water, and minerals (Si, Te and so on) as their shortages will eventually block or delay the plans. Recent studies by Fthenakis and Kim (2009; 2010) report 400 m2/GWh of land and 2,000 L/MWh of water usage for multi-silicon PV under the US average irradiation, shedding light on this question. In this study, we examine the life cycle uses of land, water, and minerals associated with large-scale solar power penetration to elucidate local and global resource implications. Adopting a top-down approach, we will first formulate the projected mix of commercial solar technologies, i.e. (multi-and mono-) crystalline silicon PVs, thin-film (CdTe and CIGS) PVs, and concentrated solar power, on the basis of industry roadmaps. The resource use factors of electricity generation from our previous studies will be used to describe the resource demand curve associated with the PV technology mixture. We will examine scenarios including IEA’s Technology Roadmap and World Energy Outlook 2010, as well as the Solar Grand Plan (Fthenakis et al., 2009). We will also examine the natural resources impact from other technologies, i.e., biomass, hydro, and nuclear, in the same policy scenarios to assess the feasibility of outlook.
Economic And Environmental Assessment Of Refurbishing Strategies For Product-Service Bundles (Abstract #676)
Anton Ovchinnikov, Vered Doctori Blass and Gal Raz
Refurbishing products that are part of Product-Service Bundles has the potential to improve economic and environmental performance of closed loop supply chains. In some cases, it may also create trade-offs between the economic and environmental consequences of these activities. Our goal in this research is to investigate the economic and environmental outcomes of refurbishing in a Product-Service Bundle environment, to suggest innovative strategies, and to examine the business and policy implications. We combine the principles and methods of industrial ecology and operations management to investigate the impact of the refurbishing strategies of cell phones service bundles, by taking the perspective of wireless service providers such as AT&T. We use a combination of an analytical model and a behavioral study to analyze the economic and environmental impacts of introducing a re-manufactured high-end product into a product line that consists of new high- and low-end products. Our findings suggest that firms that offer product-service bundles can significantly increase profits by including refurbished products in their product lines. We find that the demand cannibalization of new product sales is in most cases negative. In other words, the firm at optimality sells more new products after the re-manufactured product is introduced than it sold before. From an environmental perspective, this implies that refurbishing may not necessarily displace new production but rather is used to expand the market which can result in an overall negative environmental impact. These findings help product-service firms better understand how to use re-manufacturing to reposition their product lines in order to offer more compelling products and services to their heterogeneous consumers, while also evaluating the environmental impact.
A Behavioral Economics View Of Industrial Symbiosis (Abstract #678)
Marian Chertow and Benjamin Beinecke
Industrial symbiosis has two potential impacts. The most noted is the opportunity to enhance economic and environmental efficiency across firms in industrial areas by conserving resources, reducing waste, and introducing new revenue streams. Beyond the efficiency argument is the opportunity to incentivize behavioral change away from the atomized view of firms operating in isolation from one another and toward greater inter-firm collaboration, a characteristic many scholars see as fundamental to sustainability. Those who study industrial symbiosis, however, know that behavioral change in this direction does not come easily. This talk will assess how arguments from the growing field of behavioral economics can help us both explain and dismantle some of the barriers to the spread of industrial symbiosis and other collaborative environmental practices. Much research based at Yale has stressed a complex, adaptive-systems view which sees industrial ecosystems as emergent based on the simpler activities of economic agents. Enabling less organic, more orchestrated means of facilitating industrial networks could increase the rate of adoption of industrial symbiosis considerably. In so doing, the market opportunities afforded by industrial symbiosis that are hidden from today’s investors because they are disparate and uncoordinated could instead be intermediated to create market value. Several concepts that will be used to shed light on this opportunity include status quo bias, framing, and prospect theory. Because industrial symbiosis can be seen as a way of achieving ongoing economic benefits, at least in the medium term, while avoiding some environmental risks, such knowledge could reveal many missed opportunities.
Evaluating Dynamic Factors That Affect Rare Earths Scarcity (Abstract #681)
Elisa Alonso, Andy Sherman, Timothy Wallington, Mark Everson, Frank Field, Richard Roth and Randolph Kirchain
The adoption of new technologies can lead to rapid changes in materials demand and in some historical cases, this has led to market instability and price spikes. The auto industry experienced price spikes in the platinum market with the adoption of three-way catalytic converters that use platinum following environmental regulations requiring emissions controls in the late 1970’s-early 1980’s. Such instability is detrimental to manufacturers that depend upon a reliable supply of materials. Increasing concerns regarding the reliability of energy supplies, in particular oilenergy security and climate change, are motivating a global drive towards adoption of new technologies such as electric vehicles. However, there is increasing concern for the reliability of supply of the materials required for these technologies. In particular, present hHybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles technology use motors and batteries that rely contain significant amounts of on rare earth elements. For this paper, we evaluate the effect of the adoption of electric vehicles on the rare earths market and develop a number of scenarios. Rare earths demand for a number of future fleet projections are presented and compared to present rare earths supply and resources. In addition, this work seeks to identify dynamic factors that would significantly change the supply-demand balance. Supply elasticity, demand elasticity for different rare earth markets, recycling potential and delays are evaluated. While total resources for rare earths are expected toappear sufficiently to meet demand for the growing electric vehicle fleet, possible delays in expanding capacity and dependence on a single supplier with no option for secondary supply are issues of concern. Moreover, low price elasticity of demand for many rare earth applications may result in a slow response to price signals. Finally, the impact of increased demand for rare earths in other applications (e.g., in wind turbines) is considered.
Urban Water Mass And Energy Balance Analysis, Performance Indicators And Reporting. (Abstract #682)
Steven Kenway
Using a mass balance approach demonstrates that large flows of water pass though drought-stressed Australian cities unutilised and unaccounted. Components of the water balance such as water supply and wastewater discharge are routinely assessed, however significant input and output volumes including rainwater, stormwater, flows to groundwater and evaporation are not. While the omitted flows are typically more complex to evaluate, part of the challenge is that there is no consistent understanding or definition of an urban water balance. Inadequate definition of system boundary and fragmented management are other major obstacles. A clear definition and city-scale framework is put forward to quantify all urban water flows. This is used to analyse the Australian urban regions of Sydney, Melbourne, South-East Queensland and Perth. The work establishes a baseline for these cities and identifies how the approach can identify envelopes of available water and derive objective indicators of whole of system performance. Australian cities vary significantly in their potential to meet total current water use by recycling wastewater and urban stormwater. Harvesting such sources can also often be achieved at lower energy cost than the desalination benchmark. Public reporting by the water sector is argued as an avenue to help foster robust water accounting, monitoring and management. It is also argued as necessary to contribute to the design of hydrologically-efficient, self-reliant and low-impact cities of the future. With this in mind, global trends in public reporting of the water sector performance are assessed generally, and a detailed comparison made across Europe, the United States and Australia. This has identified as a particular gap in the system of information provision in the United States for water, but a relative strength for energy. In futures of simultaneous constraints of water and energy, the possibility of integrated reporting of water and energy is speculated on.
Input-Output Economics In Industrial Ecology: The Relationship Revisited (Abstract #683)
Faye Duchin
Following from Ayres’s concept of “industrial metabolism” (Ayres 1989), and the generalization to “industrial ecology” developed by Frosch and Gallopoulos (1990), the U.S. National Academy of Sciences hosted in 1991 the colloquium that would launch the new field. In one of the colloquium papers, Duchin (1992) described the nature of the challenges the field would take on and how input-output economics would contribute to addressing them. The essential challenge would be reducing wastes in production and reusing and recycling end-of-life products, and Duchin identified four ways in which input-output models would be used to help evaluate the economic and environmental implications of alternative ways of “closing the loops” in emulation of natural systems. Now, twenty years later, our improved knowledge about the nature and speed of climate change have led to a vast broadening of the domain for urgent action in production and consumption practices as well as the need for a variety of preventative measures and remediation. From an analytic point of view, of the four contributions Duchin identified for input-output economics, the one at the top of her list – the widespread use of the dynamic rather than the static input-output model – has failed to materialize while two of the others have clearly taken off. This paper takes a fresh look from today’s point of view at the questions being posed, and at the likely future contributions to addressing them, of input-output economics in collaboration with Industrial Ecology. It reviews the progress that has been made and compares the current outlook with that of twenty years ago to analyze reasons for the shifts in the problems and in the analytic methods for formulating and evaluating potential solutions. (References not included)
Potential For Using Ee-Io Data For Product Labeling : Case Study “Printed Matter” (Abstract #685)
Theo Geerken, An Vercalsteren and Evelien Dils
In the recent EU DG ENV study “Product Carbon Footprinting – a study on methodologies and initiatives, July 2010” Environmental Extended Input-Output modeling receives only minor attention. This might be due to the limited availability of EU/worldwide EE-IO tables with high resolution, a problem that might be resolved soon through the results of the FP7 EXIOPOL project. In Belgium the Federal Public Service Health, Food chain Safety and Environment responsible for product policy is exploring the possibilities to introduce a carbon/environmental labelling initiative for consumer products. In that context currently three pilot projects are performed by teams consisting of research and private partners in order to explore the overall feasibility of using LCA as a basis for labelling. The aim of the pilot projects is to i) identify the opportunities and limitations of LCA for product labelling and ii) assess the feasibility of LCA in policy. Several types of consumer products are considered of which one focuses on “printed matter”. An ISO-conform LCA study will be performed, using specific data (from private partners in the life cycle chain) as well as generic data from publicly available LCA datasources. In Flanders EE-IO tables with high resolution (117x 117) have already been developed. Since the sectors for “printed matter” have a strong base in Flanders, the potential for using EE-IO data as input for the LCA study can be explored. Part of the project is to compare the results from and efforts for performing an ISO-conform LCA versus a hybrid IO-LCA. For the case of printed matter this will provide insights to the offset between accuracy of results and efforts needed for data inventory. The presentation will briefly describe the approach of the pilot project on printed matter, but will focus on the results of both methods (ISO conform versus hybrid) and the implications for policy.
The Influence Of Value Choices In Life Cycle Impact Assessment Of Human Health Damage (Abstract #688)
An De Schryver, Sebastien Humbert and Mark Huijbregts
This presentation outlines the consequence on life cycle assessment outcomes of value choices in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) models of human health, such as the choice of time horizon. For 756 products the human health damage score is calculated using three sets of characterization factors (CFs) which cover seven human health impact categories. Each set of CFs embeds a combination of value choices following the Cultural Theory, each reflecting a different perspective. The results of the study imply that value choices in LCIA can substantially modify the absolute outcome of an LCA and that the difference in damage score among perspectives can raise up to five orders of magnitude. The value choices mainly responsible for the differences in results among perspectives are the choice of time horizon and inclusion of highly uncertain effects. Furthermore, the choice in perspective can alter the ranking of a product comparison when (i) the human health damage score of two products differ less than a factor of seven (75% confidence interval) and (ii) the comparing products are based on largely different underlying processes and corresponding emissions (e.g., long living versus short living substances). Therefore, in an LCA study caution should be given to the perspective used within the applied LCIA methodology and its effects on the results should be analyzed. To further reduce uncertainties from value choices in LCIA, we recommend (i) to include expertise of social sciences to define more empirically underpinned scenarios and (ii) to develop a more flexible system to deal with value choices, e.g. through case specific sets of value choices.
Embodied Resource Flows In A Global Economy (Abstract #690)
Faye Duchin and Stephen Levine
(Note: This could be used in EXIOPOL session or other session of your choice) Abstract: Previously Duchin and Levine (2010) developed a framework, based on absorbing Markov chains (AMC’s), for describing the paths through an economic system taken by embodied resources from extraction through embodiment in intermediate products and ultimately in consumer products. That paper was restricted to a single- region economy. In this paper we extend that description to a multi-region framework, one in which the outputs of the regions are (1) constrained by, among other things, their resource endowments, and (2) optimized based on minimizing the value of the required resources at the global level. As a result, world trade and the international transport it requires are central to the analysis presented. In the single-region application an IO model was used for ex ante scenario analysis, and the AMC model was then applied to scenario outcomes to track and quantify flows of individual embodied resources (and intermediate products) through the system. In place of the standard IO model the multi-region ex ante scenario analysis will be provided by the World Trade Model with Bilateral Trade (WTMBT), a linear program model minimizing global factor costs required to satisfy specified final consumption subject to IO-based constraints on regional goods balances, regional factor endowments, and benefit-of-trade (Strømman and Duchin, 2006). These constraints leads to a non-linear relationship between consumption and production and thus a more complex relationship between path structure and the level of consumption than in the single-region case. As an example, increases in levels of consumption may lead to the initiation of production by less efficient producers with the resultant impact on the path structure. Path structure will include imports and exports, and the AMC analysis will be able to identify and quantify the resulting inter-regional flows. References: Duchin, F. and Levine, S. H., 2010. “Embodied Resource Flows and Product Flows,” Journal of Industrial Ecology 14(4): 586-597. Strømman, A. and Duchin, F. 2006. “A World Trade Model with Bilateral Trade Based on Comparative Advantage,” Economic Systems Research 18(3): 281-297.
Understanding The Impact Of Blending Practices On Estimated Uncertainty In Biofuel Lifecycle Carbon Footprint (Abstract #695)
Ece Gulsen, Elsa Olivetti, Fausto Freire and Randolph Kirchain
Evaluating environmental performance of biofuels has been an ongoing effort by researchers and policy makers globally. One clear feature of this set of studies is the dramatic range of reported life cycle assessment results. While this range of results is at least partly accounted for by the high degree of variation in methodologies, data, and cases across these studies, there remains significant uncertainty in the evaluation of biofuel environmental performance [1]. Despite this uncertainty, policies are already being implemented and the industry is being forced to report its carbon footprint. The diverse global feedstock supply chain seems to further complicate the uncertainty assessment of fuel footprinting. There are many fuel crops, produced in many agricultural contexts, and transformed to fuel through many conversion technologies. Real-world fuel producers blend feedstocks of various kinds from all over the globe. The purpose of this study is to understand the implication of feedstock blending practices on estimated uncertainty in biofuel environmental performance, particularly in greenhouse gas emissions. Because the feedstock input in biofuel industry is subject to great spatial and temporal variation, we have chosen to use stochastic programming techniques to account for the uncertainty in the input data while simulating industrial blending decisions. Previously, researchers have shown that uncertainty-aware blending can decrease the quality uncertainty in the output even though producers are not explicitly managing that uncertainty [2]. Initial results confirm market-motivated blending decisions mitigate uncertainty in the estimated environmental performance of fuels. This presentation will discuss the forms of uncertainty most muted by blending and the blending conditions which most dramatically affect estimated performance uncertainty. Consequently, the work will inform the industry about the impact of their supply chain and blending operation choices on estimated environmental performance. [1]J. Malça and F. Freire, "Uncertainty Analysis in Biofuel Systems," Journal of Industrial Ecology, vol. 14, pp. 322-334, 2010. [2]G. Gaustad, et al., "Modeling methods for managing raw material compositional uncertainty in alloy production," Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 52, pp. 180-207, 2007.
Life Cycle Assessment Impact Indicator For Water Use In The Built Environment (Abstract #696)
Neetika Chhabra, Rodrigo Castro-Raventos and Robert Ries
Historically, the typical practice for impact assessment of water use as a resource in life cycle assessment (LCA) was to calculate an inventory for water use on a mass or volume basis. Recent work uses concepts such as water stress to improve on this approach and clearly recognizes the need to differentiate between consumptive and non-consumptive water use in life cycle impact assessment. This work examines water use impacts in the built environment by examining the effects of development on water resources. In general terms, the built environment affects water quantity available in an ecosystem through water withdrawal from surface and ground-water, and by altering the land cover and thereby changing infiltration, runoff, and evaporation. An impact assessment model for aquifer-supplied regions was developed based on simple hydrological principles. The approach to estimating impact is to compare the modeled discharge in a hypothetical pristine state to the current developed state, with the ratio of the current and pristine states representing the relative impact. The impact indicators have been calculated at sub-region hydrologic unit level, a standard US Geological Survey watershed designation. The model is applied to water use in the built environment in Florida, but impact indicators for other land use types and regions could be developed with appropriate data. The impact model results show a decrease in discharge to surface water in the developed stage of all the hydrological unit sub-regions in Florida in the range of 50% to 70% of pristine state volume. The modeled indicators generally follow the accepted view of regional water stress in Florida. An analysis of results has shown that the differences in the impact indicators are linked to withdrawal patterns and built area coverage. Thus, it can be inferred that additional variables are at play, such as land use and/or population density.
Transportation And Environmental Benefits Of Developing Unutilized Industrial Sites: Brownfields (Abstract #699)
Yeganeh Mashayekkh, Chris Hendrickson, Scott Matthews and Deborah Lange
In an era when climate change is the most crucial environmental issue, reviving the old and unutilized industrial sites, located in the urban cores, can perhaps reduce impact of the transportation sector on the environment. Accounting for about 27%, the transportation sector is the second largest source of GHG emissions in the U.S. Surface transportation modes use about 80% of the total transportation energy. Decreasing travel activity can significantly reduce impact of the transportation sector on GHG emissions. Land use change is a strategy that can lower vehicle miles traveled (VMT). Remediating unutilized industrial sites also known as brownfields and developing them into mixed-use developments or eco-industrial parks, although incur initial costs, reduces VMT and the resulting environmental impacts. This study examines the impact of residential brownfield developments on VMT reduction and the resulting driving costs including cost of time, fuel and the external air pollution costs. Sixteen brownfield and conventional greenfield sites were analyzed in Baltimore, Chicago, Minneapolis and Pittsburgh. Results show in average residential brownfield developments reduce VMT by 53%. The following table also shows that in average brownfield developments result in a direct cost saving of 60% and an external environmental cost saving of 67%. Comparing these costs with the initial one-time cleanup cost of brownfield developments, VMT cost savings offset the extra initial remediation cost in one to four years. Hence brownfield developments provide an opportunity for implementing eco-industrial developments while reducing travel activity assisting federal, state, and local governments with their GHG emission reduction goals. All costs are in $/Day/HH: Brownfield: Time Fuel CO2 NOx VOC CO SO2 PM NH3 Total 5.0 1.1 0.1 0.06 0.2 0.2 0.002 0.02 0.4 0.9 Greenfield: 12.0 2.8 0.3 0.09 0.5 0.3 0.005 0.06 1.4 2.6 %Reduction: 60 60 60 40 70 40 60 70 74 67
Application Of Life Cycle Assessment To Supply Optimization (Abstract #701)
Sergio Galeano, Patrick M. Smorch and Michael S. Richardson
A LCA study was conducted to determine the optimum corrugated supply options from a lowest environmental life cycle impact standpoint of supplying customer’s facilities from different GP converting plants supplied from different containerboard mills with extreme recycled content in the different liners (0 to 100%). Twenty four (24) supply chain options were analyzed with system boundaries encompassing all phases of the product life cycle from raw materials production through product transport to customer’s facilities. The Use and End-of-Life phases of the life cycle were excluded since the focus of the study was in the optimization of the supply chain to the point of delivery. The study was limited to five (5) categories of impact indicators:Climate Change (Fossil); Non -renewable energy, Eutrophication, Ecotoxicity and Acidification. TRACI version 3.01 was utilized for four of the five impact indicators and IMPACT 2002+ for the non-renewable energy indicator. The LCA study is compliant with the requirements of ISO 14044:2006, utilizing recycling allocation examples in ISO TR 14049:2010. Because of the extreme variations in recycling content of the liners, special consideration was given to proper analysis of the allocation approaches. Paper, paperboard when reclaimed for recycling purposes is a “processed raw material” which conserves most of the properties imparted in the original transformation from wood fiber to primary/final product and which are still useful in the next cycle. Different from other reclaimed materials for recycling, for paper the sharing of the original manufacturing burdens is of consideration. Sensitivity analysis considering sharing and not sharing of the original burden were conducted. The differences in the approaches of sharing or not the original burden are clearly indicated providing numerical indication of the consequences of no sharing. The study povides a clear and rational answer to the objective of ascertaining the optimal supply combinations in packaging to the customer's locations from an environmental standpoint. Other factors from the supplier/customer standpoints will need to be considered for a final business decision.
Evaluation Of Resources, Land And Cost Constraints Of Large-Scale Photovoltaic Applications (Abstract #703)
Natalija L. Glusac and Sangwon Suh
Demand for photovoltaics (PVs) has been doubling every year, with the rate of increase recently accelerating. With support from renewable energy policies such as Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPSs), PVs have the potential to provide major share in electric grid mix in the near future. Large-scale applications of PVs, however, may face resource, land and cost constraints. Some PV technologies use exotic metals such as gallium, tellurium, and indium: relatively scarce materials that are under rapid demand increase and difficult to recycle. Alternatively, there are PV technologies that use more abundant materials, while their efficiencies tend to be lower increasing land acreage needed for producing same level of electricity. A number of metals widely used for PV production have experienced unprecedented price increase and high price volatility over the last decade. In this study, we evaluated 23 PV technologies in terms of their resources, land and cost constraints. Limiting elements are identified for each of the technologies, and total materials requirement is calculated for the case of large-scale PV application. Required land areas are calculated for each of the 23 PV technologies considering insolation and slope. Possible cost curves are identified using PV efficiency trends and rare metal price trends. The results show that even substantially large-scale PV applications do not by themselves pose absolute shortage of scarce elements, while competition with other technologies over these elements may cause significant supply-side risk. Land use does not appear to be a significant constraint even for the least-efficient PVs. Overall cost implications are analyzed and PV technologies under high potential risks are identified.
Utilization Of Geographic Information System (Gis) In A Local Industrial Symbiosis Development At Händelö-Malmölandet/Norrköping In Sweden (Abstract #706)
Saeid Hatefipour, Leenard Baas, Mats Eklund and Åke Sivertun
Recent studies have shown that implementation of different aspects of Industrial Symbiosis at a regional level may contribute to regional sustainable development. Today, sustainable cities/regions are playing an important role in sustainable development projects. The concept of Industrial Symbiosis can be applied as a systematic tool for both urban and industrial sustainable development. The aim of this paper is implementing a local industrial symbiosis development in practice through Geographic Information System (GIS). In the first part, we will demonstrate a local Industrial Symbiosis network in the Händelö-Malmölandet area in the city of Norrköping in the Östergötland county of Sweden. It is part of a project called “Sustainable Norrköping” where it tries to make a link between the industrial and the urban part of the city with the aim of local sustainable development. The main focus of Industrial Symbiosis tools in this research is based on input/output analysis and an industrial inventory of current actors and partners. To achieve this, an inventory of different actors, stakeholders, companies, organizations and their relationships in the area in the form of different exchanges and their characteristics is performed. This will lead to more focus on the current energy and material flows, as well as by-products exchanges of the involved companies. In the second part, in order to enhancing the current potentials and capabilities, detecting uncovering opportunities, and to plan for further and future development in an effectively and sustainably way, the GIS software is used. The paper referred to uncovering opportunities like new actors and partners who want to take part in the green network. GIS plays an important role by providing support for mapping and analyzing the regional information. It can be used in many distinct ways to foster in understanding and mapping the links between different potential actors, their processes and relationships with other partners in a symbiotic network. In this paper the GIS software ArcGis 10 is used to show illustrations of the potential applications.
Urban Configuration, Energy Performance And Material Intensity Of Neighbourhoods (Abstract #707)
David Quinn and Juan José Sarralde
Introduction The objective of this work is to develop a methodology for identifying a set of aggregated urban form and land use patterns that are representative of neighbourhoods from cities around the world. The aim of the project is to use these neighbourhoods to analyse the relationships between urban configuration and some indicators of urban sustainability, such as material resource intensity and energy performance. This can be done by comparing the detailed parameters that define the urban texture of different neighbourhood typologies with similar population density and land use. In this study, the configuration of various residential urban clusters is analysed and their energy and material requirements are examined, as well as their potential for renewable energy generation. Method of Analysis The analysis is performed using a series of plugins in ArcGIS (specifically ArcGIS Toolboxes, using Python scripts) that are publicly available and open to inspection. This simple replicable method of performing spatial analysis is developed so that comparisons of the resources used by neighbourhoods can be made using the same initial assumptions. In the case of material intensity, the material resources considered are those which are needed to construct buildings and to provide infrastructure, while the energy performance is measured by transportation energy demand and the potential for renewable energy generation. Conclusion The intention of the authors is to assist with the development of a simple analysis tool for neighbourhood characterisation. In the present paper, the tool is used to help examining the resource intensity and the renewable energy generation potential of a neighbourhood. Further applications can move towards more in-depth resource flow analysis of these or other variables, such as building energy demand, waste management or water consumption.
A Practical Foundation For Sustainable Industrial Development – Minnesota’S Experience (Abstract #708)
Timothy Nolan
The last ten years, the State of Minnesota has fostered eco-industrial development initiatives. The strategy has been to apply EID as a means to achieve superior environmental performance and gain a competitive edge in the green economy. The premise is that eco-industrial development involves more integrated design of industrial facilities, complexes, and supply chains, and that such an approach can achieve efficiencies across production systems – rather than within an individual facility – and create more advanced, competitive, and cleaner industrial operations. This provides the means to capture community development benefits including new green enterprises. This effort has established a foundation for eco-industrial development and industrial symbiosis in the region. It has produced a chronology of EID activities, and a number of potential EID’s are in progress. This experience provides a body of lessons learned and EID know how, and will be discussed in detail and specific EIP examples examined including: The development of a regional fuel shed strategy coinciding with an integrated supply-chain infrastructure including harvesting, transportation, storage, preprocessing and state-of-the-art gasification conversion technology. This project will lead to the commercial development of three collocated facilities, designed for industrial symbiosis, and phased to become an integrated biorefinery. A life cycle analysis will quantify the environmental and economic benefits from the use of perennials to produce biofuels. The City of Silver Bay Eco-Industrial Park includes the integration of a renewable-based self-sustaining, co-generation energy production system. Three sources – wind, biomass/binary, biodiesel through algal production – will provide all heat and power for the park, without using conventional power generation, enabling the Eco-Park to be off the grid. Six business/industrial clusters have been designed geographically within the eco-park. Within each cluster, a core business/industry has been identified along with ancillary businesses/industries. A zero waste goal for the clusters will result in waste byproduct exchanges.
Is My Eco-Industrial Park Greener Than Yours? The State Of Eip Performance Measurement (Abstract #713)
Tracy Casavant, Joy Chen, Katelyn Harris and Sandy Oh
With the emergence of ‘green’ to describe everything from buildings to laundry soap, and growing attention to the practice of greenwashing, it is becoming even more important to be able to measure how an eco-industrial park (EIP) performs better than a conventional industrial park. It may also be important to distinguish between ‘light green’ and ‘dark green’ EIPs, in the same way that green buildings are differentiated. While fostering by-product synergy is a key goal of EIPs, EIPs should embed the principles of industrial ecology throughout an EIP life cycle – from planning through to construction through to operation. Furthermore, an EIP should reflect the principles of industrial ecology not just in how materials and wastes are managed, but how other resources such as energy, water, land, and physical assets, such as infrastructure and buildings, are designed and maintained. Lastly, EIP proponents are generally working under the broader framework of sustainability, which means that how an EIP creates economic and social benefits should also be considered. EIP performance indicators and subsequent rating or certification systems should recognize these conditions. This presentation will present the findings of a comprehensive review of performance indicators and certification / rating systems that have been or could be applied to EIPs. This review was completed as the first stage in the development of a robust EIP rating system. The review found that most internationally accepted systems measure the performance of only one single component of EIPs, such as building performance or manufacturing efficiency. However, a comprehensive measurement system tailored specifically to EIPs; that reflects North American market and policy conditions; and also applies to all aspects of an EIP does not yet exist. This presentation will discuss the gaps in existing measurement systems, and present recommended principles for EIP performance indicators and rating systems.
Ict Compatibility Standards As An Environmental Policy Measure (Abstract #714)
Sachiko Muto and Tineke Egyedi
In welfare economics, standards have been studied mainly as a means to reduce transaction costs. Going beyond this perspective, our paper takes the recent case of the move towards a common mobile phone charger as a starting point to explore ways in which standards can contribute to improving the net impact of ICTs on the environment. Specifically, it is suggested that the existence of standards contributes to the reduction of the negative effects of ICTs throughout their life cycles by: -Reducing the amount of electronic waste generated when device upgrading leads to functioning peripherals and accessories being rendered useless; -Reducing the amount of waste caused when incompatibilities force hardware switching when changing service providers (competing transmission technologies in the US compared with GSM standard in Europe); -Improving the ability to recycle electronic waste by reducing undesirable diversity and through increased scales; -Enhancing the possibility of reuse and establishment of second-hand markets through the reduction of information and search costs. Interoperability standards are also essential for the realisation of the potential positive indirect effects of ICTs, i.e. as an enabler of applications and services that can improve energy efficiency in other sectors. As both the negative and positive effects are generally expected to increase, the existence of standards helps ensure a positive net impact of ICTs on the environment. Viewed in this way, the absence of a standard can be considered suboptimal from an environmental standpoint and hence justify government intervention. In the case of mobile phone chargers, the threat of EU regulation finally moved mobile phone producers to agree to standardise on the micro-USB connector. The European Commission later announced that thanks to the intervention the number of chargers unnecessarily produced, shipped and sold would be reduced and thousands of tonnes of electronic waste would be eliminated.
Stakeholder Driven Pcr Development To Accelerate Industry-Wide Life Cycle Management Of Product Supply Chains: The Case Of Home & Personal Care Products (Abstract #716)
Vee Subramanian, Georg Schoener, Joby Carlson and Kevin Dooley
Manufacturers and retailers are not just responding to consumer demand for responsible goods, but they are responding in a big way. Through the formation of the Sustainability Consortium (TSC), a broad set of stakeholders have set in motion an initiative that will help improve life cycle management of product supply chains. This could eventually improve the overall industry-wide burden of all consumer goods. Currently, there does not exist a global industry-driven PCR program operator or moderator to establish consistency in content and structure in PCR and EPD development, which TSC aims to fulfill. The Home and Personal Care (HPC) Sector of TSC is pilot testing a program called Sustainability Measurement & Reporting Standard to accelerate the development of PCR’s and the associated EPD’s. The collaborating manufacturers roughly comprise 80% of the market share of HPC products. Although the PCR development will rely heavily on International EPD Consortium (IEC) program’s backbone structure, it will be far more detailed and prescriptive, thereby raising the standard set-forth for consistency in content and structure; this will enable well-informed comparisons among products within and among product categories. The program uses a rapidly replicable baseline model that is based on a developed PCR to present data in a consistent manner in an EPD. The program moves beyond the IEC requirements for data reporting, and in the number of impact categories to enable comparison of consumer goods on different levels of environmental burden. An additional dimension to the program is the availability of qualitative indicators that include social, institutional and systemic issues that are also available for comparison. Through this effort, we foresee manufacturers better managing the life cycle of their product supply chains.
Spatial Analysis Of Life Cycle Stages Of Recycling: Needs For And Optimization Of Regional Recycling Networks (Abstract #718)
Xudong Chen, Tsuyoshi Fujita, Yoshitsugu Hayashi and Hirokazu Kato
Recently, regional recycling networks, including conventional recycling and innovative practices of industrial and urban symbiosis, have received great attention in both research and practices in various countries. Studies in industrial ecology and waste management literature argued that regional recycling was long practiced in the past and proposed a number of advantages in theory for recycling at the regional level, such as greater economies of scale, increase in supply and demand, and diversified suppliers and recipients. From the physical material point of view, recycling, regardless of scale, usually involves several stages in its life cycle from waste separation and collection to processing and utilization of recycled products to replace virgin materials. An underlying condition for the need for regional recycling is that there is a relative spatial separation of these stages of recycling at the regional level, so that efficient recycling requires recycled resources to flow in the regional scale. However, this condition has not been carefully examined with empirical data in a large scale. This study proposes a new “waste-user quotient” method to show the relative spatial concentration/separation of waste sources, recycling facilities and major end users of recycled products in Japan. Furthermore, regional recycling and transfer centers are required to bridge waste sources and potential users of recycled products. As an example, a simple optimization model is employed to locate the recycling centers with minimum costs in the Tokyo Bay area.
Climate Change Impacts, Structural Vulnerability And Resilience Of Regional Energy Supply Systems: Assessment Methodology And Results From Northwest Germany (Abstract #720)
Stefan Goessling-Reisemann, Soenke Stuehrmann and Jakob Wachsmuth
When assessing the climate change vulnerability of regional energy supply systems the real challenge lies in factoring in the many uncertainties: uncertain climate projections and impacts (global and regional), uncertain development of generation capacity, demand and technology, uncertain development in laws and regulation, and so on. Developing climate change adaptation strategies then really becomes developing strategies to not only adapt to climate change but also deal with uncertainty and surprise. These strategies then naturally lead to more resilient systems. In our climate change adaptation project Northwest2050 we have thus divided the vulnerability assessment of the regional energy supply system into two distinct aspects: climate change vulnerability and structural vulnerability. The structural vulnerability highlights the (in)abilities of the system to cope with uncertainty, surprise, internal failures and external shocks, exactly those capabilities of a system that make it resilient. Using structural vulnerability assessment we will therefore better be able to develop options for increasing not only the “climate fitness” of energy supply systems but their resilience in general. We have developed a methodology to assess the climate change AND the structural vulnerabilities of regional energy supply systems by drawing from a wide variety of tools: supply chain analysis, network modeling, aggregate indicators, expert interviews and participatory cause-effect modeling. We will present this methodology and selected results from our assessment of Northwest Germany’s energy supply system. So far the results indicate that the structural outweigh the climate change vulnerabilities. Region specific structural vulnerabilities affecting the system services include unresolved conflicts regarding land-use and a relatively high energy intensity of the industrial sector. Some other vulnerabilities, however, are not region specific (like limited storability of electrical energy or increased share of intermittent generation). In addition, it appears that most of the identified structural vulnerabilities are expected to be increased by climate change impacts.
Environmental Regulations Should Be Based On Integrated Modeling And Scenario Analysis Rather Than On Life Cycle Analysis (Abstract #722)
Richard Plevin and Mark Delucchi
Attributional LCA (ALCA) is a static decomposition of environmental effects with attribution to specific end products. When used as a performance measure to guide environmental policy, the actual environmental results of the policy can diverge from those estimated by attributional LCA. By contrast, consequential LCA (CLCA), in its broadest and most theoretically sound form, estimates the effect of an action such as a new policy, taking into account economic dynamics such as price, income, and substitution effects. CLCA is meant to model what happens in the world, and thus in principle estimates more accurately (if less precisely) the impacts of a policy than does ALCA. However, CLCA results are unobservable and vary widely with subjective choices by the modeler. Since many alternative futures are possible, CLCA models are non-deterministic: any single result will be contingent on many debatable assumptions. Given these limitations, we examine whether ALCA or CLCA can produce a result suitable as a performance metric in public policy. Using the example of LCA-based regulations of biofuel greenhouse gas emissions, we show that ALCA-based performance measures can misrepresent environmental impacts and thereby create perverse incentives. Policies based on CLCA can be more robust, provided they account for the uncertainties surrounding estimates of system-wide environmental effects. However, broadly expanded consequential analysis is so far removed from “traditional” LCA that it needs a new name; we propose Integrated Modeling and Scenario Analysis (IMSA). IMSA integrates economic, technological, socio-demographic, and environmental models and uses uncertainty and scenario analyses to explore the potential effects of real-world policies or actions. We delineate a research agenda for applying IMSA to problems not adequately addressed by LCA.
Greenhouse Gas And Energy Footprint Of California Almond Production (Abstract #725)
Elias Marvinney, Alissa Kendall and Sonja Brodt
The California almond industry is of great commercial and environmental significance, with production spanning 500 miles of the Central Valley, and representing 100% of US commercial almond production and more than 80% of world export supply. A significant share of US exports goes to European nations that have enacted carbon mitigation policies or strategies, thus spurring the almond industry to consider its greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint. With a lifespan of about 25 years, almond orchards represent significant long-term inputs of fertilizer, pesticide, and fossil fuel. Additionally, almond orchards may potentially function as carbon sinks due to the long lifespan of almond trees and the low-tillage soil management practices common to nut orchards. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an important tool for the evaluation of the environmental performance of agricultural systems, accounting for total material and energy inputs as well as field and crop-related GHG emissions and carbon sequestration. Here we present an assessment of the overall GHG footprint of almond production in California. The assessment accounts for material and energy inputs of production up to the farm gate, excluding processing and distribution. Data was gathered from cost-return studies, farmer surveys, and published literature for two prevalent irrigation systems: micro-sprinkler and flood. The assessment accounts for the variation in operation mix as trees mature, from year zero (clearing of previous orchard) to year seven (when yields and inputs stabilize). The analysis also separates the system into the following components: orchard floor management, nutrient and pest management, equipment and supply transport, irrigation, harvest, field emissions, and carbon sequestration. Our analysis provides information for growers on where to focus GHG reduction efforts and offers insights regarding the trade-offs between energy and material inputs and field emissions under different irrigation schemes.
Quantifying Carbon Footprint Reduction Opportunities For U.S. Households And Communities (Abstract #727)
Christopher Jones and Daniel Kammen
Carbon management is of increasing interest to individuals, households and communities. In order to effectively assess and manage their climate impacts, individuals need information on the financial and greenhouse gas benefits of effective mitigation opportunities. We use consumption-based life cycle accounting techniques to quantify the carbon footprints of typical U.S. households in 28 cities for 6 household sizes and 12 income brackets. The model includes emissions embodied in transportation, energy, food, goods and services. The size of carbon footprints ranges from 38 to 62 tCO2e/yr per household in different cities, and further by household size and income within each city, from 16 to 88 tCO2e/yr, with an average of ~50 tCO2e/yr for the typical U.S. household. The composition of carbon footprints also varies for different household types: transportation constitutes between 20-40% of total household carbon footprints; energy: 10-30%; and food: 6-30%, depending on city, household size and income. We further quantify greenhouse gas and financial savings from a basket of potential mitigation actions across all household types. The model suggests that large cash-positive carbon footprint reductions are possible across all household types and locations; however realizing this potential may require tailoring policies and programs to different geographic and demographic population segments with very different carbon footprint profiles. The results of this model have been incorporated into an open access online carbon footprint management tool designed to enable behavior change at the household level through personalized feedback.
Virtue In A Large Appetite For Raw Materials And Energy: The Cement Industry As An Ideal Driver Of Industrial Ecosystems (Abstract #728)
Hendrik G. van Oss
Hydraulic (chiefly portland) cement is the binder in concrete and is thus a ubiquitous construction material. World cement production currently totals about 3,000 million metric tons per year (Mt/yr), sufficient for about 24,000 Mt/yr of concrete or about 3.5 tons of concrete per person on the planet. Portland cement is composed mainly of clinker (95%), a manufactured material consisting mostly of hydraulic calcium silicates; the overall composition is of calcium oxide (CaO, 65%), silica, alumina, and ferric oxide. The high CaO content necessitates an abundant and inexpensive source of this oxide, and this has traditionally meant limestone. About 1.7 tons of raw materials, including 1.5 tons of limestone, are needed to make 1 ton of clinker; the large mass loss is due to the calcium carbonate in limestone being 44% carbon dioxide (CO2). Thermochemical breakdown of the raw materials to their component oxides and subsequent formation of the hydraulic silicates requires 3–7 GJ of heat energy per ton of clinker, depending on the kiln technology; about 2 GJ of this is for the decomposition (calcination) of calcium carbonate. Calcination and fuel combustion release nearly 1 ton of CO2 per ton of clinker produced; the cement industry is the largest industrial source of this greenhouse gas after thermal powerplants. If environmental regulations are not too restrictive, cement plants can consume large quantities, and a wide variety, of industrial waste products as alternative raw materials and fuels to make clinker and as supplementary cementitious materials to make finished blended cement (or for direct use in concrete). Not only is use of alternative materials key to the cement industry’s own efforts to save energy and reduce emissions, such use makes the cement industry a potentially ideal driver of regional industrial ecosystems.
A Comparative Assessment Of Life-Cycle Assessment And Communication Tools (Abstract #729)
Rita Garcia and Fausto Freire
Several EU policies have been pressuring industry to improve the environmental performance of its products and to communicate the environmental information along the supply chain. In order to fulfill those objectives, some environmental management tools based on the life-cycle perspective are available. For companies, it is not obvious which tool to choose neither if the environmental information obtained from these different tools leads to the same or conflicting results. The main goal of this paper is to perform a comparative assessment of two environmental life-cycle management tools: i) Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) and ii) “Product Carbon Footprint” (PAS 2050 standard), using the generic ISO 14040-14044 LCA methodology as baseline. The comparison was performed based on an application to the particleboard product system. The methodological simplifications of the different tools and the results obtained by their application to the case-study are the main focus of the comparative assessment. This research identified three methodological issues that are differently dealt with by the various tools, namely: carbon storage, system boundary definition and multifunctionality. Those differences have important implications in results of the comparative assessment, since variations in relation to LCA are strongly influenced by them. For example, regarding global warming, carbon storage in particleboard is not considered in the EPD or in the cradle-to-gate assessment using the PAS 2050 standard. That result in variations above 100% in relation to LCA results, which takes into account the benefit of carbon uptake. Concerning acidification and eutrophication, the absolute variation between EPD and LCA results were less significant, about 5 to 9%.
Bioplastic Production From Biogas Methane: Laboratory-Scale Operation And Life Cycle Assessment (Abstract #730)
Katherine Rostkowski, Michael Lepech and Craig Criddle
The pervasive use of plastics has had many adverse consequences (e.g. consumption of nonrenewable resources, accumulation in landfills and oceans, release of carbon dioxide and toxic byproducts). These outcomes could be avoided by replacing plastics with biodegradable and biocompatible alternatives, such as polyhydroxyalkanoates. PHAs, such as poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), have properties similar to traditional plastics and are naturally synthesized by many bacteria. Because some methane-consuming bacteria (methanotrophs) produce PHB, the methane that is collected at landfills, anaerobic composting facilities, or wastewater treatment plants could be used as a carbon feedstock for PHB production. Co-locating PHB production facilities with waste treatment facilities would enable industrial symbiosis. Anaerobically, PHB biodegrades to methane, facilitating partial regeneration of feedstock. Networking of landfills and wastewater methane emissions with methanotrophic PHB production worldwide could produce enough bioplastic to replace 20-30% of the total plastics market. Methanotrophs that produce high levels of PHB can be enriched via eco-biotechnology, a strategy based on natural selection rather than pure cultures or genetic modification of organisms. In laboratory batch studies, pure cultures of methanotrophs were screened for PHB production, resulting in levels that ranged from 9 to 39% by dry mass. Cultures using enrichment strategies from a diverse inoculum resulted in levels up to 44%, reaching as high as 63% under favorable conditions. The batch studies were used to design an automated sequencing batch reactor (3L) to examine scalability. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the laboratory system, prepared using SimaPro software, suggests that total energy requirements are comparable to those of petrochemical plastics and production results in a net negative global warming potential. Comparative analysis shows that producing PHB from methane may be superior to current corn-based methods since corn-processing accounts for 35% of input energy. Consequential analysis reveals that PHB production is the most beneficial use of biogas methane.
Life Cycle Assessment Of Integrated Recycling Scheme Of Household Waste Plastics Including Voluntary Collection Of Plastic Trays (Abstract #734)
Asako Okuno, Jun Nakatani, Kazuo Yamamoto and Fumiyuki Nakajima
Many life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have evaluated the recycling system of household waste plastics in Japan and other countries. However, there exist few studies on the evaluation and comparison of environmental loads of the recycling system in which different recycling technologies combine, in consideration of the effect of difference of plastic composition. Therefore, problems in the current recycling system of waste plastics in Japan was reviewed, and 27 scenarios were developed by integrating (1) the conventional recycling scheme, where waste plastics are collected by municipalities and recycled by either mechanical recycling or feedstock recycling, with additional recycling schemes, i.e. (2) feedstock recycling in steel works of residue from mechanical recycling processes and (3) mechanical recycling that follows voluntary collection of specific kinds of plastic containers at retailers. LCA was applied to evaluate and compare those scenarios from the viewpoints of fossil resources consumption and CO2 emission, and the results showed that fossil resources consumption and CO2 emission were reduced in all scenarios integrating (1) with (2) and/or (3) in comparison to the conventional recycling schemes. Besides, it was found that the amount of reduction through the additional recycling schemes depended on which kind of conventional recycling was integrated with the additional recycling scheme. As a result, recycling scheme that consisted of feedstock recycling, and additional voluntary collection and mechanical recycling of polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate trays showed the best environmental performance.
Analyzing The Characteristics Of Resource Circulation Networks: Focused On Cheongju Eco-Industrial Park (Eip) (Abstract #735)
Yong Un Ban, Taeho Lee, Hurnkun Jeong and Munhwan Jeon
This study has intended to analyze the characteristics of Resource Circulation Networks: Focused on Cheongju Eco-Industrial Park (EIP). To reach the goal, this study has divided the networks into such fields as energy, waste, and water, and analyzed the characteristics of each field's projects, already finished or in process, in accordance with network development process, environment, and economy. This study analyzed promotion system and treatment method of the network projects for network development process, and environmental pollution load decrease and air pollutants for environment, and treatment cost reduction, resource purchase cost reduction, etc. for economy. This study found the following results: 1) as for promotion system and business type in network development process field, 8 projects adopted corporate-led system and recycling network, and 3 projects governance system and value-added network project respectively; 2) as for environmental pollution load reduction, air pollutant reduction in environment field, both all projects in water and 6 projects in waste have reduced 92,800 t/year of pollution loads, and all projects in energy and 6 projects in waste have reduced 66,000 t/year of air pollutants, especially 48,000 t CO2/year; and 3) as for economic benefits in economy field, it has been found that total economic benefits are 30 billion won.
Life Cycle Assessment Of Algae-To-Energy Technologies (Abstract #736)
Andres Clarens, Eleazer Resurreccion and Lisa Colosi
Algae have received considerable attention in recent years as a promising source of next-generation biofuels. This interest has led to widespread investments and the deployment of the first commercial algae-to-energy cultivation facilities. In an effort to anticipate the environmental implications of this emergent technology and benchmark algae fuels to conventional biofuel feedstocks, several life cycle assessments have been recently published in the academic literature. These studies provide multiple perspectives on how algae-to-energy systems might be deployed. Indeed the results of these studies are quite varied both because of the lack of empirical data for long-term operation of full-scale commercial algae cultivation systems and because LCA methodology and modeling assumptions, e.g., burden allocation and boundary setting, were applied differently. In this talk, the authors, who published an early LCA of algae-to-energy, will discuss how subsequent studies inform the impacts we can likely expect from algae biofuels. In particular we will discuss the conclusions that are common to all the recent LCA studies. For example, most authors recognize that there are critical bottlenecks in algae production, e.g., separations, which must be improved before the impacts are lower than conventional biofuels. All studies seem to suggest that algae present an opportunity to produce biofuels with less land and possibly lower impacts than conventional terrestrial crops. Similarly, most studies have acknowledged that co-location of algae facilities, either to take advantage of a waste stream (e.g., CO2) or to produce a co-product (e.g., animal feed) will be important to make algae economically and environmentally viable in the immediate future. We will conclude with recommendations for future LC work of algae-to-energy systems so that LCA can play a dynamic role in anticipating environmental pitfalls and driving innovation as the sector continues to mature.
Developing An Inter-Disciplinary Graduate Curriculum On Sustainable City Systems Using A Social-Ecological-Infrastructural Systems Framework (Abstract #739)
Anu Ramaswami, Chris Weible, Tanya Heikkila and Deborah Main
This session will present a social-ecological-infrastructural systems (SEIS) framework developed at UC Denver for inter-disciplinary study of sustainable city-systems. The SEIS framework represents a city-system’s biophysical- and social- sub-systems with inter-dependent linkages. The biophysical sub-system is comprised of the larger scale natural resource system, trans-boundary infrastructures serving cities and in-boundary infrastructures and urban stock within cities. The social sub-system comprises institutions and social actors spanning spatial scale from the city-scale to the national scale. The social actor sub-system is partitioned further into three social actor categories – individual infrastructure users, infrastructure designer-operators and policy-actors. Linking the two sub-systems in the SEIS occurs by integrating theories and concepts across urban metabolism, industrial ecology, urban resource-pollution footprints, public health and public affairs, incorporating simultaneously multiple theories and frameworks drawn from the social sciences, such as the theory of planned behavior, diffusion of innovation, value-belief-norms theory, the Advocacy Coalition Framework and the Institutional Analysis and Design framework. A graduate curriculum will be presented, composed around a sequence of three core courses built upon the SEIS framework. The SEIS-based curriculum has been implemented in a broadly inter-disciplinary program on Sustainable Urban Infrastructure offered to more than 70 students spanning Engineering, Architecture, Urban Planning, Public Affairs, Health and Behavioral Sciences from 2008-2010. A case study of greenhouse gas measurement and mitigation policies in Denver, CO, is also used to illustrate the utility of the SEIS framework in teaching, research and fieldwork. Student feedback and outcomes assessments on the role of the SEIS framework in developing inter-disciplinary vocabulary and research skills are presented. Faculty perspectives on the challenges and rewards of inter-disciplinary teaching and research on sustainable city-systems will be explored. Integration of the SEIS core curriculum on sustainable city systems with traditional programs in engineering, planning, public policy, and public health will be discussed.
A Method For Bounding Life Cycle Energy Consumption (Abstract #740)
Deanna Matthews, Benjamin Rice, H. Scott Matthews and Francis McMichael
Life cycle assessment practitioners use numerous methods to estimate the life cycle energy requirements of an industry or product. Of these methods, acquiring primary data through surveys of specific processes generally yields the highest accuracy; however, this method can be complex and tedious, and data are often proprietary. Other methods of estimating life cycle energy requirements involve using thermodynamic (process) limits, allocating aggregated data, extrapolating from economic input-output data, and using hybrid methods of these approaches. However, these approaches are also limited in their applicability to different LCA projects. We propose a method for estimating the life cycle energy requirements that uses generally available data and can at least define an upper bound and "best guess" estimate for assessment tasks where order of magnitude results are sufficient. We developed this method for cases where primary data is unavailable, such as in nascent technologies and in rapidly developing technology fields. The method is also useful for cases where the use phase is anticipated to have greater energy consumption and thus an upper bound estimate for upstream manufacturing stages is likely to be sufficient. Our method relies on information of product cost and the cost of energy for the producing industry sector. We provide several examples where the method provides a sufficient upper bound estimate and compare using the method versus primary sources to determine its validity. We also propose general ranges of energy consumption in various manufacturing and service sectors to provide a baseline for estimates in a variety of settings.
Beyond Coal - A Resilient New Economy For Appalachia (Abstract #742)
John Todd, Samir Doshi and Anthony McInnis
Mountaintop removal coal mining threatens the economic future and biodiversity of Appalachia. It also negatively affects global climate stability. We believe that a durable economy can be created for the region, based on ecological principles. This economy would depend on natural resources, renewable energy, and the broad participation of the people of Appalachia. Ecological design—employing nature's operating instructions—forms the basis for this proposal. It takes place at three levels, with each level, or order, providing the foundation for the next level of integration. In aggregate, the levels provide an infrastructural framework with the potential to underpin a new economy and the environment. First-order ecological design addresses the strengthening of weakened ecosystems, rapid soil creation, natural resources development and ecomimetic technologies that support new economic activities. Second-order ecological design involves the development of new symbiotic systems that link across sectors, including energy, natural resources, and regional resource-based manufacturing of a range of products and services. Third-order ecological design adds a time dimension or succession, both on the landscape itself and of the institutions required to transform the landscape into a durable economy that serves the people of the region. Experiments in the restoration of surface coal mined lands have begun incorporating native warm season grasses and soil building techniques adopted from soil-forming practices employed in other parts of the world. The biofuel feedstock potential of these early succession native grasses are being investigated, and Eco-Machines for the detoxification of coal slurry are described. We propose this theory of ecological design for the remaking of damaged landscapes and the creation of a diverse new economy with the broad participation of the people of the region. Our design approach applies ecological principles to the healing of the landscape and the formation of an economy based on natural resources and renewable energy.
Incorporating Biodiversity Impacts Into Environmental Life Cycle Assessment Of Forest Based Bioethanol Production (Abstract #744)
Binod Neupane and Anthony Halog
In the conventional life cycle assessment (LCA) framework, biodiversity is one of the least considered impact categories. This impact category is very important when considering large scale biomass conversion to ethanol. Biodiversity impact assessment requires collection and analysis of spatial and non-spatial data. This can be accomplished using different system and geomatics analysis tools. We assess the biodiversity impacts from land use for forest based ethanol production by integrating spatial data and results from geographic information systems (GIS) and landscape management systems (LMS) into LCA framework. In our work, LMS models different forest management and harvesting systems. GIS is used to model biodiversity impacts spatially with appropriate biodiversity impact indicators. LCA uses LMS and GIS outputs to calculate life cycle elementary flows and biodiversity impacts. We consider three different scenarios in blending ethanol with gasoline: E10, E25 and E85. Based on these scenarios, we analyze the level of impacts on biodiversity over time from 2010 to 2030. The biodiversity assessment of these ethanol production scenarios is based on the habitat information of focus vertebrate species. Different biodiversity impact indicators (e.g. species richness, evenness and habitat naturalness, etc.) are used to model the impacts. Our initial results show that biodiversity impact increases linearly as the level of ethanol blending is increased. However, the selection of biodiversity impact indicators also has a distinct role in determining the total biodiversity impact. The methodology as well as the final results of this project will be reported in the ISIE conference. This study will assist us in understanding the temporal and spatial performance of different bioproducts.
Innovative Ecocloud™ Helps Silicon Valley Companies Adopt Sustainable Practices (Abstract #745)
Eric Rosenblum, Martina Davis, Marianna Grossman, Drew Clark, Jim Davis and Jeff Risberg
South Bay Water Recycling is a regional recycled water distribution system serving industrial and commercial customers in the area of northern California's “Silicon Valley.” In early 2008 the City of San José, as administering agency of the San José/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant, implemented a Cooling Tower Initiative to encourage recycled water use by commercial and industrial facilities. In 2009, Sustainable Silicon Valley, a non-profit organization dedicated to a sustainable future, convened a meeting of utilities, high-tech and academics to discuss how local stakeholders might collaborate to improve the sustainable use of water in Silicon Valley. Out of these discussions emerged the concept of the EcoCloud™ , a coalition of private companies, public utilities, environmental organizations and academic researchers who encourage each other to adopt sustainable practices, supported by the latest social networking and data analysis tools. While the initial focus of the EcoCloud™ is to help industrial facilities use water sustainably—especially by using recycled water for cooling—its long-term goal is to support all aspects of sustainability, including energy reduction, materials management and land use. The EcoCloud™ allowed the City of San José to move from a serial marketing to a group marketing model, reaching more potential customers and connecting more facilities to the recycled water system. Inspired by the concept of industrial ecology, the EcoCloud™ is designed to be a “virtual” industrial ecosystem where industry, government and educational institutions can work together to share information about all aspects of sustainability. Industries in the EcoCloud™ share a common interest in reducing energy usage, conserving resources, eliminating waste, and cutting costs to improve their bottom line. Just as “cloud computing” uses the distributed power of the internet for data processing, the EcoCloud™ harnesses the power of social networking tools to make their enterprises more sustainable and more profitable.
How Much Will Reducing Greenhouse Gases In The Us Residential Sector Cost? (Abstract #746)
Ines Azevedo, Granger Morgan, Karen Palmer and Lester Lave
Replacing home appliances with models that use less energy or emit less carbon dioxide would have a large impact on the amount of energy used and CO2 emitted in the US residential sector. The present stock devices in US homes do not reflect the most efficient design or even the design that minimizes cost over the lifetime of the device. Using detailed estimates of the current inventory of major appliances in U.S. homes, as well as the energy use of these devices, we construct a model - the Regional Residential Energy Efficiency Model or RREEM - that allows us to simulate the cost and energy and CO2 emissions reduction of replacing these appliances with ones that consume less energy or emit less carbon dioxide. As some previous studies have shown using aggregate data, the potential for savings is enormous. Our contribution is to rely on a publically available database and construct a model with appliance, geographical and agent detail. The quantitative savings depends on the program goal, the policies used to implement them, and who is implementing it. We find that currently available technologies could reduce annual CO2 emissions through improving the efficiency of residential equipment by between 2% and 56% depending on the policy and assumptions chosen. The annualized cost of equipment, installation and operation of such reductions would range from a net benefit of $0.7 billion to a net cost of $60 billion.
What Do We Know And What Should We Know About Corn-Based Ethanol? (Abstract #749)
Troy R. Hawkins, Wesley Ingwersen, Raymond L. Smith and Jane Bare
Under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard was expanded to mandate that 136 billion liters of renewable fuel be blended into U.S. transportation fuels by 2022. Of this, up to 56.6 billion liters per year can be ethanol derived from corn grain. In support of this standard, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Transportation and Air Quality performed a regulatory impact assessment which considered the impacts of the program on greenhouse gas emissions as well as air emissions of criteria pollutants and select cancer-causing agents. In addition, impacts on the Upper Mississippi River Basin water quality and water use were modeled. In addition to this work, the national laboratories of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have performed a number of partial or full life cycle environmental impact assessments of transportation fuels in support of DOE decision-making. The EPA Sustainable Technology Division is interested in analyzing these fuels from a broader perspective of environmental sustainability, and is looking to build upon existing ethanol and petroleum LCA models in order to identify additional environmentally relevant aspects of these fuel life cycles. In this work we analyze the inter-relationships between these environmental assessments of gasoline and ethanol derived from corn and corn stover in terms of the underlying datasets and models to identify key dependencies. In addition to this, we use a broader literature search to identify stages of the gasoline and corn-based ethanol life cycle and impact categories which should be strengthened with additional information. Finally we discuss how to best address the needs identified in this work.
Coal Gasification By Conventional Versus Calcium Looping Process – A Life Cycle Energy, Global Warming, And Water Assessment (Abstract #750)
Berrin Kursun, Shewetha Ramkumar, Bhavik Ramesh Bakshi and Liang Shih Fan
In this work, we evaluate two coal gasification processes: conventional and calcium looping (CLP) implemented with CO2 sequestration, according to their environmental and energetic performances. Environmental factors considered are energy use, water use and global warming potential (GWP) of the processes. Net energy analysis is performed for energetic evaluation. We calculate the energy return of investment (EROI) at three scales: traditional equipment scale only considering the gasification process, value chain scale analogous to a process-LCA, and economy scale tiered hybrid LCA approach based on combining process data with economic input-output (EIO)-LCA. At the equipment scale, we consider only the energy used directly in the process to produce the energetic outputs, namely, electricity and fuel grade hydrogen. At the value chain scale, we account for the energy spent in coal mining, transportation of coal to the plant, gasification, calcination and solid disposal for CLP. For the conventional process at this scale, the steps considered are coal mining and transportation, gasification and solid disposal. For the economy scale, we include the energy for equipment production, plant infrastructure and chemical production for both processes. In calculation of EROI, two cases are considered depending on whether differences in energy quality are considered or not. Without accounting for differences in energy quality, EROIs calculated for CLP are 3.36, 2.96, 2.68 for the equipment, value chain and economy scales, respectively, and for conventional process, they are 7.68, 6.16, 5.31, for the respective scales. When we account for energy quality of electricity, results are 2.85, 2.63, 2.47 for CLP and 4.35, 3.89, 3.58 for the conventional process in the same order. CLP looks better from the points of view of water consumption and global warming potential. These quantities are found to be 710,715 and 879,000 kg/hr and 1.81 and 4.08 MtCO2/MWe for CLP and conventional process, respectively.
Review Of Nano-Materials’ Environmental Impacts And The Applicability Of Life-Cycle Impact Assessment Framework To Address Them. (Abstract #751)
Sheetal Gavankar, Sangwon Suh, Arturo Keller and Rolad Geyer
The need of systematic evaluation of nano-materials’ environmental impacts has been widely recognized, and a body of LCA literature on nano-materials has been published in recent years. However, conventional LCA framework falls short in dealing with some of the unique characteristics inherent to nano-materials. In this review study, we review the state-of-the-art literature on environmental impacts of nano-materials and Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods relevant for characterizing nano-materials environmental impacts. Based on the literature reviewed, we evaluated (1) what are the major characteristics and mechanisms under which nano-materials affect the environment; (2) whether these key characteristics and mechanisms can be adequately addressed under the current LCIA frameworks; (3) whether current data and knowledge accumulated around fate, transport and toxicity of nano-materials are sufficient enough to run LCIA models; and (4) what are the data and knowledge gaps that need to be overcome in order to better characterize nano-materials under LCA framework. Preliminary results indicate that the much of the major characteristics and mechanisms with which nano-materials affect the environment are not adequately addressed by the state-of-the-art LCIA methodologies. Despite the rapid developments in knowledge and data on nano-materials’ behavior in the environment, our current understanding on nano-materials falls short in running existing LCIA models. Given the fact that nano-materials characteristics can be dramatically altered by slight changes in shape, material composition, and size distribution, the conventional approach of developing fate, transport and toxicity data poses substantial limitation in coping with the data requirement for nano-material’s LCA. This review highlights the challenges facing the LCA on nano-materials, their potential solutions along with their pluses and minuses.
Adoption, End-Of-Life Processing And Exportation Of Used Computers In Mexico (Abstract #755)
Ramzy Kahhat, Eric Williams, Soumya Poduri and Jesus Estrada
The generation of electronic waste, or e-waste, is considerably growing around the world, and with it the increasing concern about the management of this particular waste stream. To be able to manage e-waste in a sustainable manner is imperative to first understand the e-waste system in the particular country and its relation with other countries. This study aims to understand the adoption, end-of-life processing and exportation of used personal computers in Mexico. The material flow analysis (MFA) methodology is used to identify the flow of used computers in the country (e.g. from households or organizations to recyclers and refurbishers) as well as the exportation of these used devices to the rest of the world. This study collects primary data by the use of surveys to organizations and households in the country as well as field studies performed in 8 main cities; such as City of Mexico, Guadalajara, Chihuahua, and Mexicali. Field studies include interviews to refurbishers, recyclers, landfill experts, scavengers and sellers as well as site observations. In addition, the shipment-level trade analysis (SLTA) methodology, using government trade data on the importation and exportation of used computers, is used to identify the importation of used personal computers to the country. Results of this study will be presented, focusing in the MFA and shipment-level trade analysis that include surveys to households and organizations, trade analysis and field studies to major cities in Mexico.
Spatial Distribution Of Us Industries And Implications For Lca (Abstract #758)
William Collinge, Melissa Bilec and Amy Landis
Site-dependent LCA is preferred to site-generic LCA when it can be shown that site-dependent data, such as emissions inventories and characterization factors, are readily available and significantly affect results. This study builds upon previous work recently presented by the authors (Collinge, Bilec, Landis, LCAX conference). Therein, it was shown that coupling the spatial distribution of criteria air pollutant emissions from specific industrial sectors (from the EPA’s national emissions inventory) with regionalized characterization factors (CFs)- from the TRACI method categories for acidification, eutrophication and photochemical oxidation- resulted in sector-specific characterization factors which varied by at least a factor of 2, effectively outweighing moderate variations in inventory differences. These sector-specific characterization factors can be applied to any LCA for US industries, without needing to know the geographic location of unit processes. In this study, the previous work is extended to answer one of the questions raised by the first study - does increasing the spatial resolution of the model increase or decrease the variation in sector-specific CFs? Initially, state-level results of the NEI were paired with state-level CFs from TRACI. However, emissions inventory data exists at county or even the individual facility level for large sources. Similarly, finer-grained variation in impact assessment is available in the IMPACT North America model (Humbert et al, 2009 in Science of the Total Environment) for intake fractions in human health midpoint/damage categories. Herein, the IMPACT North America model will be coupled with sector-county-level and facility-level emissions inventories to generate sector-specific intake fractions based on the geographic distribution of emissions by sector. Results will show whether increasing the spatial resolution of the model yields greater or lesser variability between sectors, indicating the potential usefulness industrial geography in bridging the gap between site-generic and site-dependent LCA.
Estimating The Environmental Performance Of Recycling Through Material Flow Analysis (Abstract #760)
Brandon Kuczenski and Roland Geyer
Although recycling is generally regarded to be beneficial, it is difficult to evaluate the precise benefits of recycling on a large scale using life cycle assessment (LCA) because the impacts of material production must often be allocated among successive life cycles of the material. In practice, the net effect of recycling is dependent on the fate of the recycled material, information that is often outside the system boundary of traditional LCA. Intelligence about the nature of secondary material use among related product systems must be obtained through material flow analysis (MFA). We demonstrate a technique for incorporating life cycle results into MFA to evaluate the material efficiency and environmental performance of recycling. Synthetic polymers appear to be ideal candidates for intensive closed loop recycling because they are produced in great volumes and are often used in non-durable applications. However, closed loop plastic recycling has yet to be established on a large scale and is available in only a few product systems. The most-recycled plastic product in the US is the single-use beverage bottle made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), with about 28% of post-consumer bottles recovered in 2009. We investigate the potential for increased recycling to reduce environmental burdens by integrating life cycle impact information about PET bottles into an MFA of PET polymer in the US. We find that the product system specificity of the current recycling apparatus sharply limits the potential for dramatic reductions in the environmental impact of PET material use generally. We use the MFA model to estimate the marginal improvement in environmental performance of the PET system in response to increased bottle recycling, and propose this method as an alternative technique for assessing avoided burdens in LCA.
Is There Really “Short Mental Distance” In Eco-Industrial Networks? (Abstract #761)
Weslynne Ashton and Ariana Bain
The growing industrial symbiosis literature is peppered with references to social embeddedness and social capital, with few explicit attempts to measure it. The “short mental distance,” “trust,” “openness” and “communication” among managers in Kalundborg, Denmark set a precedent for examining and encouraging vibrant interactions among key personnel in the dozens of the eco-industrial networks that have since been “uncovered” or planned. It is now widely accepted that economic transactions are not completely market-driven but are also embedded in social interactions and the social structures that develop through those interactions. Social capital refers to the ability of individuals or whole groups to access resources through the network for their own benefit, such as receiving technical advice or managing common-pool resources. This article focuses on social capital as “access to resources” and examines ways that it has been measured in business and industrial networks. There are two main components of social capital: structural and cultural with the former governing position and connectivity in a network and the latter referring to shared norms and values. Using social network analysis, metrics are developed to quantify the presence of different aspects of social capital within an eco-industrial network in Nanjangud, India. Qualitative indicators are also included to add contextual insights into the role of social capital in facilitating inter-firm cooperation. The findings suggest that there is a fairly high level of shared norms about dealing with waste—the “short mental distance” in this network, but that by-product exchanges are only weakly correlated with “communication” among managers. The research framework and methodology, which combines quantitative and qualitative measures for measuring structural and cultural aspects of social capital, can be applied in other sites around the world in order to increase the sophistication of analyses and comparability of such initiatives.
Comparing Resource Consumption In The Us Economy For 1997 And 2002 Via Eco-Lca: A Case Study On Bio-Fuels (Abstract #763)
Erin Landers, Shweta Singh and Bhavik Bakshi
Ecosystem services are essential to all human activity. In spite of this importance, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment has found that many ecosystem services are highly degraded. In many engineering analyses, these necessary services are undervalued, or even ignored completely. It is therefore crucial to develop and modify existing methods to allow these services to be valued and accounted for in decision making. The Ecologically Based Life Cycle Assessment (Eco-LCA) is a recently developed methodology that accounts for the role of ecosystem services in economic activities. Previous work has included these resources in the 1997 US economic model; this work creates a similar Eco-LCA inventory for the 2002 economy. The economic input-output model has been obtained from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and shows the interactions between different industries. Ecosystem services values have been obtained from various federal agencies and academic research groups. Resource intensities are then obtained using the Eco-LCA model, which can be directly compared to 1997 Eco-LCA inventory. This shows changes in both resource use and the interactions between economic sectors from 1997 to 2002. This work uses the changes in resource consumption to study bio-fuels. The sustainability of bio-fuels will be discussed by investigating the resources required and emissions produced for various feedstocks, including changes since 1997. This will allow for a more dynamic view of the progress towards the most sustainable fuels. Furthermore, additional work has been done to enhance carbon and nitrogen accounting in the Eco-LCA model. This newly developed inventory captures the effects on the C and N cycles and can give crucial insight into C and N trade-offs of bio-fuels from different feedstocks. For the first time, bio-fuels will be evaluated for such trade-offs and other ecological resources using this unique Eco-LCA inventory. Abstract submitted to the Environmentally Extended Input-Output Analysis Session.
Water Footprint Of Urban Energy Systems: A Case Study Of Denver, Colorado (Abstract #766)
Elliot Cohen and Anu Ramaswami
Several studies have looked at water footprints of regions (e.g. Water Footprint Network), but these have largely focused on consumptive agricultural water use. However, more than 80% of the US population lives in urban areas where other water conflicts can arise, for example, water-electricity conflicts during summer months when peak electricity demand coincides with reduced water supply of the dry season. During an acute water conflict, water withdrawals become more important than consumptive losses. The objective of this paper is to develop a methodology to characterize and compute the water footprint of urban energy carriers. Understanding the water footprint of urban energy carriers is critical to creating sustainable urban infrastructure systems and sensible environmental policies. Special attention is given to the temporal aspect of water-demand conflicts in cities. Both conventional and emerging technologies for electricity generation and transportation fuels have been evaluated. Furthermore, this methodology considers actual power plant specifications including cooling type, which is a major determinant of the water-intensity for electricity generation. The methodology yields a quantitative water footprint estimate of Denver’s energy system as well as the ability to evaluate future scenarios and proposed environmental policies. Finally, the water footprint of the urban energy system is compared to the direct municipal water supply of Denver to evaluate the potential for water-scarcity conflicts.
Regional Material Flow And Life Cycle Analysis Of Cement Manufacturing In India (Abstract #767)
Andrea Solis, Anu Ramaswami and Stephan Durham
India is the second largest cement producer in the world with about 140 large and 365 small cement plants operating in the country. Although it is known that global cement manufacturing contributes 5% of the world’s CO2 emissions there are cities, such as Rajkot and New Delhi, India, interested in understanding the GHG impact associated with the direct use of the cement. This paper uses the method of material flow (MFA) and life cycle analysis (LCA) to quantify regional CO2 emissions associated with using Indian cements. Data is already gathered on cement material flow for New Delhi and is estimated at a total of 4.77 metric tonnes (mt) within 2008 through 2009, thus, resulting in about 0.28 mt of cement per capita. Surveys are being conducted to address the use of cement in different urban applications. This study presents a cradle to gate life cycle assessment while taking into account that CO2 emissions can vary from cement plant to plant and considering that India’s cement industry currently administers sustainable and industrial ecology strategies to reduce emissions and achieve recognition as second in energy efficiency. Combining MFA and LCA of cement will allow the full impact of cement use in Indian cities to be evaluated.
Going From A Smart Grid To A Smart City (Abstract #769)
Nils Brandt, Louise Årman, Stefan Johansson, Hossein Shahrokni, Kristin Fahlberg and Ronald Wennersten
Going from a Smart Grid to a Smart City With the emerging trend of Smart Grid projects in sustainable city developments around the world, the environmental and economic value of Smart Grid systems has been widely documented. These projects will likely set the standard for the sustainable cities of the future. While Smart Grid systems focus exclusively on real-time reporting and feedback of electricity, the City of Stockholm has mandated the Stockholm Royal Seaport project to implement what is called a Follow-Up Model, which essentially requires real-time reporting not only on electricity, but also on district heating, fuel mix of electricity and heat, water, waste fractions, construction activities, and transportation systems. Therefore, everything that falls within the system boundaries of the Follow-Up Model should preferably be integrated into the Information Management System (IMS). Therefore the project could be viewed as an expansion from Smart Grids to Smart Cities. Funded by the Swedish Energy Agency, the department of Industrial Ecology at the Royal Institute of Technology is heading a work package in a collaborative research study to illustrate the benefits and more importantly, to identify the new challenges that arises in implementing such a groundbreaking system. One central aspect of this research project is to develop an understanding of the IMS. This IMS needs manage an enormous amount of real-time data that then reports and interacts stakeholders on three main levels: homes, buildings and city as well as other stakeholders such as the utilities. In order to influence consumption and behavior, the data sets, reporting and visualization need to be tailored specifically to each stakeholder (occupant, portfolio manager, and city-wide). This paper will present and discuss the findings of this research study and how it relates to other Smart Grid projects.
A Software Tool To Evaluate Emerging Carbon Capture Technologies (Abstract #770)
Matthew Ceh and Joule Bergerson
The evaluation of emerging technologies is an essential component in responsible environmental management. It is critical that new technologies offer net benefits. The evaluation of emerging technologies is complex and a multi-criteria perspective must be adopted. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies offer much promise but there are cost and energy penalties associated with capturing and compressing the CO2 that can lead to significant upstream impacts from the additional extraction and transport of input fuel required to compensate. A software tool based on life cycle assessment, energy system modeling, energy technology evaluation, and life cycle costing is developed and applied to evaluate CCS technologies. For example, the software tool is being applied to compare existing carbon capture technologies with technologies that are at the lab or small pilot stage. We have developed a baseline set of data derived from existing technologies and are employing a range of uncertainty analysis techniques (e.g., expert elicitation, statistical/forecasting/scenario analysis, Monte Carlo simulation, dynamic system modeling, development of experience curves) to develop a range of performance for each of the emerging CCS technologies considered. The results of the research will provide an understanding of the improvement next generation CCS technologies could achieve in environmental and economic performance. With the aid of uncertainty analysis, the results will provide a range of net benefits (e.g., cost reductions, GHG emissions) associated with the new emerging capture technologies. The development and application of this integrated life cycle-based technology evaluation tool, applied to other emerging energy technologies, will inform current R&D activities and assist in providing better information to energy policy and investment decision makers.
Analyzing The Formation And Growth Of District Energy Systems (Abstract #771)
David Rulff, Christopher Kennedy and Graham Harding
Using a piping network to connect the heating and cooling systems of multiple buildings offers a platform for improving energy efficiency, reducing emissions, and incorporating alternative means of energy generation. Essentially, these district heating and cooling (DHC) systems become viable when the benefits of improving the load scheduling of production equipment offsets the construction and operating costs of the piping network. This study analyzes the economic factors and design conditions that affect this balance through development and application of a comprehensive DHC model. Having a group of buildings with sufficient combined load density and a diversity of load profiles enables DHC development. These conditions contribute to a cumulative load profile with smaller deviation from average loading, a relative decrease in peak loading effects, and a relative improvement for low loading conditions. Other factors include conditions of the local environment, and the presence of a disparity in type, performance or capacity of existing production equipment. This study begins by developing an hour-by-hour model to analyze and compare the energy costs associated with operating a group of independent building systems to an equivalent integrated DHC configuration. The model allows adjustment of environmental factors, loading profiles, network design/optimization, and equipment specifications/performance curves. By applying the model to a large number of cases, the factors and conditions that influence the early development viability of satellite DHC systems can be analyzed and distilled. Preliminary model output shows that even in a two-building configuration, production energy savings for connected systems can range from 20-50% for cooling (for combinations of constant and variable speed centrifugal chillers, with performances ranging from 0.65 to 0.85 kW/ton) and 10-30% for heating (assuming natural gas fired boilers feeding hot-water hydronic systems). This is partially offset by distribution losses, which were generally less than 5% of total system energy consumption.
Re-Examining The Life Cycle Energy Of Residences: Scope, Scaling And Dynamics (Abstract #772)
Eric Williams, Stephane Frijia and Subhrajahit Guhathakurta
There is a history of life cycle assessment analyses of residential buildings, the general conclusion of which is the operation phase overwhelmingly dominates over the construction phases as a source of environmental impacts. This study examines three aspects of the life cycle modeling of residences. The first aspect is the scope included in the operational phase. Typically the total energy consumed “within a building” is considered the operational energy use “of the building”. We argue that the functionality of delivering food, clothing and entertainment, linked to energy use of white goods and consumer electronics, is outside the scope of building functionality. We therefore set the functional unit of a residence as delivering controlled climate, including only operational energy of heating and cooling systems. The second issue explored is the scaling of life cycle energy as a function of building size. We study energy use of different residence types from detached homes from 1,500-3,500 square feet and multi-family homes from several stories to high rise apartment buildings within a unified modeling framework. The method used to estimate construction impacts is economic hybrid life cycle assessment, which combines a breakdown of prices of individual construction elements with economic input-output analysis. The third issue explored is how technological change in the operational phase affects life cycle energy. Heating and cooling equipment is replaced at least several times over the lifetime of a residence, with each new set of equipment generally more efficiency than the previous. This technological progress tends to reduce energy use in the operational phase over the life of a home. These results are synthesized to comment on implications for urban planning.
Modeling Uncertainty In Biomass Greenhouse Gas Emissions With The Calculating Uncertainty In Biomass Emissions (Cube) Model (Abstract #776)
Aimee Curtright, Constantine Samaras, David Johnson and Henry Willis
Before further investments are made in utilizing biomass as a source of renewable energy, policymakers and the energy industry need estimates of the net greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions expected from substituting biobased fuels for fossil fuels. Such GHG reductions depend greatly on how the biomass is cultivated, transported, processed, and converted into fuel or electricity. Thus, uncertainty in the actual upstream GHG emissions associated with a biomass feedstock or process could lead to the adoption of government policies and industrial practices that increase expenditures but yield only marginal GHG emissions reductions, if any. To understand the implications of biomass use on the GHG-intensity of the energy system, it is important to assess these uncertainties and to acknowledge their effects on estimates of GHG emissions. We have developed a framework for incorporating uncertainty analysis into estimates of the life cycle GHG emissions from production of biomass. This framework has been applied in developing the publicly available Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions (CUBE) model. CUBE was designed to facilitate examination of the sources and magnitudes of uncertainties in GHG emissions and to explore approaches to expressing these uncertainties. The model assesses “farm-to-gate” emissions for a variety of dedicated energy crops and biomass residues: corn grain, corn stover, switchgrass, mixed prairie biomass, hybrid poplar, forest residue, and mill residue. We will discuss implications of uncertainty analysis on models of life cycle emissions specific to biomass production, such as natural limits on the precision of model results, current data gaps, and processes with the greatest expected value of additional information. We also present model results comparing emissions from each feedstock across a wide range of production scenarios and uncertainties, with implications of the model for energy policy and energy industry investment decisions.
Dynamic Life Cycle Assessment For Project Impact Budgeting And Management (Abstract #781)
Sarah Russell-Smith and Michael Lepech
The performance of the built environment represents a large part of national energy consumption, has environmental, economic and social impacts, and offers an impressive opportunity for improvement. Presently, building designers and managers cannot easily quantify the sustainability impacts of commercial buildings for improved analysis, management, or decision-making. Little information exists concerning the distribution of energy consumption between life cycle phases. This is due in part to the lack of interoperability between design and analysis software packages, which would enable full life cycle assessment (LCA) of buildings, and in part to the inability to accurately assess consumption and emissions from an early design phase. In order to reduce life cycle environmental impacts including energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and acidification, it is necessary to understand and estimate the impacts of a building’s entire life cycle during the design phase. Without an accurate estimate of the impacts, it is impossible to compare design options based on sustainability factors. Further, without this estimate, impacts cannot be rationally managed or reduced. This research integrates building information modeling (BIM) software with LCA software to produce a dynamically updating LCA of a commercial building. Coupling impacts from the LCA with the building construction schedule produces budgets for each impact category associated with each construction activity. The result is a novel framework to forecast environmental impacts in parallel with forecasted monetary costs. The forecasted impact, for instance carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e), is used to manage the construction phase; budgeted impact and actual impact are plotted to view project variance as a percent of impact accrued versus percent project completion. This framework produces environmental benchmarks facilitating improved sustainability-oriented project management during the construction and use phases of a building life cycle and offers unique analysis opportunities to examine the tradeoffs between design and operational decisions.
Incorporating Uncertainty Into Firm Scope 3 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimates (Abstract #784)
Jeremy Gregory, Pauline Jeong, Elsa Olivetti, Randolph Kirchain and Edgar Blanco
Quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for firms has focused on scope 1 and scope 2 emissions because of the difficulty in standardizing methods to quantify scope 3 emissions (GHG Protocol, 2004). However, research has shown that scope 3 emissions often make up the majority of an economic sector’s carbon footprint (Huang, ES&T, 2009). Thus, a new protocol has been developed to guide firms’ efforts to quantify scope 3 GHG emissions (GHG Protocol, 2010). While the protocol includes guidance on calculation of GHG emissions, the calculations can be accomplished using numerous methodologies. Furthermore, there is minimal guidance on how to incorporate uncertainty into the calculations. This presentation will describe the process used to calculate scope 1, 2, and 3 GHG emissions for Ocean Spray Cranberries (OSC). Developing a calculation strategy is a balance between completeness and accuracy. OSC’s objective was to calculate a complete firm GHG footprint in order to determine the areas in which it should focus its supplier interactions and GHG reduction strategies. Accomplishing this triage effort necessitated compromising on data quality (e.g., temporal, geographical, or technological representativeness of activity data or emissions factors) in order to streamline the calculation process. The majority of scope 3 emissions were estimated using the input-output methodology. Uncertainty assessments of the scope 3 emission estimates are essential given the priority of completeness over accuracy. The initial uncertainty assessment for the OSC emissions was a qualitative evaluation of activity data and emission factor data quality. However, the presentation will also include quantitative sensitivity analyses of key assumptions in the calculation of key drivers of scope 3 emissions such as fruit farming and the production of ingredients. Product life cycle assessments have been conducted for decades, but firm scope 3 analyses are nascent. Thus, insights on the scope 3 GHG emissions estimation process for a firm can have significant impact.
Developing A Framework For Transparent Green Building Rating Systems (Abstract #786)
Nils Brandt, Hossein Shahrokni and Ronald Wennersten
Green building rating programs have enjoyed tremendous international success because they simplify sustainable development in a structured manner that is easy to communicate, easy to understand, and yet, maintain a high level of rigor. As the market uptake of these programs has increased, new questions have arisen about what the certification levels actually convey? It is indeed convenient to compare two certified buildings or neighborhoods and to acknowledge that one of them achieved a higher or better rating than the other. But with a notion of transparency, what does better mean? How much less water, waste and energy are the buildings consuming? How much lower are their carbon footprints? In collaboration with the US Green Building Council’s Research Department, the aim of this paper is to present a methodology of quantitative analysis that is conveyed in a series of sustainability indicators (such as carbon, water, etc.). The analysis engine could be integrated with ESRI’s and USGBC’s Green Building Information Portal (GBIG) to allow for a transparent comparative analysis of green building projects. The methodology is founded on a systems-based approach. Therefore one important step of defining the methodology is to identify the system boundaries between the neighborhoods and each of the buildings within them. This framework could give a stronger foundation for their decision-making process of which rating program to use where and to be able to market the performance of their projects more transparently. Another important aspect is having the ability to prioritize credits based on location and project type. This developed framework would also assist Green Building Councils to develop better and more robust rating systems in the future.
Are We Heading For A Dysprosium Crisis? (A Discussion Of Rare Earths And Uncommon Metals In A Life Cycle Framework.) (Abstract #790)
Barbara Karn
Rare earth elements are currently receiving a great deal of attention in the popular press, government reports, and scientific publications. Much of the discussion focuses on the political aspects of supply chains, the resulting economic impact, and the security of these supplies. Reports have been generated on the strategic importance and supply and demand associated with these elements. However, there is a striking lack of dialog about their environmental impacts throughout their life cycle. Most rare earths are relatively new to commerce and are being used in products as nanoscaled materials. In addition to rare earths, other less common elements, mainly metals, are being introduced into commerce as nanomaterials. While there is some dialog and knowledge of the general impacts of nanomaterials, there is almost none related to rare earths and uncommon metals. In this paper I will present more questions than answers. I will use a life cycle approach to highlight the information gaps and possible environmental impacts of these materials as they are used in commercial products. From extraction in mines to their end of life, nanoscaled rare earths and uncommon metals present unknown environmental and health effects. I will use dysprosium and indium as examples and give an overview of current knowledge on implications of other rare earths or unusual metals.
What Drives Resource Productivity Across Chinese Provinces? (Abstract #791)
Han Shi
We aim at identifying the leaders and laggards in terms of resource productivity among Chinese provinces from 2000 through 2008 and exploring the underlying drivers for the empirical patterns and trends of provincial material and energy productivity in China. Due to inadequate resource-related statistics, economy-wide material flow accounting has only been experimented on the national scale while sub-national resource productivity accounting has been missing in China thus far. To cope with insufficient statistics about inter-provincial material flows, we collate data from various sources and compare the level and composition of domestic extraction (DE) and domestic material consumption (DMC) in 31 Chinese provinces. Statistics of construction materials have proven to be of particularly high uncertainty. We adopt both top-down and bottom-up approaches to verify the accuracy of construction materials-related datasets. Per capita GDP, population density, the contribution of agricultural sector to overall economy, and extraction patterns of fossil fuels are among the preliminary set of determinants for provincial material productivity patterns. Some preliminary findings are as follows. First, there are sizeable divergences in terms of DMC per capita between different provinces (a factor of 12). Second, there are great differences in per capita DMC between urban and rural population. Third, construction materials account for more than half of DMC and there remains great uncertainty related to the use of construction materials. Forth, an environmentally weighted material consumption metrics may be more appropriate to assess the resource productivity of various provinces. Given that China is the biggest resource consumer in the world, our findings are meant to illustrate the usefulness of provincial resource productivity measurement (e.g., setting quantitative policy goals for circular economy), shed light on the existing for doing that (e.g., data deficiency and institutional set-up), and inform environmental policy-making in China.
Global Agricultural Water Use And Application Technologies: A Mrio Scenario Analysis (Abstract #792)
Nathaniel Springer
This study explores the potential for different agricultural water application technologies to offset increases in water use due to increasing growing population and changing regional diets. Like previous studies that have modeled the potential for such water savings, this paper considers (a) irrigation technologies such as flood, sprinkler, and drip irrigation (Calzadilla et. al. 2008) and (b) local management strategies such as soil retention and rainwater harvesting (Rost et al. 2009). However, the detailed representation of natural resource flows and stocks - specifically three land types (non-irrigated, irrigated, and pastureland) and two water types (blue and green water, see Falkenmark and Rockström 2007) – uniquely allows for construction of scenarios that consider these technologies in tandem. The scenario analysis utilizes the World Trade Model (WTM) – a multi-region input-output (MRIO) linear programming model – and an environmentally extended IO global database with representations of both biophysical and monetary flows and stocks of factor inputs. After modeling regional changes in water use from increases in final demand (population and diet shifts) and factor endowments (increased capital capacity) for 2025, multiple scenarios considering the technological improvements in water efficiencies are used quantify the offsetting water reductions. References Calzadilla, A., K. Rehdanz, and R. S.J Tol. 2008. Water scarcity and the impact of improved irrigation management: A CGE analysis. Working paper. https://www.gtap.agecon.purdue.edu/resources/res_display.asp?RecordID=2655. Rockström, Johan, Mats Lannerstad, and Malin Falkenmark. 2007. Assessing the water challenge of a new green revolution in developing countries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104, no. 15, p. 6253-6260. Rost, S., D. Gerten, H. Hoff, W. Lucht, M. Falkenmark, and J. Rockström. 2009. Global potential to increase crop production through water management in rainfed agriculture. Environmental Research Letters. 4: 044002.
Defining And Quantifying Sustainable Endowments Of Blue Water (Abstract #795)
Carlos Lopez-Morales
This study defines and quantifies sustainable endowments of blue water to make them operational in economic models at the scales of sub-national or multinational regions. Preliminary assessments on water stress share the practice of comparing for any given region the internal runoff to the volumes of economic blue water withdrawals. Internal runoff, however, usually overestimates the volume of blue water available for human appropriation as the built infrastructure for water extraction has a limited capacity. In addition, environmental sustainability requires the allocation of blue water to the maintenance of healthy aquatic ecosystems, further reducing blue water potentially available to economic systems to the magnitude of internal runoff net of environmental requirements. This study builds upon these availability concepts and defines the sustainable endowment of water for any given region as the minimum between the extraction capacity of built infrastructure and the internal runoff net of environmental requirements. The study argues that the policy implications of such a concept are novel: when the sustainable endowment is limited by the extraction infrastructure, its capacity could be expanded without immediately threatening the integrity of aquatic ecosystems. In contrast, when the sustainable endowment is limited by environmental requirements, sustainability implies the utilization of a fraction of the capacity of the existing extraction infrastructure. The study exemplifies the quantification of sustainable endowments at the level of sub-national regions for the Mexican economy and explores the concept's implementation at the level of national and multinational regions. The approach represents a step forward for the water literature as it relates economic infrastructure and environmental requirements to blue water availability, contributing to a better understanding of the interface of natural and human systems.
Environmental Management In Transnational Product Chains: The Case Of A Danish Pesticide Company In Brazil (Abstract #799)
Michael Soegaard Joergensen, Bruno Milanez and Marcelo Firpo
Transnational product chains involving industrialized countries and developing or newly industrialised countries is the background for new systems of international regulation like Prior Informed Consent (PIC) and corporate self regulation based on corporate social responsibility (CSR) and environmental standards. Such regulation and management systems are reactions to critic of the practice of transnational companies from industrialized countries in developing countries or countries under transition of not taking the same environmental and health precaution as in the country of the headquarter of the company. Standards and schemes like ISO14001 and Responsible Care are at the same time criticized for being weak in the demands to the companies and thereby indirect allowing double standards with respect to protection of health and environment in different contexts. The paper analyses the shaping of the environmental strategy and environmental impacts connected to the practice of a Danish transnational pesticide company in Brazil and how this practice is shaped in interaction between the business strategy and the Brazilian society. The company is certified in relation to ISO14001 and refer to CSR principles as management principle. The analyses show a corporate practice based on information to farmers and cancellation of the sale of pesticides to some parts of Brazil. However, the Brazilian part of the company has also participated in pressurising Brazilian governmental agencies against an improvement of the Brazilian legislation towards European standards. The paper applies an analytical framework based on theories concerning business ethics, environmental management in transnational product chains, corporate translation of external pressures through the historically developed structures and incentives in a company, vulnerable contexts and their ability to handle local risk situations and Actor Network Theory and the concept of script for characterising the complexity of practice in relation to products, including the difference between the envisioned practice and the actual practice.
Assessing Sensitivity Of Variations In Product Formulations: A Case Study Of Laundry Detergents (Abstract #801)
Vee Subramanian, Eric Williams, Lizette Bonvin, Joby Carlson and Jay Golden
The comparison of environmental burdens of two or more consumer goods that have the same primary functionality for the purpose of consumer/retail purchase is gaining momentum. With competitive business strategy in mind, manufacturers are prioritizing product differentiation with more emphasis on the secondary functionality of the product. Presently, product life cycle assessments (LCAs) do not consider the dynamic nature of the supply chain in their assessments. This not only reduces the reliability of the LCA results but also makes product vs. product comparison less effective and accurate. Additionally, the development of product category rules (PCRs) must address these variabilities if we are to make well-informed comparisons from the resulting environmental product declarations (EPDs). The dynamic nature of the cradle-to-gate chain affects the formulation of a product. The variation factors include (1) spatial variability through the change in suppliers, (2) feed-stock variability of one or more ingredients, (3) dilution variability of the chemical ingredients, (4) change in the carbon chain length of chemical ingredients, (5) change in the moles of ethoxylation of the chemical ingredients, and (6) concentration variability of the chemical ingredients per dose. Additionally, the change in the dose size of the laundry detergent and the formulation together impacts the overall environmental burden of the laundry detergent. Formulation variability also exists with the price-point/market-positioning of the product. Different driver exist for each of these variations but the focus of this study is to identify the importance of these variations and their cut-off based inclusions in the assessment of the environmental burden of consumer goods. Lastly, the secondary function of consumer goods adds an additional level of complexity. Monte Carlo Analysis is used to perform a sensitivity analysis on these variations to identify the importance of these variations and their need to be captured when developing PCR’s.
Not All Electric Vehicles Are Green: Regional Differences In Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated With Ev Fleets (Abstract #802)
Lynette Cheah, Jeremy Gregory, Richard Roth, Randolph Kirchain, Luis Dias and Fausto Freire
The electrification of passenger vehicles has been widely promoted to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Whether plugin hybrid and battery electric vehicles (PHEV and BEVs) can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, however, remains debatable. This depends on many factors, including the vehicle’s all-electric range, driving patterns, traffic patterns, charging profile, and regional grid characteristics. In this research, we first introduce a methodology that may be used to understand the fuel use and GHG emissions associated with EVs, using the aforementioned factors as inputs. As expected, EVs that tend to be charged during periods of off-peak electricity demand emit less GHG than regular hybrid vehicles. PHEVs must mostly be driven within their all-electric range, so long-distance commuters, drivers with a tendency to encounter traffic congestion, or forget to charge their vehicles are better off using a hybrid vehicle instead. Next, we introduce a model to estimate the GHG emissions associated with the fleet of new EVs on the roads for specific metropolitan areas. Given how most of the factors determining GHG emissions of EVs are location-specific, using regional data rather than national averages would be a more realistic portrayal. The fleet model takes into account the estimated (i) distribution of driving profiles, and (ii) travel distances, given local traffic patterns, residential and employment densities, and the built environment. It also assumes a likely (iii) distribution of charging profiles within the populace, while recognizing (iv) the carbon-intensity and capacity of the regional grid. Scenarios of (v) total EV sales and the (vi) EV sales mix are postulated, based on the availability of charging infrastructure, policies that encourage the adoption of EVs, and local weather conditions. By using distributions rather than mean values of most variables, the model explicitly accounts for uncertainty and the range of experiences in the real world.
Thermodynamic Efficiencies Of Corn Based Bio-Ethanol And Solar Energy As Transportation Fuels (Abstract #803)
Christopher Gino and Eric Williams
While many renewable energy technologies are not currently economically competitive and in some cases involve environmental tradeoffs, technological progress is expected to improve economic and environmental performance. Technological progress is however notoriously difficult to forecast. The approach taken here (to help account for future progress) is to compare current efficiencies of a technology with its thermodynamic limit in its idealized form. For example, a single junction silicon photovoltaic cell will never convert more than 30% of radiant sunlight to useable energy. In this analysis we study and compare first and second law efficiencies of corn based ethanol and electricity generated from Photovoltaic Cells used as transportation fuels. The first law efficiency refers to the ratio of energy transfer achieved by a device/system to the overall energy input into that device/system. The second law efficiency refers to the ratio of useful work transferred by a device/system to the maximum possible work usefully transferable for the same function y any device/system. The overall bio-ethanol production and use chain is simplified into photosynthesis (in corn), fermentation, distillation, and combustion in a typical automobile engine. The PV electricity production and use chain is simplified into solar energy generation, distribution, storage, and actual use in the engine. The current efficiencies are found based on data previously observed for the key stages of electricity and bio-ethanol production and use. Theoretical efficiencies are developed based on thermodynamic analyses. Results are that the theoretical and current efficiencies of solar powered electrical vehicles are far higher than those of corn-based ethanol: the low solar energy capture efficiency of terrestrial crops was a major constraint.
Identifying Critical Supply-Chain Paths That Drive The Change In Co2 Emissions In Japan? (Abstract #805)
Yuko Oshita, Shigemi Kagawa, Keisuke Nansai and Suh Sangwon
To address the problem of global warming, reducing total emission by managing life cycle CO2 emissions associated with industrial productions has garnered considerable attention. One reason for focusing on life cycle CO2 emissions is because, by requiring downstream and upstream industries (firms) to be directly responsible for both direct and indirect CO2 emissions associated with the supply of raw materials and components, emission reduction can be achieved. Using the 1990-1995-2000 linked Japanese environmental input-output table at the four-digit commodity classification level, we estimated the effects of structural changes on pollution emissions associated with individual production chains and extracted key production chains with high pollution emissions from the entire economy by using the structural path decomposition technique proposed by Wood and Lenzen (2009). We also compare the results of the case study of Japan with those of Australia. From the results, we found the production chain that had the largest impact was the path from electricity to household demand. The impact of this production chain accounts for 32% of the total impact (absolute value) relative to the top 60 production chains. However, the change in the commodity composition of final demand and the change in per capita final demand amount, which had a positive contribution to total CO2 emissions, and the change in direct CO2 emissions intensity, which had a negative contribution, offset each other and reduced the overall impact. Moreover, because the volume of CO2 emissions increased as a result of the change in the direct CO2 emissions intensities of the services sector and the agricultural sector, as well as the change in the input structure from the electricity sector of the services sector, the managed cultivation, energy intensification of the service sector, and progress toward the energy dependence of services was more apparent.
A Methodology To Quantify The Flow Of Used Personal Computers Between North America To The Rest Of The World: Canada Export Mfa And India Import Mfa Case Studies (Abstract #806)
Soumya Poduri, Ramzy Kahhat and Eric Williams
With the growing exportation of electronic waste from developed to the developing world, it has become increasingly important to better understand this flow. The North American region is an important exporter of used personal computers and other information, communication and technology (ICT) electronic equipment. Though the reuse market in the in North American region is significant, a considerable percentage of used ICT equipment is shipped overseas where there is a greater demand for used equipment. The characterization and quantification of international flows of used computers within North America (Canada, Mexico, and the United States) and between North America and the rest of the world is challenging considering the unavailability of detailed trade statistics for all countries. This study aims to develop a framework and methodology to quantify and characterize the flow of used electronics between North America and the rest of the world. The study uses a combination of different methodological approaches, such as export material flow analysis or eMFA for the North America Region, shipment-level trade analysis or SLTA where detailed shipment level data is available (e.g. Peru), import material flow analysis or iMFA in countries identified as main importers of used electronics (e.g. India) and multi variable regression analysis and extrapolation analysis will be used where data is not available but can be extrapolated using known data points. The methodology will be presented in detail as well as results from the Canadian eMFA the iMFA for India. The eMFA for Canada will include primary data sources like surveys to households and organizations and secondary data sources. Results from the iMFA in India include field studies to major cities in the country to understand the importation of used personal computers from North America and the reuse and recycle markets within the country.
Geographical Delimitation For Carbon Footprint Modeling In The Global Paper Industry (Abstract #810)
Robert Vos and Joshua Newell
Appropriate geographical delimitation in carbon footprints of paper is deeply challenging due to complexities of scale, largely a function of the number of actors and geographies involved in globalized commodity and energy networks. Concurrently, lifecycle assessments also face controversy over how to properly account for biogenic carbon, which increasingly demands inclusion of emissions due to direct and indirect land use change (e.g. biofuel production, timber harvest, livestock grazing, mining). The many life cycle assessment (LCA) models of paper, the principal building blocks behind product-level GHG emissions footprints, frequently avoid these challenges by narrowly delineating system boundaries. For example, the specific origin of wood fiber supplies, as well as forestry management practices are rarely traced and included in modeling efforts. With the introduction and proliferation of paper certification schemes, including chain of custody verification, lifecycle models may soon be pressed to better account for forest management. Through a partial comparative inventory model of energy sources and emissions for coated freesheet paper produced across the globalized paper industry, this paper reveals how complexities associated with geographic variation and land use change lead to widely divergent results. Using industry and trade data, the authors develop GIS transportation and energy models to map the globally dispersed pulp supply networks and rescale IPCC GHG inventory guidelines to include carbon loss associated with land use change in the carbon footprint of coated paper. The effort demonstrates that absent appropriate geographical delimitation and improved modeling of forest types and forestry practices in fiber supply chains, the carbon footprint is essentially indeterminate. The models the authors present suggest future directions for development of lifecycle assessments for paper that are more spatially explicit
Assessment Of Future Water Availability And Water-Use Impact Considering Climate Change, Population And Energy Scenarios: A Case In Minnesota (Abstract #811)
Yiwen Chiu and Sangwon Suh
Water availability and water-use impact are likely to undergo significant changes under the multitude of changes in climate, population, and biofuel development. In this study we developed a stochastic modeling framework integrating system dynamics, hydrological models, and monte-carlo simulation coupled with climate, population and biofuel production scenarios using Minnesota as a case study. The model employs monthly time-steps and is capable of describing the stocks and flows of water within and between the 81 watersheds in Minnesota. Given the uncertainty and indeterminacy of climate change variables, a monte carlo simulation is employed to detect persistent patterns developed in the results. The model is populated with climate and soil data, and all major water withdrawal points are mapped using Geographical Information System (GIS) tools. The simulation was ran 10,000 times for each scenario. The results indicate that water withdrawal by 2030 would increase by 28% and 126% from the average level in 2000s under the designated climate and population scenarios, respectively, and 134% under the joint climate-population effect. Approximate 80% of water use impact was caused by power generation and public supply sectors. Increase in biofuel production did not, however, significantly change future water demand. The results are subject to local conditions in Minnesota, where majority of biofuel feedstocks are rain-fed. The results also highlighted the importance of population growth as the major driver in future water consumption.
Life Cycle Assessment Applied To Events: The Case Study Of Gymnaestrada (Abstract #814)
Elisa Tatti, Anna Kounina, Sarra Harbi, Yves Loerincik, Caroline Coquerel and Sebastien Humbert
Life cycle assessment was originally designed to evaluate environmental impacts of products. This methodology was extended to be applied to organizations. And lately, it has been adapted to be applied even to events. The World Gymnaestrada, organized in Lausanne, Switzerland, in 2011, is the largest mass sport even in the world with more than 23'000 participants to be expected. However, this event will also generate increase of the city population of 20 %. The organizing committee is interested to understand the environmental consequences of this event and would like to enroll in a sustainable development approach. The evaluation of the overall environmental assessment of the event is part of the wide range of measures taken in order to implement these principles of sustainable development. The goals of this project are to: • Realize the environmental assessment of the World Gymnaestrada 2011 • Contribute to the establishment of a sustainable development mind for this event • Value the impacts reduction measures towards the collaborators • Create an evaluation tool that allows directing choices for the event • Associate these elements to the communication of the event • Contribute to create a life cycle assessment based tool for events The results of the assessment, the tool and actions identified will be presented.
Sustainable Concrete Technology Throughout Entire Life Cycle (Abstract #816)
Dubravka Bjegovic, Nina Stirmer, Marijana Serdar, Marija Jelcic Rukavina and Ana Baricevic
Sustainable development is one of the major issues of modern society, highly endangered by industrialization and technological development. Use of large amounts of non-renewable resources (sand, gravel, water), as well as significant air emissions (during production of cement) place concrete industry very high on scale of world’s pollutants. In order to contribute to environmental protection goals, research in the field of concrete technology is nowadays focused on decreasing carbon footprint and deploying less non-renewable resources throughout entire life cycle of concrete. In this paper an overview is given of possible actions that can be employed in concrete technology in order to upgrade concrete industry and create one that is environmentally more friendly and sustainable. Some of the actions include: reduction of CO2 emission by using blended cements and new types of binders; conservation of natural resources by using aggregate recycled from construction and demolition waste, industrial waste or from end-of-life tyres; prolongation of service life by prescribing, controlling and assuring durability in design, construction and exploitation phase of concrete structure. The benefits of given actions are highlighted through presentation of experimental results obtained on the existing scientific projects in the area of sustainable development which are being performed at Department of Materials on Faculty of Civil Engineering in Zagreb.
Applications Of Input-Output Analysis In Industrial Ecology: A 10 Year Review From Isie 2001 In Leiden To Isie 2011 In Berkeley (Abstract #817)
Sangwon Suh
Since the first ISIE conference in 2001 held in Leiden, the Netherlands, there has been remarkable development in applications of input-output analysis (IOA) in the field of industrial ecology. In this presentation, major progresses over the last 10 years are reviewed and possible future developments are envisioned. Summarizing all the studies presented or published over the last 10 years is beyond my capability, and therefore, I would like to select and build this review around the following thematic areas: (1) applications in Life Cycle Assessment and hybrid techniques; (2) applications in Material Flow Analysis (MFA) and waste management; (3) applications in product environmental policy and sustainable consumption; and (4) applications in international trade and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Examples to be discussed includes: (a) environmental impact of product (EIPRO) in Europe and resources conservation and recovery act (RCRA) vision study in the US; (b) application of hybrid approaches for carbon and water footprinting and hybridization of process LCA databases; (c) allocation in LCA and supply-use framework; (d) waste input-output (WIO) models and application of Ghoshian framework for MFA; (e) multi-regional IO models and carbon leakage. The review highlights the contributions of IOA to industrial ecology. Not only did IOA provide basic data and pragmatic solutions to key industrial ecology applications but it also enriched the theoretical foundations and knowledge-base of the field. Furthermore, IOA provided an important connection between industrial ecology and product environmental policy, as some of these applications were directly informed or absorbed by major policy directives. As the application of IOA broadens its scope, it faces new challenges. It should be reminded that the success of IOA in industrial ecology over the last decade was built upon its ability to provide reasonably reliable information for the intended application.
The Raw Material Equivalents Of Austria’S Trade: Input-Output Approaches (Abstract #818)
Anke Schaffartzik and Nina Eisenmenger
Identifying the global environmental pressure connected with a given level of consumption requires accounting for all flows associated with the production of the consumed goods and services, including upstream material requirements of imports and exports. The used extraction as well as the intermediate material inputs associated with the production of traded goods may be referred to as raw material equivalents (RME) following the terminology proposed in Eurostat’s 2001 MFA methodological guide. When we originally began experimenting with a way in which to calculate these “raw material equivalents” for Austria’s foreign trade, it was the lack of an adequate multi-regional input-output model that led us to develop an approach based on input-output as well as LCA data. For those goods and sectors for which Austria’s domestic input structure cannot be assumed to be fitting for imports, we applied LCA-based coefficients approximating the inputs per unit of output and combined these with input-output matrices. In a follow-up project, we compared our results with a multi-regional input-output model approach and explored advantages and disadvantages of both approaches for the case of Austria. We will present and compare the results obtained by using the combined input-output/LCA approach on the one hand and the multi-regional input-out approach on the other hand. Additionally, we will discuss the applicability of these methods in standard national reporting on a regular basis. - Submitted to the EE IO Session -
Global Metabolism Of Metals (Abstract #819)
Ester van der Voet, Reijo Salminen, Matthew Eckelman, Terry Norgate, Gavin Mudd and Roland Hisschier
Metals play an important role in today's society. Metals like iron, copper and nickel are indispensable for our infrastructure, while metals like platinum, cobalt or indium are increasingly used in new technologies. Since the use of these metals worldwide still increases rapidly, scarcity has become an issue of concern. The increasing use of metals, on the other hand, also leads to an increase of environmental problems related to the life-cycle of these metals. The increase in environmental problems is probably not proportional to the increase in use, but even stronger, as both the energy and the water footprint of metals increases. A comprehensive survey, conducted for the UNEP Resource Panel, provides insight in the present contribution of metals to environmental impacts, in expected future developments, and in the sense and nonsense of mitigation measures.
Thermoeconomics As A Tool For A Fair Product Cost Allocation In Industrial Symbiosis (Abstract #820)
Antonio Valero, Sergio Usón, Cesar Torres and Alicia Valero
Industrial Symbiosis is based on the transformation of linear industrial processes into closed loop systems: matter and energy flows previously considered as wastes become now resources. As a result, both the consumption of natural resources and the production of wastes are reduced, and rigorous and systemic tools are needed to evaluate these improvements. Thermoeconomics is a rather new discipline based on exergy analysis (2nd Law of Thermodynamics) and the concepts of purpose and cost (Economics). Currently, it is applied to the analysis, synthesis, optimization and diagnosis of energy systems. Since the concept of exergy can be applied to measure not only energy flows but also matter flows by using the same magnitude (energy units), thermoeconomic analysis can be a useful approach for the quantification of benefits of integrations within Industrial Symbiosis. In this work two new key points are tackled: 1.The problem of cost allocation. What was previously something for whose elimination money had to be paid (a waste), becomes now a useful resource. As a result, differences appear in the perception of both the producer and the consumer. Thermoeconomic analysis based on physical roots can shed light to this issue. 2. Assessment of saved resources. A general formulation is presented that obtains the resources saved as a function of the flow exchanged, resources needed to dispose of it, resources needed for its transformation and the process of production of the flow it substituted (all evaluated in exergy units). The methodology is applied to an example including a power plant, a cement kiln and a boiler producing process steam.
Resource Efficiency? Material Flow Analysis On The Edge Between Accounting Practice And Political Implementation (Abstract #821)
Nina Eisenmenger, Anke Schaffartzik, Fridolin Krausmann and Marina Fischer-Kowalski
Resource efficiency is emerging as the new hot topic on the political agenda. After the pioneer initiative in Japan in 2000, recent developments include the UNEP Resource Panel which published the “Decoupling Report” (early 2011), the work of the EU in implementing the Flagship Initiative “Resource Efficient Europe” as well as the implementation the Resource Efficiency Action Plan (REAP) in Austria. Next to energy, land, and water as resources, these initiatives address materials and thus directly link to Material Flow Accounting and Analysis. This puts MFA under pressure to advance from a mere accounting tool to an instrument that prepares the ground for deriving meaningful targets for material use. This is not an easy task because MFA-based indicators differ from indicators covering other resources such as energy or water or addressing potential impacts such as CO2 emissions. Materials are the backbone of the provision of many services and products but at the same time material use does not directly translate into final consumption. Materials run through complex production processes, undergo various transformation stages and end up in products composed of a high number of different materials. Very often, these products are accumulated in societal stocks. Besides, environmental impacts are varying greatly; first, between one material and another and second, according to the specific material use. Thus, the identification and establishment of possible targets is a complex process of both scientific analysis and political negotiation. We will present recent developments in Austria and the EU and will discuss the option space as well as dead ends we have identified.
Assessing The Non-Carbon Impacts Of An Emerging Bioenergy Industry (Abstract #822)
Shelie Miller, Jim Chamberlain, Jose Alfaro and Ben Sharp
Bioenergy has the potential to diversify the global energy portfolio, provide a viable renewable alternative that can be implemented at a large scale, and reduce carbon emissions in the energy sector. There are also potential drawbacks to bioenergy development, such as disruptions to the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles, changes in water quality, and the potential consequences of land use change. Switchgrass has been proposed as one of the major next-generation biofuels feedstocks; however, its environmental impact depends largely on prior land use. When switchgrass is grown on lands that were intensively cultivated, such as corn or cotton, improvements are observed in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles. Conversely, switchgrass grown on fallow lands tend to have negative impacts. Therefore, the large-scale ramifications of major land use conversions to switchgrass must be identified prior to implementation to better understand and mitigate potential unintended consequences. This research will discuss efforts to predict potential land use conversions, the impacts of switchgrass production given prior land use occupation, and the overall environmental impact of this second-generation biofuel.
Measuring And Monitoring Eco-Innovation For Industrial Sustainability Policies In Europe (Abstract #824)
Fernando Javier Diaz Lopez and Carlos Montalvo
This paper presents a review of the state of the art and provides empirical evidence on the topic of measuring and monitoring of eco-innovation in view of policies for industrial sustainability and competitiveness in Europe. This paper starts by presenting the policy relevance of the topic of eco-innovation for industrial sustainability policies, mainly focusing on Europe. It then presents the state of knowledge about measuring and monitoring eco-innovation. This section is followed by a brief critique on the dominant paradigm guiding the relationship between eco-innovation and competitiveness. The paper then presents a methodology evidence for the monitoring of eco-innovation opportunities under a value chain lens. Three main elements give shape to this approach: (1) the identification of critical environmental issues along the value chain, (2) identification of eco-innovations for alleviating those problems, (3) the identification of the potential of those eco-innovations to contribute to one or more environmental priority areas (e.g. GHG emissions, energy efficiency, etc), (4) a validation stage on the impact of regulation on innovation and recent investment trends in the selected eco-innovation categories, (5) the elaboration of a cross-sectoral eco-innovation opportunities grid, grouped into industrial sustainability priority areas. The paper then presents empirical evidence on the state of eco-innovation opportunities in Europe following the method above. The last section of this paper presents implications for policy and some general conclusions.
Global Transportation Roadmap (Abstract #825)
Cristiano Facanha
The Global Transportation Roadmap Program aims to guide nations in their efforts to achieve substantial transportation emission reductions. Aggressive steps will be required to constrain global CO2 levels to 450 ppm and eliminate adverse health effects in the world’s major cities. Countries need to complement long-term plans to meet global targets for GHG emission reductions with short-term actions to revert the trend of rising transportation emissions and improve air quality. The Roadmap Program includes three components: (1) a model to estimate current and future well-to-wheel emissions by region and mode for a base case and an emission control case. The model allows countries to evaluate the effectiveness of different policies in reducing transportation emissions, while placing national emissions in a global context; (2) a process to engage organizations in different regions to collect the best data possible and the most reasonable assumptions for alternative emission control cases; and (3) an engagement process with governmental agencies responsible for policy-making in the major emitter countries. While the program provides a long-term vision for a sustainable transportation future, the main immediate goal is to discuss short-term performance milestones with countries to ensure they be on the right trajectory to achieve global long-term emission targets. Countries can then evaluate different policies and choose the most appropriate solution to get on the trajectory. Elements of a comprehensive emission control case include rapid introduction of aggressive pollution controls for conventional pollutants; dramatic reductions in fuel consumption from new, conventional vehicles; a growing shift to electric drive technologies powered by renewable fuels; reductions in passenger and freight vehicle travel; and mode shift to less energy-intensive modes. Although many countries have improved fuel efficiency standards and emission controls for conventional pollutants, more wide-spread and continually aggressive policies are required to achieve the necessary emission reduction targets.
Identifying Critical Metals For Resource Strategies And Assessing Recycling Effectiveness And Efficiency: Methodology And Case Studies. (Abstract #828)
Stefan Goessling-Reisemann, Viktor Knobloch and Bernhard Cebulla
National and private resource strategies for metal resources need criteria for selecting high priority metals and targets for recycling. The criteria should reflect the criticality of the metal for the respective stakeholder (national governments, economic sectors, private businesses, etc.). These criteria should cover geological, technological, economic, political, and ecological concerns. The list should thus include abundance, production, demand, recyclability and recycling rates, substitution potential, environmental impacts, dissipative losses, diversity of resource countries, political risks, and others. By combining all of these criteria with the help of a weighting scheme we have developed a comprehensive indicator to assess the criticality of metals. We will present the methodology and results for metals relevant to the energy sector. Another aspect of metal resource strategies is the performance of the recycling operations. The performance can be divided into two sub-categories: effectiveness and efficiency. There are different indicators conceivable to assess both of these categories, they could be based on yield rates, economic gain, purity of the recyclates, ecological impacts, and so on. Here we will present an approach using statistical and thermodynamic entropy to asses both categories. The effectiveness is interpreted as the degree to which the recycling process can segregate mixed material flows and is thus assessed by using statistical entropy (entropy of mixing) of the respective material flows. The efficiency of the processes can be interpreted as the ratio of effective segregation of materials (decrease in entropy of mixing) and overall resource consumption (total increase in thermodynamic entropy). We will present the methodology and results from case studies on the effectiveness of recycling and some preliminary results for the efficiency of these processes.
Data Envelopment Analysis -- Utilization Of A Production Management Oriented Benchmarking Concept For Investigation On Ecological And Economic Efficiency Of Cities (Abstract #832)
Iris Lehmann, Jörg Hennersdorf and Clemens Deilmann
Is it possible to measure and rate the efficiency of cities taking ecological and economic issues into account? In production management Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is a non-parametric, deterministic method for efficiency investigation. Thereby the relative efficiency of Decision Making Units (DMU) is defined. Based on the observed inputs and outputs of DMU’s the efficiency value is calculated by measuring the distance of a single DMU to the envelope associated with the most efficient DMUs. From the efficiency value of a DMU, its management may learn from the different “Bests” in its surrounding and discover elements for improvement. Is DEA a methodical approach suitable to analyze cities? The presented investigation is based on data from 116 urban municipalities in Germany. A discussion about possible values to indicate efficiency in conjunction with first calculation tests led to a model, by which the economic and the ecological perspective is calculated separately by DEA. It proved to be more suitable to keep economic and ecological efficiency models separate in order to identify the importance of single parameters for the later interpretation. Hypotheses were established for both model approaches. The central assumption was: In the economic and ecological models we are looking for cities with least input of the resource "land use" and with high economic resp. ecological performance on output side. The chosen input and output values along this assumption should deliver an image of the prospected coherences. Out-come was a ranking related to economic and ecological efficiency of cities as well as an assessment of the proportions of economic and ecological efficiency of the analyzed cities by means of a nine-area-matrix (portfolio). The analysis yielded, that small and middle sized cities with a medium population density and productivity per unit area, and high ecological performance will meet the chosen efficiency criteria most likely. Based on the experience with these still very simple models, DEA appears to be an inspiring heuristic instrument for the attempt to draw near to a concept of an efficient city.
Community-Level Energy And Greenhouse Gas Benchmarking Practices And Implications For Local Sustainability Programming (Abstract #834)
Michael Blackhurst, H. Scott Matthews, Aurora Sharrard, Chris Hendrickson and Ines Lima Azevedo
This study illustrates how alternative community-level energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) inventorying and climate action planning techniques could improve decision-making when developing local GHG mitigation plans. Nineteen U.S. community GHG inventories and climate action plans (CAPs) were reviewed for current practice. Profiled improved inventorying techniques include disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty, and aligning inventories with local jurisdictions that could facilitate mitigation. Potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. While GHG inventorying and CAP are nascent fields, these techniques improve CAP design, help communities set more realistic short-term emissions reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring.
A 100-Year Historical Energy And Carbon Footprint For Allegheny County, Pa And Potential Technological, Socio-Economic, And Regulatory Influences (Abstract #835)
Michael Blackhurst and H. Scott Matthews
This project estimates the energy and greenhouse gas footprint of Allegheny County from 1900-2000 and highlights potential technological, economic, social, and regulatory causes and consequences associated with major transitions in Allegheny County’s footprint. Results demonstrate major shifts in the sectoral contributions to per capita energy and carbon footprints over the 100-year timeline. As a former heavy industry economy, industry accounted for approximately 50% of per capita emissions through 1970, but industries share was reduced to 25% in 2000 as the region lost much of its manufacturing base. This industrial decrease was offset by a 250% and 150% increases in the transportation and residential sectors, respectively, over the study timeline. Surprisingly, the total per capita footprints for 1900 and 2000 are equal at 18 tonnes per capita. The study also profiles potential major influences over Allegheny County’s historical footprint, including technological advances (gas compressors, seamless metal pipe, long-distance electric transmission lines), economic crises (World War’s, oil crises), and regulations (Pittsburgh’s aggressive smoke control ordinance, public transit development). These historical results provide useful insights into how future carbon profiles might be influenced. For example, unpredictable technological advances and economic crises had major influences on Allegheny County’s historical carbon profile, suggesting future uncertain events may have similar impacts. Results also highlight the long-term and obstinate influence technological and public infrastructure investments have over our energy use patterns.
A Manure-Based Eco-Park: How Society And Technology Affects The Environmental Performance Of Biogas From Manure (Abstract #836)
Johan Pettersen, Christine Hung, Oivind Hagen and Kjell Josefsen
How manure is handled and utilized is a major controller for the environmental performance of livestock farming. Biogas has been proposed as a measure to reduce the carbon footprint of livestock husbandry to improve the environmental performance of meat and dairy products. Previous studies have identified generation of energy to replace fossil energy sources and reductions in the direct greenhouse gas emissions from manure handling to be the main contributors in this respect. This paper considers a biogas/bioenergy plant based on manure from local livestock farms, at two specific locations in Norway. The two locations differ in the availability and composition of manure resources, as well as in the local pre-conditions for utilizing products from the plant. The study models the integrated performance of a bio-plant using life-cycle assessment (LCA), and includes offset effects when new products replace current practice or current technology (also termed system expansion). The project is completed in cooperation with local farmers and stakeholders at both sites. What we find is that the overall performance of the plant is hugely dependent of how well the plant integrates into local agro-industrial structures. Challenges for such integration are both technical and organizational. The importance for utilization of bio-based products rather than direct emissions is strengthened by Norwegian climatic conditions, due to less direct emissions from manure handling in cold climates. An environmentally optimal plant requires a shift in the way the plant is designed and operated, from being a stand-alone and separate industrial process, to a manure-based bioenergy/biomaterials industrial park. Depending on site-conditions, products from the plant cover energy (electricity and heat), high-phosphate fiber materials, fertilizer products, and CO2 to local greenhouses.
Life Cycle Assessment And Life Cycle Costing Of Bioenergy Applications For Light-Duty Transportation (Abstract #837)
Jason Luk, Sylvia Sleep and Heather MacLean
This study employs life cycle assessment and life cycle costing to examine various bioenergy applications for light-duty transportation. Four different pathways were evaluated for a non-food crop biomass feedstock with currently-available and near-term technologies. The pathways are; 1. A 250 MW direct combustion facility that generates electricity, with resulting electricity used for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle 2. A 4 MW Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system based on a project under-construction, with resulting electricity used in the vehicle in 1. 3. A larger, 1 GW IGCC plant, which is envisioned to be able to take advantage of greater process efficiencies and economies of scale in the near future, with resulting electricity used in the vehicle in 1. 4. A hypothetical hybrid E85 electric vehicle fuelled with a lignocellulosic ethanol produced via enzymatic hydrolysis, based on plans for a 5 ML/year production facility. The pathways were compared with a reference gasoline hybrid electric vehicle and evaluated based on four indicators; biomass feedstock and non-renewable energy inputs, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and economic costs. All results are reported per 100 km driven. The optimal pathway was found to differ depending on the evaluation criterion. Of the pathways considered, large scale IGCC had the lowest biomass feedstock requirements. Conversely, small scale IGCC pathway required the least non-renewable energy inputs. Although the lignocellulosic ethanol pathway (E85) had the largest biomass feedstock demand, this technology proved to be the most favourable on the basis of net GHG emissions and economic costs. This result was due primarily to the substantial impact of battery production on the performance of the electric vehicles. The differences in the non-renewable energy and GHG emissions indicators between the four pathways were minor relative to the significantly improved performance over the reference pathway, albeit at a higher economic cost.
Scenarios For Distributed Energy Systems For More Resilient Cities (Abstract #841)
Tatiana Spitsyna and Ronald Wennersten
Promoting renewable energy and rational energy use at local level is one of the most urgent subjects in Europe. Locally produced energy is part of a movement to see how short circuit economies can be developed This study investigates how local production of energy can make cities and nations more resilient and also foster awareness among people when it comes to the use of energy. Focusing on the combination of central and local energy systems (distributed), consumers of energy in cities are supposed to be a part of the “network loop”, that is both producers and consumers which we call “prosumers”. The paper presents scenarios and analyses as well as future opportunities of how more central systems for energy production, for both power and heat, might be combined with local ones in cities. Examples are taken from new city areas in Stockholm. Scenarios for energy system solutions are developed considering future energy use, intensity, and advancement of energy technologies e.g. smart grid systems. It will be indicated from this study that the implementation of smart grid applications have the potential to increase energy efficiency, lower GHG emissions, and also create more resilient grids and reduce peak load on the national grid system.
The Effects Of Climate And Socio-Demographics On Direct Household Carbon Dioxide Emissions In Australia (Abstract #843)
Sonia Graham, Tira Foran, Heinz Schandl and Liana Williams
Household CO2 emissions are a significant contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions and climate warming. Despite this, there has been relatively little consideration of how household CO2 emissions may be affected by changes in climate. Our study investigated the way climate may affect household CO¬2 emissions produced from energy use. In Australia, a national online survey was conducted (N = 2168) to capture the ownership and use of household appliances and installations, as well as to estimate actual current household CO2 emissions. Electricity and gas-based emissions as well as the ownership of a variety of household appliances and installations were found to be strongly associated with temperature. Electricity and gas emissions were found to decrease as annual average temperatures increase. However, as temperatures continue to rise under climate change this trend may be reversed due to increased reliance on air conditioners. Policies that encourage installation of features to reduce undesirable heat transfer are one appropriate response to anticipated future increased cooling energy use. However, we found that households perceive ceiling and wall insulation to be more useful in cooler than hotter climates: as such, their full potential has not been realised. Furthermore, floor insulation and double-glazed windows were almost never used in hotter climates, despite their potential to reduce the amount of heat entering homes. While respondents’ behaviors demonstrated that features such as passive house design, awnings, louvre windows and tinted/solar guarding are useful in hot climates, very few respondents have installed such features, suggesting a fertile area for policies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. KEY WORDS residential building energy; climate change; behavior
Social Change And Consumption: A Review Of 60 Years Of Social And Economic Architecture And The Shaping Of Modern Consumption (Abstract #844)
Liana Williams, Hitomi Nakanishi and Heinz Schandl
Social change and consumption: A review of 60 years of social and economic architecture and the shaping of modern consumption Liana Williams, Hitomi Nakanishi, and Heinz Schandl CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, Australia Modern societies have undergone extensive social change over the last 50 years, changes that have re-shaped our family structure, work life, mobility and aspirations. In turn, these trends have redefined how and what we consume, and subsequently the environmental impact of our consumption. With increasing pressure on global ecosystems and resources and with a large number of developing countries poised to join Western patterns of consumption, efforts to understand and reduce household patterns of consumption are gaining prominence in the scientific literature. This paper analyses large-scale political shifts that have shaped changes in household lifestyle over the last 60 years comparing Australia and Japan. We frame our analysis by identifying key moments of political and economic change. While the timeframes are different, it is possible to trace similar patterns of conservatism, reform and regulation agendas across different countries. We then explore the impact of these broad-scale shifts on day-to-day household life through indicators such as expenditure, saving, labour force participation and household structure. What we find is a shift from limited and largely pre-defined life courses of the 1950s to increasingly diverse and constantly re-defined pathways of the 21st Century. From this we can begin to identify different sets of lifestyle choices, or household types that must be better understood in order to target policy for reduced consumption. The analysis not only provides a clear understanding of the global and national trends that have shaped modern societies, but also provide insights into current trends of consumption and the larger – often unrecognised – drivers that have defined these pathways. The paper concludes with consideration of how these insights can inform future efforts to reduce household consumption.
Environmental Policy Instruments For Waste Prevention In A Simulation Model Of Industrial Dynamics (Abstract #847)
Eric Brouillat and Vanessa Oltra
The paper presents an original approach of the impacts of environmental policy instruments for waste prevention upon firms' innovative strategy and market structure. Our analysis is based on a stylised framework of waste prevention developed in Brouillat (2009a, b). In this framework, products are modelled as multi-characteristics technologies which evolution depends on firms' innovation strategies and on the interactions with consumers and post-consumption activities (recycling). We use the same simulation modelling framework to explore the impact of waste prevention instruments upon industrial dynamics, and more particularly upon firms' innovative strategy and upon the evolution of products' characteristics and market structure. We focus on two types of policy instruments which are recycling fees on the one hand, and norms on the other. For each instrument, we will consider different policy designs in order to study their effects on industrial dynamics. The main contribution of the paper is to show how this type of simulation model can be used to explore the impact of waste prevention policy instruments on technological evolution of products, on innovation strategy and on the evolution of firms' market share. The introduction of policy instruments in a simulation agent-based model of industrial dynamics enables us to analyse thoroughly how different policy designs can modify the dynamics of the system and, more particularly, how the incentives and the constraints linked to the considered policy instruments shape market selection.
Future Global Scrap Supply Derived From A Dynamic Country-Level Nickel Study (Abstract #851)
Barbara Reck and T.E. Graedel
Global metal use has grown sharply over the past two decades, driven by China’s high demand for materials required to develop its domestic infrastructure and manufacturing industry. With China continuing to grow and other emerging economies developing quickly, global metal demand will continue to rise. This demand can be met through primary and secondary sources. Primary metals are the more costly alternative due to high capital costs, long planning periods, and environmental challenges of primary mining operations. Secondary metals (scrap) are an adequate alternative in most cases, carrying environmental benefits due to their reduced energy requirements in metal making. However, knowledge about their future supply is typically limited as little data exist on when and where end-of-life scrap will become available for recycling. To estimate the future scrap supply a detailed historic inventory of in-use stocks is required. This study presents such results for nickel, an industrial metal found in a wide range of end use applications, from the chemical and petrochemical industries to construction, transportation, and consumer products. Estimates of current nickel in-use stocks are presented for 52 countries, including the major nickel users of today and in the past. The results are based on a dynamic material flow analysis for the period 1950-2010 that estimates the historic flows into and out of use for each of nickel’s six main end use sectors. The results show how and where nickel stocks have built up in the past, and when and where they will be released in the future. While in the past Europe, Japan, and North America were the main sources for secondary nickel, China will become a major scrap supplier within the next decade.
When Low-Carbon Means Low-Cost: Putting Lessons From Nature To Work In Our Cities (Abstract #854)
Stephen Salter
In North America, environmental protection is often discussed as a question of balance, and that greenhouse gas reductions for example, must be affordable and not come at the expense of the economy or jobs. Could the principles of industrial ecology, however, permanently change this assumption? This presentation will explain the results of an industrial ecology study of Vancouver's North Shore Communities, carried out in 2010 by a cross-functional team of specialists in engineering, ecology, governance, and economics. The study examined the value of producing reclaimed water, electricity, and heat from three sources of waste: clean urban food waste and wood waste, wastewater, and waste heat from industry. The study found that such an integrated approach would result in significant synergies, and could provide enough heat through a district energy system for 40,000 homes, provide reclaimed water for non-potable uses, and could reduce the community's greenhouse gas emissions by 25%. In addition, the study determined that revenues from sales of recovered heat, water, greenhouse gas credits, and fertilizer could significantly reduce the cost of municipal waste management to taxpayers. The presentation will explain the methodology and conceptual design that led to these results, and will also show how these principles used in this study can be applied to other communities. The presentation will conclude with a brief discussion of the factors that promote or inhibit integrated industrial ecology solutions in cities.
The Impact Of Density, Urban Structure And Income On Carbon Consumption (Abstract #856)
Jukka Heinonen and Seppo Junnila
In prevailing belief dense metropolitan areas are considered to produce less carbon emissions on per capita basis than less dense surrounding and rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in strategic urban development. However, it would appear that the impact of density might not be such straight forward when comprehensive consumer carbon footprints are considered. In this paper we demonstrate the impact of density, urban structure and income on consumer carbon footprint with an empirical comparison of carbon emissions in different types of metropolitan areas. In addition, we propose an application of tiered hybrid-LCA method for calculating consumption based metropolitan consumer carbon footprints. The study is conducted via a representative analysis of carbon consumption in two large cities in a Northern European metropolitan area. The paper will illustrate that the carbon influence of urban density is insignificant compared to the effect of income in the selected metropolitan areas. Also, the method links the climate effects of city level decisions on global emissions.
Modeling Urban Passenger Transportation Depending On Urban Planning And Infrastructure Choices (Abstract #857)
Markus Heinz and Julia Steinberger
Half of the global population is now urban, and this fraction, as well the absolute number of population in cities, will increase in the future. Urban areas play a decisive role in global metabolism are therefore of great interest in the area of sustainability science. In this work, we link the concepts of urban metabolism and urban planning, in order to investigate the consequences of urban infrastructure choices, specifically form and functions, on material and energy flows through cities. To estimate passenger transportation related energy consumption in urban areas, a spatially explicit and easily applicable model was developed which calculates the personal transportation demand per mode (private motorized mode, public transportation, non-motorized mode) dependent on residential and functional distributions. The model allows a quick application to hypothetical as well as to real cities, and allowing us to investigate the impacts of different spatial city planning scenarios and giving us the possibility to link spatial planning to the concept of urban metabolism. We present the application and benchmarking of the model to Vienna, as well as to other European cities: Newcastle, Porto and Stockholm. The application of the model to these very different cities will enable interesting comparisons in our understanding of urban metabolism. Moreover, different scenarios will be developed, involving both spatial changes in functional form and technical changes in vehicle fleet energy efficiency. The flexibility and simplicity of the model allow simple future alternatives to be contrasted and compared. This work is conducted as part of the SUME (Sustainable Urban Metabolism for Europe) project, funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme (FP7).
Spatial And Socio-Economic Drivers Of Direct And Indirect Household Energy Requirements In Australia (Abstract #858)
Dominik Wiedenhofer, Manfred Lenzen and Julia K. Steinberger
The increasing demand for energy, especially fossil fuels, is a major challenge for sustainability. Patterns and drivers of energy consumption have therefore come under increased scrutiny, with a focus on identifying the potential for change. Urban areas, as concentrations of social and economic activities, are of special interest: both because of increasing rates of urbanization around the globe, and because there exist possibilities for economies of scale and strategic interventions at the city level. For this study, a consumption-based perspective is adopted to investigate total (both direct and indirect) energy requirements of average households in Australia, based on the location of these households. In this work, detailed environmentally extended input-output data is coupled with spatially resolved nationwide household expenditure information for the derivation of regional household energy requirements. Statistical comparisons of urban, suburban and rural requirement patterns are supplemented by area based Gini coefficients, to quantify levels of regional inequality on a nationwide level and for the spatial subgroups. Finally, multivariate regression analyses are conducted to isolate the relevance of spatial and socio-economic drivers of energy requirements. In this study, significant differences in the levels of energy requirements and also varying levels of inequality for the spatial subgroups are found. But these variations are not only dependent on income levels: other socio-economic and spatial factors also play important roles. Furthermore, we show the differential importance of income for different consumption categories across spatial subgroups. Climatic influences on direct and residential energy requirements can be determined. Different drivers have can be shown to have varying influences on different energy consumption categories. Our results are relevant to ongoing policy debates, because they suggest that price-based instruments cannot be expected to have a uniform impact on all consumption categories.
Life Cycle Energy And Greenhouse Gas Emissions For An Ethanol Production Process Based On Blue-Green Algae (Abstract #860)
Dexin Luo, Zushou Hu, Dong Gu Choi, Valerie M. Thomas, Matthew J. Realff and Ronald R. Chance
Ethanol can be produced via an intracellular photosynthetic process in cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), excreted through the cell walls, collected from closed photobioreactors as a dilute ethanol-in-water solution, and purified to fuel grade ethanol. This sequence forms the basis for a biofuel production process that is currently being examined for its commercial potential. We calculate the life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for three different system scenarios for this proposed ethanol production process, using process simulations and thermodynamic calculations. The energy required for ethanol separation increases rapidly for low initial concentrations of ethanol, and, unlike other biofuel systems, there is little waste biomass available to provide process heat and electricity to offset those energy requirements. The ethanol purification process is a major consumer of energy and a significant contributor to the carbon footprint. With a lead scenario based on a natural-gas-fueled combined heat and power system to provide process electricity and extra heat and conservative assumptions around the ethanol separation process, the net life cycle energy consumption, excluding photosynthesis, ranges from 0.55 MJ/MJEtOH down to 0.20 MJ/ MJEtOH, and the net life cycle greenhouse gas emissions range from 29.8 g CO2e/MJEtOH down to 12.3 g CO2e/MJEtOH for initial ethanol concentrations from 0.5 wt % to 5 wt %. In comparison to gasoline, these predicted values represent 67% and 87% reductions in the carbon footprint for this ethanol fuel on a energy equivalent basis. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions can be further reduced via employment of higher efficiency heat exchangers in ethanol purification and/ or with use of solar thermal for some of the process heat.
Factors Favoring Industrial Ecology Development In The Industrial Area Altamira-Tampico, México (Abstract #861)
GRACIELA CARRILLO, GEMMA CERVANTES, JOAQUIN FIGUEROA, DAVID LULE and JENNI ARCE
The factors that favor Industrial Ecology (IE) development in industrial areas in Mexico are being highlighted through the project “Factors that determine industrial ecology in a complex system: The industrial corridor of Altamira-Tampico and the Industrial park Toluca 2000”. The project objective is identifying technical, economic, social and institutional factors that produce innovational strategies that result in ecoefficiency and synergy projects, in the frame of industrial ecology. In Altamira-Tampico region big companies from the petrochemical sector are mainly oriented to international markets while in Toluca region different size companies from different industrial sectors are oriented to the national market. In this work results from the Altamira-Tampico region are presented. Information from the industries was gathered through visits to the plants, interviews with environmental areas’ responsible, questionnaires, participation in industrial workshops and conferences and joint meetings with the firms involved in the project. AISTAC, the industrial association that gather most of the industries in that area, played an important role in getting information from the firms. The results of this project show which elements of public policy and of environmental management and policy from the firms contribute to promoting eco-industrial development in the area. They also show new opportunities for establishing synergies among industries, some new possibilities of waste valorization and some new projects that may be developed. One of them is the creation of a waste exchange market in the area. This project has its basis in previous studies in the area. A by-product synergy project was developed by the Business Council for Sustainable Development-Gulf of Mexico in 1997-1999. In 2005 a phD that highlighted some factors that promoted IE was developed by G.Carrillo. In 2007 the synergy diagram of the area was updated by IPN. This 3-year project (2009-2011) is developed by Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Xochimilco UAM-X (coordinator) and Instituto Politécnico Nacional–IPN- (collaborator) and funded by CONACYT.
A Framework For Temporal Discounting In Life Cycle Assessment (Abstract #869)
Qiang Zhai and Chris Yuan
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), as a comprehensive analytical tool, plays a critical role in a wide range of environmental management and sustainable practices. Although LCA study has been initiated as early as 1960s [1], there are still many unsolved problems in the current LCA method itself [2-3]. One of the major problems widely recognized in current LCA is the temporal homogeneity issue in the compiled life cycle inventory (LCI) data [4-7]. As most LCAs directly employ the inventory data for decision support in various sustainable applications, the accuracy and robustness of LCI data are critical in providing sound decision support for effective sustainable management. In this paper, we present a theoretical framework for implementing temporal discounting in conventional LCA to address the temporal differences of life cycle inventory data. The aims of the study are to improve the accuracy of LCI results and to provide robust decision support in environmental control and sustainable management, particularly for those long-lived products and systems. This temporal discounting framework for LCA consists of four steps: 1). Characterizing the temporal scale of a LCA; 2). Constructing the temporally distributed emissions; 3). Modeling the environmental behavior of emissions; 4). Calculating the temporal differences of emissions. This temporal discounting framework is validated through a case study on CO2 emissions from life cycle of a VW Golf A4 car. The results show a 19.22% difference between the temporally discounted LCI and the original aggregated data.
Environmental History And Material Flow Analysis - Pointing At Environmental Damage Accumulation Using Material Flow Analysis (Abstract #4)
Marcio Gama
Material Flow Analysis aims at identification of Material and Energy flows entering an economical system and producing environmental, social and economical inputs and outputs of energy and materials. When analyzing material flows under societies' industrial metabolism concepts it is possible to identify the several environmental impacts happening at certain territories and, by using the Strategic Environmental Assessment, to point how past environmental damages caused by economic chains can influence positively or negatively at future environmental consequences of production. Georgescu-Roegen identified the modern agricultural and cattle production as a variant of industrial processes concepts applied to natural systems, defined by Odum as agroecosystems, where several industrial inputs are used in large quantities to enhance productivity resulting in large biomass output with large economic gains. To test MFA as a planning tool, economic data for the economical output of the municipality of Sorriso, Mato Grosso, Brazil, was gathered. Economic and environmental data shows that large amounts of environmental and economic inputs external to the municipality are responsible for the large economic output, but the missing flows, represented as water embodied at production and accumulation of agrochemicals in soil and water are not being accounted as potentially ecological disruptive by the local authorities decision-making processes, creating a false market value perception based only on economic revenues, but not accounting the consumption of environmental assets and water quality deterioration. The MFA, when used to analyze policies, programs or plans under SEA concepts, can help to correctly identify missing flows quantities and consequent impacts that should be accounted as a depreciation of natural capital. The results of this work aims at incorporate MFA as a method to identify the history of material flows for a specific territory and to point at analyze possible effects of implementation of future material flows caused by economic development policies.
Assessing The Criticality Of Metals (Abstract #263)
Thomas Graedel
Today’s technology employs virtually the entire periodic table. The stocks and flows of the major metals, essentially unknown a decade ago, are now reasonably well quantified. The same cannot be said for the “specialty elements”, most of which have important uses in modern technology for which suitable substitute materials do not exist. A key issue is therefore whether scarcity implies long-term shortages or unavailability. To address this issue, a detailed methodology for generating a reliable assessment of the criticality of metals has been completed. The methodology makes extensive use of peer-reviewed datasets and analytical approaches from the fields of geology, international trade, political science, and international policy, among others. In this presentation, the methodology is described and then used to evaluate the criticality of several metals, selected in collaboration with partners from industry and government. The results provide guidance for materials choice in product design and development, recycling potential, and the consideration of substitute materials.
Energy And Resource Recovery From A Wastewater Treatment System Coupled With An Algal Photobioreactor (Abstract #321)
Monica Rothermel, William Barr, Grace Witter, Kayla Reddington, Matt Weschler, Kullapa Soratana, Willie F. Harper, Jr. and Amy Landis
Within many industrial processes lies the potential for product recovery and reuse of products traditionally viewed as waste. The wastewater treatment process is a prime example of this concept; sludge is commonly sent to a landfill, while treated wastewater is discharged back into waterways and requires further treatment for reuse. A new product paradigm designed to maximize the beneficial use of byproducts from the wastewater treatment process is currently being investigated. In a laboratory setting, return activated sludge from a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is being tested to determine its capability of producing useful products such as biopolymers, fertilizers, electricity, and biofuels. Additionally, wastewater effluent from the SBR is being used to supply valuable nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus to an algal photobioreactor (PBR). The PBR is also being tested for its capability to produce useful products including biofuels, electricity, fertilizers, and plastics. Additionally, due to increasingly stringent treatment standards, chemical and energy demands for wastewater treatment are growing and increasing the negative environmental impacts of wastewater treatment over its life cycle. The coupled system provides an inherent benefit over current water and energy systems. By using nutrients and water supplied by wastewater effluents to enhance microalgal growth, the need for synthetic fertilizers and fresh water is reduced or eliminated. The PBR is also capable of removing up to 98% total phosphorus and 88% total nitrogen from the wastewater, so water can meet reuse standards without the need for advanced nutrient removal processes. Although life cycle material and energy savings are expected, a complete life cycle assessment of a full-scale scenario will help to determine the sustainability of the proposed paradigm. Best management practices to maximize product recovery and reduce impacts will also be evaluated.
Symbiosis Network For Energy Supplies In Local Residents Using Surplus Heat (Abstract #493)
Yong Woo Kim, Jeong Hoon Im, Ha Na Yu, Do Hyun Park, Ji Won Kim, Choon Whan Shin and Gea Jae Joo
One company’s by-product becomes an important resource to one or several of the other companies in the Industrial Symbiosis network. The outcome is reduced consumption of resources and a significant reduction in environmental strain. Cooperation generates better results and makes it possible for each enterprise to increase production without necessarily to increase the use of energy, water and new raw materials. EIPs may take numerous forms to suit the specific needs of the regions in which they are located and the characteristics of businesses within the parks. Likewise, the conditions under which these EIPs are established are equally various and may be influenced by a number of factors, including support from national regional, or local governments, presence and involvement of a coordinating body, industry regulations, and the willingness of companies to participate in such a project. One of business model is symbiosis of companies between local residents in the industrial complex by energy supplies. Busan Fashion Center, located Shinpyung-Changlim industrial Complex, has the cogeneration plant that utilizes the CFBC process that enables the burning of economical solid fuel. Along with the growth of member companies, peak steam has increased to ensure a stable power supply. The 50T/H gas boiler and a 100T/H donkey boiler (LNG) were built and serviced so far. Unfortunately the textile industry has decreased in Korea, boiler service has also decreased, especially at night. Busan Fashion Center has vented the rest steam of 30% above at night to maintain others company. Near to Busan Fashion Center about 1.4km, there are 5,000 households live in an apartment. When surplus heat from Busan Fashion Center is provided to local residents. We can save 1,515TOE/yr of fuel and 3,188tCO2.
Re-Defining The Concept Of Waste For Closed-Loop Material Economies (Abstract #508)
Jooyoung Park and Marian Chertow
This study presents an alternative interpretation of waste that is more compatible with ideas from industrial ecology about sustainable resource management. Current definitions of waste do not encourage forming closed-loop material flows. In addition, management systems that classify materials in only two bins, waste and non-waste, miss this opportunity since the divide between waste and non-waste is vague. These problems are reflected in the main debates raised throughout the evolution of the European Commission’s Waste Framework Directive as well as in the inconsistency observed in establishing end-of-waste criteria across different countries. In contrast, this study proposes to combine waste and resource/product management into one regime, which is termed: “integrated material management.” Under this framework, all materials are considered to be potential resources until shown otherwise. What actually determines the realized value of a particular material is the extent of accumulated knowledge and developed practice about how to use it. In particular, two types of innovation are required to transform under-utilized materials into fully-utilized resources: mindset innovation and technological innovation. In connection with these two types of innovation, we make two suggestions to re-define the concept of waste. One is related to constructing a new nomenclature system for several types of material that we ambiguously called waste. The other is to devise a new indicator, “reuse potential,” to measure the nature of materials in a continuous scale between “waste-like materials” and “resource-like materials,” instead of dividing them as either resource or waste.
Visualizing The Resource Consumption Of Urban Form (Abstract #710)
David Quinn and Daniel Wiesmann
Introduction The objective of this work is to demonstrate a simple tool that we have developed which demonstrates some tradeoffs associated with resource consumption and urban form. This tool provides a user-friendly way of exploring these tradeoffs, so that the user can learn what parameters influence resource consumption at the neighborhood scale. Understanding these tradeoffs is particularly relevant in rapidly growing cities, as short-term planning decisions have long-term consequences for both the quality of life of the inhabitants, and the future energy and material use of the urban area. Analysis Method
 This tool is based on analysis that has been performed by the authors on neighborhoods from several countries around the world. This analysis was conducted using GIS techniques and statistical techniques that are standardized and repeatable. Using the analysis from these parameters (such as population density, transportation mode, affluence and others), relationships between material and energy consumption were identified. In this current iteration, the focus is on construction material (for buildings and infrastructure), transportation energy and domestic energy consumption. Future iterations will consider more parameters.

 User-Experience The user chooses options for several input parameters (such as population density, or energy use per capita); these values which can be varied within specified ranges. The output of the tool illustrates graphically what the resource consumption of that urban area is based on these choices, and the typical functioning of the neighborhood. We intend having several demonstrations available at our poster (on a computer and available for download), so that users can interact with this tool. We also hope to gather feedback so that we can refine and develop future iterations of this educational tool.
The Varied Habits Of Building Occupants: Implications For Design And Environment (Abstract #864)
Clinton Andrews
When people interact with technologies, they do not all behave the same way. Some of this variation is due to personal preferences and capabilities, but some of it may be due to framing factors that impose structures on specific decisions. In the home, for example, different household members take showers with different lengths and also select different lighting levels. When asked, they identify different factors influencing their bathing and lighting decisions. Are there any systematic patterns or common elements in all of this variation? Do these behaviors cause emergent environmental impacts at the scales of buildings or cities? This poster shares results of an empirical study of occupant behavior in a set of residential buildings and a pair of agent-based computer simulation models that portray energy-using and water-using behaviors, respectively. The empirical work confirms varied behaviors. The models successfully employ a common framework for decision making based on the Belief-Desire-Intention (BDI) model from the artificial intelligence literature. However, tasks such as choosing lighting levels and comfortable indoor temperatures exercise very different portions of the BDI framework than do water-using behaviors such as showering or using the toilet. The former emphasize selecting among alternative means of achieving a target comfort level, whereas the latter focus less on selecting among alternatives and more on the duration and frequency of the activity. These variations in behavior are important because building system designs suited for the median user may be unusable (ineffective, inefficient, unsatisfying) for other users. Usability problems particularly affect innovative designs such as are found in many "green" buildings, thereby diminishing their realizable performance. Thus, emergent impacts on aggregate energy and water resource use do indeed appear, and, at scale, influence the requirements for urban infrastructure. This research is funded by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Green Building Council.
What Is Unique For The Field? Highlighting The Scientific Profile Of Industrial Ecology (Abstract #7)
Ralf Isenmann
The contribution deals with the research question: what is unique for the field? How can the scientific profile of industrial ecology be identified and made clear? Setting the boundaries is essential to any field of research and its scientific community and of relevance both, for theory building as well as for educational issues like univer¬sity curricula, course syllabi, training tools, and development of instructional materials. This is true especially for emerging entities evolving from diverse intellectual roots like Industrial Ecology. The contribution is organised in two major parts: First, it is argued that the discussion about what is essential for industrial ecology has become a topic of increasing importance, inside the community and from an outside perspective. This ongoing process of reflection is traced with the help of current literature. Second, a concept based in philosophy of science is proposed to make clear what is essential in industrial ecology. Such a meta-perspective is seen helpful for clarifying industrial ecology’s emerging scientific profile. In order to make the concept vivid as possible, insights from a document analysis are presented identifying what is prototypical for industrial ecology. The document analysis covers all oral and poster presentations along the workshops that were held during the international industrial ecology conferences in Leiden 2001, Ann Arbour 2003, Stockholm 2005, Toronto 2007 and Lisboa 2009. As a result, a basic unifying architecture of industrial ecology is presented. This archi-tecture facilitates communication and education. Further, it helps to organize the emerging body of theory of the field and it makes clear the scientific profile of industrial ecology compared to other disciplines, fields of research, academic branches, and schools of thought in the area of “Sustainability Sciences”.
Integrating Life Cycle Approach In Development Of Standards For Environmentally Preferable Products And Services (Abstract #45)
Amit Kapur and Cheryl Baldwin
Green Seal is a non-profit organization that develops life cycle based sustainability standards for products, services and companies and offer third party certification for those that meet the criteria in the standard. The standards are developed using a scientific and life cycle approach and are open, transparent and include stakeholder input and in compliance with ISO 14020 and ISO 14024 standards. This paper presents Green Seal’s life cycle approach to standard development using the example of ANSI/GS-46 standard for restaurants and food services . During the standard development, a “farm-to-fork” assessment of food service operation was conducted. The system boundary of the life cycle assessment study consisted of four subsystems : Food procurement, food storage, food preparation and cooking, and food service and operational support. Representative annual food service operational data was collected from six restaurants in Chicago and Washington, DC. The life cycle inventory data sources included Ecoinvent and Dutch Food LCA databases. The Eco-indicator 99 (Hierarchist perspective) methodology was used for the LCA impact assessment. The food purchases of a restaurant or food service are the single largest of overall environmental impact. Based upon additional stakeholder inputs and sensitivity analysis, the GS-46 standard outlined minimum of 25% of total food purchases from either organic or environmentally preferable sources. In addition, based upon LCA study results, additional mandatory requirements for food waste reduction, red meat purchases, and energy conservation were incorporated into the standard. Similar food service certification standards such as the Green Restaurant 4.0 standard do not take a holistic approach . Therefore, Green Seal standards based upon life cycle approach represent stringent environmental requirements for product manufacturers and service operators to demonstrate leadership in product quality and performance delivery.
Linking Materials Flow Analysis With Environmental Impact Potential: Dynamic Consequences Of Technology Transition On Projected E-Waste In The U.S. (Abstract #46)
Carl Lam, Seong-Rin Lim and Julie Schoenung
Material composition changes caused by technology transition have significant implications on the evolution of environmental impact in electronic product systems over time. Considering technology transition, a methodology is presented for quantifying the temporal behavior of ecological and human health toxicity potential from select metals for electronic waste (e-waste) by linking to results of a dynamic materials flow model. Case study examples are derived from two electronic product cohorts including computers (laptops and desktops) and televisions (cathode-ray tubes (CRTs), flat panel liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and plasma displays) based on the U.S. market. A forecast of national end-of-life (EoL) unit generation up to the year 2030 is conducted from logistic curve fitting of the per capita penetration rate of installed-base stocks in unison with product lifespan calibration by utilizing annual sales data. Assuming Fisher-Pry technology substitution, U.S. sales of laptops is expected to overtake 70% of the computer market by 2018; results for televisions indicate that LCDs and plasma displays have already currently outperformed CRT sales, which are now in continued decline. Projected annual EoL units generated are characterized with the environmental assessment tool, USETox, to determine the temporal toxicity potential attributed to product technology transition in different U.S. waste management scenarios (landfill or incineration). To some extent, effects of dematerialization, for example, reduced metal content in laptops over conventional desktops, provides some positive benefits on toxicity potential categories. However, dynamic analysis indicates that, seen as a whole, the emerging EoL quantities due to growing sales of specific product units will offset these positive gains in environmental performance from reducing hazardous materials at the product-level. Results from this study can help manufacturers and government understand the timing with which electronic products will expect to emerge at EoL and also to help strategize pollution prevention measures targeting the environmental release of high impact potential materials from disposed electronics.
An Application Of Life Cycle Analysis (Lca) As Green Marketing Tool For Agriculture Production: The Case Of Extra Virgin Olive Oil In Val Di Cornia, Italy (Abstract #66)
Fabio Iraldo, Francesco Testa, Irene Bartolozzi and Valentina Toschi
Life cycle analysis can be usefully applied as a sound tool for assessing the environmental impacts of agriculture productions and the hot spots of the whole chain. Olive oil production is a typical activity of the Mediterranean area and increasing attention is being paid to its valorisation through the application of LCA as a green marketing tool (i.e., the release of the PCR document for virgin olive oil in April 2010, for the EPD certification) as well as to environmental performance improvement of local production [Avraamides, 2008]. In this case study, LCA was chosen as tool for evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the average production of 1 L of extravirgin olive oil in Val di Cornia, a rural area in the south of Tuscany, Italy. The analysis, carried out in the framework of the Eu-funded Project ECCELSA, has directly involved a large number of olive growers and, as a consequence, a representative sample of local production and foreground primary data were obtained. The background system data were, instead, collected from relevant literature and datasets. The system boundaries were identified for a ‘cradle to gate’ analysis and included an agricultural stage and an oil extraction stage. Data for different steps of the two stages are collected through separate questionnaires and are relative to raw materials, energy and water consumption, waste production and recycling, transportation. The environmental impact assessment step focuses on the main potential impact categories such as GWP, OdP, acidification potential. Use of resources, energy and water, are also evaluated. The results of LCA are used to define the environmental requirements of a local product brand allowing to combine eco-friendly productions and competitive advantages for local producers. This represents a pilot experience for a certification scheme that is being developed by the national government together with several Regional authorities.
Designing For Cooperation In Regional Heat Networks (Abstract #81)
Andreas Ligtvoet, Rob M. Stikkelman and Paulien M. Herder
Industrial networks that link producers and consumers of energy and/or waste products (steam, syngas, CO2) are often clearly advantageous both from an economic and energetic perspective. Yet many of these initiatives fail for a host of reasons: too much individual dependence, too much concentration of decision power, wrong political or economic climate, or lack of trust. Whereas in classical engineering most attention was given to optimal design of the technical artifacts, we propose a method that combines three elements: technology, institutions and processes (TIP), and suggest that only by taking these into consideration simultaneously both human and technical considerations can be addressed. We apply the approach to the example of the Rotterdam heat network initiative: although for several years a group of companies has indicated that they are willing to discuss cooperation in exchanging steam, actual steps towards the construction of a heatpipe were slow. By analysing this initiative in the proposed way, we identify lessons for similar projects.
Small Scale In-Situ Bioremediation Of Diesel Contaminated Soil – Screening Life Cycle Assessment Of Environmental Performance (Abstract #82)
Joseph Akambih, Anders Jonsson and Morgan Fröling
Spillage of diesel oil and other petroleum products is a commonly creating need for site remediation of contaminated soils. In Sweden the most common remediation action is excavation of the contaminated soil and off site biological treatment by composting. However, a number of small sites spread out in rural areas end up low on priority lists, and will not be attended to within foreseeable future if ever. For such areas a low cost, easy to apply remediation techniques would be of interest. Enhanced bioremediation of diesel contaminants in soil by whey addition has been demonstrated in lab scale. Whey is a by-product from cheese production. A first pilot remediation trial on an actual site in Gäddede, County of Jämtland, was started the summer of 2010. With this site as a case study a screening life cycle assessment model has been set up. The goal of the study was to investigate the environmental performance of the whey method, to benchmark the whey method toward the excavation and composting practice and to identify environmental hot spots in the whey treatment life cycle. The study aims at establishing if further work should be put into developing the method, or if the environmental performance is such that the whey method should be abandoned. It should be noted that even with a slightly worse environmental performance compared to other remediation alternatives whey treatment could still be of interest, since the small scale sites in rural areas we talk about here otherwise most often would not be attended to. Results from the screening life cycle assessment indicate a rather good environmental performance of the whey method, partly depending on impact category considered. For the whey method, impacts from farming activities in the milk production chain allocated to the whey give significant contributions.
Carbon Indices Across Value Chains In Korea (Abstract #87)
Duk Gi Jeong and Walter Wehrmeyer
In 2009, the Republic of Korea (ROK) announced its national goal to reduce its carbon emissions by 30% from the business as usual scenario by 2020. To support this, the ROK has already established the Low Carbon, Green Growth Act which will force the business sector to change its products, services, and processes to create more economic value with less carbon impacts. To do this effectively, the entire value chain and an individual company’s efforts must be reviewed and improved. This research developed a new carbon index to represent the carbon equity of across value chains numerically. The index describes the distribution of carbon impacts and economic benefits across a value chain, one of the main factors to assess the current profile and scope for change towards a low carbon economy. This index can show changes to the carbon performance of companies or sectors over time and across short value chains in South Korea. Other approaches do not allow a dynamic analysis of a number of value chains with the same ease of use and explanatory power. Further, this research developed carbon indices to rank firm’s carbon reduction efforts of a business within a value chain. However, the problem of normalisation for company size is a persistent one, where it is not clear whether physical, economic or manpower size would be most suitable as a normalisation denominator. Using national data on Korean paper, cement, and steel sectors, the relationships of the raw material companies in the ROK between business metrics and carbon emission are compared using the Index. In addition, the choice of denominators is discussed as well.
Bilateral Industrial Symbiosis (Bis): An Option For Disposing Of Manufacturing Waste In The State Of New South Wales, Australia. (Abstract #108)
Robin Branson
New South Wales (NSW) has the most stringent regulations of any Australian state and territory with regard to disposing of waste at landfill. They include a landfill levy of approximately AUD $60/tonne (in 2010) which is legislated to increase to approximately AUD $150/tonne by 2015. The regulator’s reasoning is that if dumping is made sufficiently costly, generators will find a use for their waste. A study in 2010 indicates the likelihood of this result occurring systematically in practice is remote. Manufacturing in NSW is geographically dispersed. It is contrasted with structures typically associated with industrial symbiosis and the case is made for considering Bilateral Industrial Symbiosis (BIS) as a strategy for dealing with waste. The difference between conventional recycling and BIS is described and shown to be significant. The ‘drivers’ for BIS are outlined but the critical findings of the study relate to the ‘operational’ capacity of manufacturers to instigate BIS themselves and to the issue of an external infrastructure (such as NISP in the UK). The conclusions are that few manufacturers in NSW have the capacity and the inclination to instigate BIS, ad hoc, for themselves. There is no external infrastructure that could facilitate BIS on behalf of generators and no prospect of any being developed in the foreseeable future. The likelihood is remote of ad hoc initiatives becoming sufficiently widespread to constitute a systematic approach. Without the capacity to instigate BIS themselves or access to an effective external infrastructure, manufacturers face options which are limited to continuing the status quo, illegal disposal and relocating operations to another jurisdiction or overseas, none of which are intended by the regulator. The general conclusions drawn from this research are that government regulations and the existence of a competent external infrastructure are the two principal determinants of viable systematic BIS in practice.
Rate Load Life Cycle Assessment Methodology And Its Application To Evaluate Carrying Capacity Of Environmental Impacts Of Product (Abstract #110)
Dharma Raj K.C and Kun Mo Lee
Conventional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method, though it has been used widely, does not explicitly consider time. Hence, a new LCA methodology has been recently developed to overcome the deficiency of conventional LCA methodology. This method incorporates a time dimension into the life cycle inventory analysis and; thus, life cycle impact assessment phases, which rectifies the problem of inconsistency at the temporal boundary during the normalization step. This paper briefly describes the issues related to carrying capacity and life cycle aspects of products; furthermore, it aims to implement temporal aspects of product life cycle for the evaluation of environmental load which affects the carrying capacity. Of the several environmental impacts, acidification has been taken as an example to analyze the effects on carrying capacity due to the rate load input flow and cumulative load. It is found that when the rate load discharge of pollutants is higher, it could then easily cross the threshold limit causing a serious environmental impact. Estimation of the rate load input flow is more essential than that of the cumulative load to evaluate the critical limits and thresholds of a sensitive area over a certain period.
Development Of Socio-Eco-Efficiency Indicator For Assessment Of Industrial Waste Generation From The Map Ta Phut Industrial Complex, Thailand (Abstract #120)
Kitikorn Charmondusit, Ariya Hongpokaphun and Anthony S.F. Chiu
Eco-Efficiency has been emerged as a valuable tool toward the target of sustainable development. It can be quantified through indicators reflected the economic and environmental dimensions, which is the ability to combine performance along two of the three axes of sustainable development. In order to explain the direction of progress toward the goal of sustainable development, the social properties need to be included and developed. This study presents the development of socio-eco-efficiency indicator for assessment of industrial waste generated from industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Complex (MTPIC) area, which locates in the Rayong province, east of Thailand. MTPIC is the biggest petroleum and petrochemical based industrial complex in Thailand, which consists of five industrial estates such as Map Ta Phut industrial estate (MTPIE), Padang industrial estate (PIE), Hemaraj Eastern industrial estate (HEIE), Asia industrial estate (AIE), and the newest RIL industrial estate (under construction). The data of industrial waste generated from 4 industrial estates (MTPIE, PIE, HEIE, and AIE) in the MTPIC over the period of year 2006-2008 was gathered from the electronic waste management online system, Ministry of Industry, monitoring report, and data available at the Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand (IEAT). The industrial waste flow diagrams were established in order to characterize the industrial waste generation from each industrial estate in the MTPIC. Social criteria and indicators were classified under the social acceptability such as social acceptance, management system and safety, accident potential from the operation, and illness potential from the operation. The results showed that the trend of socio-eco-efficiency in the MTPIC increased from 2006 to 2008. This study is a starting point for applying the social dimension into eco-efficiency indicator, which could be useful for sustainability evaluation of industrial performance. Moreover, it can provide a basic framework for the development of indicators to measure the eco-industrial estate level in Thailand.
Emissions And Energy Demand In The Chinese Steel Sector – A Stock-Driven Approach (Abstract #138)
Stefan Pauliuk, Tao Wang and Daniel B. Müller
The iron and steel industry is the single largest industrial emitter of CO2, presently contributing about 25% to industrial carbon emissions particularly due to coke consumption in primary steel production. Future total emissions are mainly dependent on demand for steel, availability of scrap for recycling, and technological change in primary production (example: the ULCOS project). China accounted for more than 45% of the global production of steel in 2009, most of this being primary steel. When assessing the future potential for emission reduction of the Chinese steel industry, the main challenge is to find robust estimates on both final demand for steel products and supply of old scrap for recycling. We propose a stock-driven approach to forecast future iron stocks and flows in China. Our basic assumption is that China will accomplish an industrialization process by using services of a (per capita) iron stock of similar size as those that have been built up in industrialized countries so far. In the US for example, in-use stock has saturated at about 10 tons per capita. Our results suggest that until about 2040, the in-use stock of steel will be built up, supplied by primary production. Scrap flows will rise due to increased demolition activities but only in the second half of the 21st century, secondary steel may contribute more than 50 % to the total steel production. Since steel demand for the next 2-3 decades is expected to be supplied mainly be the recently erected facilities in China, we expect emission reduction to be marginal during these years. Only once the in-use stock has matured, domestic demand could reduce and secondary production on large scale could significantly reduce the carbon footprint of the Chinese steel industry.
Gaining Insights Into Domestic Water Use In Anglo And Hispanic Communities Through The Use Of Cultural Probes (Abstract #145)
Gloria Maria Elizondo and Victoria Lofthouse
Water-related behaviours in the home often happen as a matter of habit, making them susceptible to circumstances and the context in which they are carried out. The research presented in this paper builds on the hypothesis that cultural background greatly influences routines and therefore plays an important role in understanding and influencing water consumption patterns. The intention is to build upon behavioural and attitudinal insights to support better design of products, spaces and policies to incite more sustainable water consumption. An ethnographic study was carried out with 12 households in Anglo and Hispanic communities. The aim was to recognize views and patterns of behaviour regarding the manual washing-up process across both cultures, to get an understanding of the similarities and differences in their dishwashing practices. A combination of Cultural Probes and a 36-hour video recording of the participant’s kitchen sink were used to collect the data. Combining the visual data from the video and the rich qualitative contextual information in the Cultural Probes enabled the researcher to gain a deeper knowledge of people’s real behaviour and identify sets of common routines from the different participants. This paper presents the different patterns and attitudes to washing-up in the UK and Mexican households. It reflects on the complexity of the identified routines of water use/waste whilst doing the dishes, using the visual information and other qualitative data from the Probes to illustrate those routines. Finally, the paper recognises a number of opportunities to use the insights generated from the Cultural Probes to produce tools that aid the design of products for more sustainable water consumption practices. Keywords: cross-cultural research, design methods, cultural probes, household routines, domestic water consumption, sustainability
Lca-Based Tool For Assessment Of Co-Processing In The Iron And Steel Industry (Abstract #158)
Carl O. Vadenbo, Michael E. Boesch and Stefanie Hellweg
The production of iron and steel is highly energy and material intensive. This fact in combination with vast production volumes makes iron and steel the largest single-industry emitter of anthropogenic CO2. As a result, the industry is under increasing pressure to reduce the environmental footprint of its activities. The iron and steel industry offers an important case for industrial ecology as it both recycles various waste materials as well as generates by-products valuable for other industries. Two main routes exist for the production of crude steel: In the integrated steel plant, virgin iron ore and some scrap metal is converted to steel via the blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace (BF-BOF) route. Alternatively, scrap steel may be recycled via electric arc furnace (EAF) route. Primary steel production has remained the dominant route of the two, mainly due to continuously rising global demand for steel. With the aim of facilitating the mitigation of environmental impacts in the iron and steel industry, a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment model of hot metal production was developed in close collaboration with an industry partner. The tool combines mass flow-based process models with LCA databases to calculate the environmental impacts of alternative inputs and process configurations. Tool application is demonstrated with two case studies. The first case study assesses the impact of the utilization of automotive shredder residues (ASR) as alternative reducing agent in blast furnaces. This procedure offers a treatment for ASR which qualifies as feedstock recycling under the European Commission's End-of-Life vehicle directive. The coke replacement ratio is identified as a key parameter in determining the expected impacts of ASR co-processing. In the second case study, the environmental relevance of internal recycling of blast furnace process by-products via the sinter strand is assessed. Trade-offs between different indicators of environmental impact and model uncertainties are discussed.
How Green Is China’S Wind Power? A Combination Of Multi-Regional Input-Output Analysis And Life Cycle Analysis (Abstract #166)
Xin Li, Klaus Hubacek and Yim Ling Siu
In China, wind energy, which is considered as one of the solutions in the mitigation of CO2 emissions, experienced a 70-fold increase in total installed power generation capacity in the last decade. However, the actual CO2 emissions of China wind power are not thoroughly investigated. Also, limited studies are found synthesizing multi-regional input-output analysis (MRIO) and life cycle analysis (LCA). This research focuses on integrating MRIO and LCA approaches to assess how green China’s wind energy can be given the mismatch of wind supply and electricity demand, and recognizing that the back-up system is mainly based on coal fired plants with very slow ramp up times. This research offers advances on (1) Updating I-O tables - The most recent 2007 provincial input-output tables, 2007 provincial energy data of China are used in this research compared to the use of 2002 data in previous IO studies; (2) Creating a new approach in regional classification – China is divided into six regions, matching the 6 interconnected regional power grids; (3) Providing a comprehensive assessment of CO2 life cycle emissions of wind power infrastructures – special attention is paid to the controversy of balancing reserves with different types of back-up systems; (4) Avoiding uncertainty in traditional MRIO analysis - The use of China’s regions as a case study avoids uncertainties in traditional MRIO studies, such as inconsistency in published year of input output tables, monetary exchange rates, and sector aggregations in different economies. China is the second largest wind turbine nation now and an aggressive 150 GW of wind generation capacity by 2020 has been projected. However, without careful planning and coordination, the greener electricity system might just move one step forward and two steps back.
Impact Of Lifetime Data On Life Cycle Assessment Results: Focus On Residential Buildings And Building Products (Abstract #167)
Can Aktas and Melissa Bilec
Many life cycle assessment (LCA) studies do not adequately address the actual lifetime of buildings and building products, but rather assume a typical value (e.g., 50 years for building lifetime). The actual lifetime may depend on many factors other than technical specifications, resulting in a significant difference between the actual lifetime and the design lifetime. For products, the importance of actual lifetime is magnified when comparing two different products for the same application, or in situations where the product being studied is a subset of a larger system that is being analyzed, as in the case of buildings. The goal of this study is to determine the impact of lifetime data on residential building LCA results. Including accurate lifetime data into LCA allows a better understanding of a products environmental impact that would ultimately enhance the accuracy of LCA results. Average lifetime of residential buildings in the U.S. have been calculated by using a statistical approach and was found to be close to 60 years. Environmental impacts of interior renovation have been calculated by using a residential model based on median U.S. residential building size. Distributions were preferred over deterministic values for variables. A Monte Carlo simulation method was employed to determine uncertainty in results. Sensitivity analyses indicate that building lifetime has the largest influence on renovation impacts, and that product lifetime and product emissions have equal importance. Therefore, choosing an arbitrary lifetime for buildings and building products introduces a noteworthy amount of error into building LCA. The potential impact of lifetime data is expected to increase especially as the relative importance of materials use increases due to growing number of low-energy buildings that have lower use phase impacts.
Tracking The Metal Of The Goblins: Cobalt’S Cycle Of Use (Abstract #178)
Ermelinda Harper, Goksin Kavlak and Thomas Graedel
Cobalt is a vital element in important technological applications (e.g., aircraft) across the globe. This property, coupled with cobalt’s major changing end-use application in batteries, makes it compelling to study and quantify the cycle of its use for the major countries fabricating cobalt and for Earth as a whole. Its cycle of use for 2005 was established. Together, China, Japan, the United States accounted for approximately 65% of cobalt fabricated and manufactured into end-use products (a total of 37 Gg (thousand metric ton) of cobalt). Trade of up to eight refined products and 39 finished products was considered. China exported about 4 Gg Co in finished products, primarily in cobalt-bearing batteries and consumer electronics with cobalt-bearing batteries. The United States and Japan imported about 5000 and 300 Mg Co in finished products, respectively. A time residence model allowed calculations of in-use stock accumulation and recycled and landfilled flows. China had the largest accumulation of in-use stock at some 5.6 Gg Co, of which almost half was comprised of consumer battery stock. Slightly less than half of the stock accumulation in the United States was also in consumer batteries (with a total in-use stock accumulation of about 3 Gg Co). Greater than half of the stock accumulation in the United States was estimated to be in aircraft, rocket, and gas turbine engines, whereas the remaining stock accumulation in China was divided almost equally among aircraft, rocket, and gas turbine engines, and magnets. The largest amounts of cobalt landfilled in China, the United States, and the planet was the “chemical and other uses” category, followed by batteries for the globe and the United States, and hard materials for China. Japan’s largest landfilled flow was in consumer batteries, followed by chemical and other uses.
A Multi-Scale Integrated Analysis Of Societal Metabolism And Its Regional Disparity In China (Abstract #216)
Ji Han and Hiroki Tanikawa
In the 21st century, how to achieve a sustainable development has become one of the most important focuses in the worldwide scope. On the other hand, regional inequality has also been challenged the equity and justice, which potentially affects the nation-wide sustainability. As an effective way assessing the pattern of social evolution and sustainability, firstly a multi-scale integrated analysis of societal metabolism (MSIASM) is conducted in China’s 8 regions involving 6 major industrial sectors during the period of 1978-2008. Through the analysis of time allocation of human activity and energy consumption, we investigate the historical trajectory and regional characteristics of societal metabolism in China. Secondly, a Theil index method is adopted to measure the regional disparity concerning the energy metabolic intensity. We differentiate the inter- and intra-regional inequalities under a country-region-province hierarchical structure for China. Thirdly, shift and share analysis is applied to diagnose the factors causing the regional disparity in energy metabolism and provide implications for regional sustainable development.
Potentials And Barriers To The Industrial Symbiosis Development In Aalborg, Denmark. (Abstract #226)
Alexandra Maria Almasi, Cecilia Soque, Christoffer Kirk Strandgaard and Romain Sacchi
Industrial symbiosis allows efficient use of by-products and energy in order to reduce impacts of an industrial area on the environment. This research deals with the prerequisites to apply the practical industrial ecology principles. The objective is to highlight already-existing potentials and barriers to the development of an industrial symbiotic system in an existing industrial area located in Aalborg, Denmark. By adopting a systemic approach through an abduction-based method of the Kalundborg industrial symbiosis case, the research reveals several fostering mechanisms as key elements in a model on how to start industrial symbiosis. This model is then completed with case descriptions of three other eco-industrial parks depicted in the scientific literature. The tailored model advocates the importance of integrating physical, organizational and social dimensions in the analysis. It particularly shows the relevance of mechanisms such as economic viability, willingness or physical proximity between partners. Applying the model to the industrial area of Aalborg indicates the existence of several physical potentials, and the possibility to improve awareness in order to reach willingness among stakeholders. This work reckons that stakeholders should embrace an approach towards social and organizational aspects. Therefore, it is found that the physical dimension of such system, relating to the technical feasibility of synergies, only comes as an achievement of the interactional and social work previously accomplished. These findings highlight the importance of overcoming social barriers in order to empower actors to introduce new techniques of waste reuse. The research ends in suggesting solutions to build solid social grounds needed to initiate the first steps towards industrial symbiosis.
Co2 Mitigation Options In China’S Power Sector (Abstract #230)
Guangling Zhao, Per Christensen and Søren Løkke
This paper presents the potential of CO2 emission reduction in Chinese power system and assesses the approaches for CO2 emission reduction that could be introduced into Chinese power system. The potential is expressed by the following 2 factors: the abilityto reduce CO2 emissions through clean coal technology (CCT) and the ability to integrate renewable energy (hydropower, wind, biomass) and nuclear into the power system so it becomes more sustainable . In 2007, electricity production amounted to 3246 TWh. The vast majority was produced by thermal power plants, accounting for 82.9 %. 15.0 % was produced by hydropower, 1.9% was produced by nuclear, and 0.2 % was produced by wind and other renewable sources. Due to pressure from the national and the international level, the Chinese government has now taken measures to reduce CO2 emission. The power sector, as the largest CO2-emitter, has been getting more and more attention, resulting in the closing down of small coal power plants and the increasing investment in more renewable power generation plants and clean coal technology. Based on the target of 12th five-year plan, the future power generation will probably still be dominated by coal power,hydropower nuclear, and wind power although renewables will be more dominant in the future, mixed with other options like energy savings, cogeneration and carbon sequestration. Different scenarios for the electricity system from 2010 to 2030 are explored. These will consider different realistic scenarios including mixtures of advanced technologies. The scenarios will address also the adequate mix of institutions, rules, taxes and so on. The business- as-usual strategy as layed out in the 12th five-year plans will be contrasted with scenarios reflecting worst- and best-cases based on appropriate mixes of technologies.
Factors Influencing House-Owners To Adopt Environmentally Improved On-Site Sewage Systems (Abstract #245)
Are Vallin and Sverker Molander
How can large-scale adoption of new technologies that lead to decreasing environmental pressure on the ecosystem be described and analyzed by help of models of influences on the behavior of actors? Here the case of on-site sewage systems (sewage treatment systems for one or a few households) represents a more general problem situation where decreasing environmental loads depend on the adoption of more environmentally benign technologies made by actors using, providing, controlling the regulations, or in other ways influencing the change of technology. In this case the specific on-site sewage systems and the actions of house-owners are studied. The research includes the identification and quantification of relative strength of influences that make the actors controlling the technology at the interface between technosphere and ecosphere actually change their behavior and adopt the technologies. We argue that one possible and valuable approach, driven by observations, to get this knowledge is a Bayesian modeling approach using influence diagrams. We present results from the first modeling efforts based on an initial interview study in three Swedish municipalities to find categories of influences, and a subsequent questionnaire to 3500 Swedish house-owners to get quantitative data that can be used to model the decision situation in the case of on-site sewage systems. The case of actors around on-site sewage systems is particularly interesting since it contains decision situations with few economic incentives for the individual. Instead, other influencing factors such as regulatory arrangements are important. Increasing the knowledge about this kind of influences on house-owners would likely improve the chances of making policy interventions that work, and actually lead to improved environmental performance of on-site sewage systems.
A Cascading System For Extending The Carbon Storage Effect Of Wood And Derived Timber Products (Abstract #252)
Martina Hesse and Jutta Geldermann
In light of climate change and scarcity of fossil resources renewable raw materials become increasingly important. The most significant greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide which has a rising concentration in atmosphere mainly due to the burning of fossil fuels. Forests are considerable carbon sinks as they withdraw emitted atmospheric carbon dioxide via photosynthesis. The carbon storage period can be extended by a material use of wood and derived timber products: the storage effect of forests is continued in wooden products. Rising energy demands are provoking rivalries between material and energetic recovery of wood biomass, although these types of application do not inevitably have to be in conflict with each other. A serial connection of multiple material applications with a final energetic use describes the idea of cascading biomass resources. The multiple usage of timber products in connection to re- and upcycling loops raises resource efficiency and leads to an extended carbon sink effect of forests. On base of German timber production carbon storage potential by cascading usage patterns is estimated. Recent changes in German silviculture guidelines enhance the proportion of deciduous trees. Feedstock amounts are deduced from modified yield forecasts considering future changes in assortments of wood species in connection to scenario-based assumptions of the competing direct energetic use. Cascading intensity is represented by scenarios varying substitution quota, standard of technology and recycling rate. Fluctuations in quality and quantity at the supply side of the wood market are accommodated by a dynamization of the material flow analysis. The aim is to quantify the additional carbon sink effect of cascade resource use by using the software tool Umberto. Knowledge of these information can influence consumer behavior. Therefore results can be used for consumer sensitizing, especially in marketing of long-term carbon-fixing products like construction wood.
Investigating The Challenges And Potential Solutions For The Implementation Of A Compostable Waste Stream For Compostable Biopolymers (Abstract #255)
Kristen Ostermann, Nicholas Stamatakis, Melissa Bilec and Amy Landis
Life cycle analysis research that has been done concerning biopolymers has focused on cradle to gate impacts but some of these biopolymers are designed to have unique end of life options. For compostable biopolymers the full benefit from using such materials may not be realized until the product is composted, instead of the more common end of life options of landfilling and recycling. To be able to evaluate the possibility of a composting as an end of life option several avenues need to be investigated, including consumer to participation. To begin to tackle the problem of the unknown impacts of introducing compostable biopolymers into a market place that does not readily support a compostable waste stream we started at disposal. Since the best application of compostable biopolymers is potentially serviceware and packaging, or items designed for one time use, the use phase impacts are minimal. Therefore, our research effectively begins where many others leave off: at consumer disposal, which we investigated through two different avenues: the willingness to pay for the additional waste stream and the ability of the consumer to sort their own waste. The willingness of consumers to pay an additional amount for their waste to be composted was evaluated since there is currently a financial burden placed upon businesses that chose to send waste to a compost facility instead of landfilling. The ability of the consumer to adequately sort their garbage is essential to determining what waste stream compostable biopolymers will be placed in practice. Results show that 65% of respondents would be willing to pay for a ten percent surcharge on their purchase to help cover the costs of composting. The waste audit revealed that over 50% of the compostable material was placed in the trash.
Action Research In Waste Management: Application To Construction And Demolition Waste In The Stockholm Region (Abstract #289)
Graham AId and Nils Brandt
The Action Research methodology and several of its methods have previously been laid out as a potential framework approach for improving complex waste management systems. This was in response to criticism of the ex ante selection of empiric systems analysis tools to provide decision support and ‘sustainable improvement’ in systems which often involve strong human and political factors. Several Action Research methods have been utilized in a focused study around construction and demolition waste in the Stockholm region. These methods were integrated through a series of workshops and work areas undergone together with project participants from several private and public sectors. Leaving the “problem” fuzzy in the beginning and utilizing methods such as convergent interviewing, rich pictures and focus groups allowed the researchers and partner stakeholders to identify not one but several problem areas within the system of focus. Areas of environment, product, health, economy, and cooperation were highlighted. Indicator creation and dialectic processes were then used to identify qualitative and quantitative aspects of the identified areas of salience. The resulting indicators were strengthened through a process of stakeholder verification and then individually analyzed by what the stakeholders deemed to be appropriate and transparent means. Some of these analysis means were empiric systems analysis customized for the issue at hand. Although not without its stumbling blocks, it is argued that this participative approach gave stakeholders strong ownership of the process as well as a more complete understanding of the system and its potential for improvements from multiple perspectives of sustainability. Participant evaluations point out that this approach was believed to enable more informed decisions, broadened perspectives and understanding, and provided stability for emerging and desirable changes within the construction and demolition waste management system.
Energy Efficiency Potentials In Industry By Workers Behavior Changes (Abstract #310)
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Susanne Hartard and Jürgen Jakobs
Germany´s support programs on energy efficiency increase are mainly addressing to production-integrated technology changes. The expectable results of these efficiency programmes are an efficiency increase on average of 2,5 % per year in a company. Improved cross-sectional technologies are lighting systems, compressed air, air conditioning, electric pumps, combined heat and power, drying processes and heating systems. The disadvantage of these programs is that they are not addressing to workers behavior potentials to reduce energy consumption of the company. To improve workers behavior seems to be a new interesting approach to open up unknown energy saving potentials. With the new standards DIN EN 16001 and ISO 50001 potentials of an improved energy management are addressed which can include combined technical and workers behavior changes. The presentation will offer a case study of a leading cigarette making company in the tobacco industry. It will present the new “Energy Behavior” (EB) Program. One of the first steps is to classify the different energy consumptions among the production process. The most energy intensive process defines the pre-analysis area. In this area a complete research on processes and operational sequences has been done. The results of the pre-analysis led to the final EB training contents. More than 80 employees where trained in a three weeks EB program. Every kind of energy consumption was considered during the EB trainings (electric energy, compressed air, heating/cooling energy, steam, water). The employees had been motivated by giving advice for energy cost savings in their private household. One of the main problems determined was that many employees don’t know much about the amount of energy consumption and which influence they have on the process. After these EB trainings the first results showed unexpected high energy saving potentials. Some processes offer an energy consumption reduction of more than 60 %.
The Ghg Protocol Road Test: The Carbon Footprint Of Maclean’S Magazine As A Case Study (Abstract #311)
Annemarie Kerkhof, Hicham Elhalaby and Immee Chee Wah
Carbon footprint (CF) standards can help businesses and governments to measure and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Several CF standards have been developed or are under development, including PAS 2050, ISO 14067 and the GHG protocol. The ‘GHG Protocol - Product accounting and reporting standard’ of the WRI/ WBCSD was tested in a “road test” in 2010. As one of the sixty-two companies participating in the road test Rogers Communications Inc. quantified the carbon footprint of Maclean’s magazine. The initial goal of the study was to increase insight into the GHG emissions of the different phases in the magazine’s life cycle, and to help Rogers in making informed choices that could eventually lead to a reduction in the CF. Additionally, experience was gained with the standard. The case study handles for example several issues relevant for paper products, including land-use-change, carbon uptake, methane emissions from landfills, recycling, and so on. Product-specific data were collected by Rogers and its suppliers, like energy use for pulp and paper processing and news production. For data that are not specific for the magazine, like electricity generation and recycling rates, statistical databases and the Ecoinvent 2.2 database were used. The results show that the cradle-to-grave carbon footprint of one average Maclean’s magazine (weight: 0.152 kg) produced and delivered to the client in 2009 is 0.26 kg CO2 equivalents. 35.6% coming from raw material acquisition and preprocessing, 20.7% from production, 24.9% from distribution, 0.39% from use and transport to end-of-life and 18.4% from disposal. The carbon footprint reflects specific Canadian conditions, such as the use of hydropower and large transport distances. The experience with the GHG protocol was very positive in general. Some clarifications were however needed with regard to land-use change, data quality assessment and end-of-life allocation.
Developing A Pedagogy Of Interactional Expertise For Sustainability (Abstract #319)
Andrew Berardy
Typical approaches to expanding the academic horizon of a sustainability student involve requiring a basic level course in a new discipline with one of two outcomes. The student will either struggle through rigorous coursework outside their major without developing knowledge of fundamental concepts and ability to collaborate with experts, or will breeze through a lighter overview course made too easy to produce knowledge sufficient to enhance the student’s research efforts. Sustainability education must be by its nature cross-disciplinary, as economic, ecological, and social aspects are fundamental aspects of sustainability. However, this convergence of perspectives results in barriers to communication that slow and weaken the research efforts. A new way of teaching courses outside the primary discipline is needed to address these barriers. Harry Collins in “Interactional expertise as a third kind of knowledge” describes the concept of interactional expertise, which is “the ability to converse expertly about a practical skill or expertise, but without being able to practice it”. Common examples include science writers and sports journalists, who are able to report on an expertise in practice, without being actual experts. However, it is difficult and time consuming to acquire this ability. According to Collins, et al, in “Experiments with interactional expertise,” the only way to acquire interactional expertise is through “linguistic interaction without full scale practical immersion”. This research will develop a pedagogy that will accelerate the acquisition of interactional expertise by adapting foreign language teaching methodology. Pedagogical strategies from foreign language teaching will prime students for the intensive linguistic socialization necessary to acquire Interactional Expertise. Students will develop an understanding of the language, concepts, epistemology, and tacit knowledge that are fundamental parts of the discipline. This will create more opportunities for effective collaboration across disciplines and better sustainability research.
Eco-Efficiency With Ecological Carrying Capacity As Control Factor To Environmental Performance Of Eco-Industrial Park (Abstract #320)
Esther Nababan, Rahim Matondang, Chairul Muluk and Alvi Syahrin
In any industrial park ecosystem, all activities toward sustainable development are evaluated through its ‘environmental performance’. Environmental performance of eco-industrial parks is based on concept of eco-efficiency which combine both, economic growth and environmental performance. Economy indicators and environmental indicators in evaluating eco-efficiency are related to an organization's control of its environmental aspects, based upon its environmental policy, objective and targets. This leads to subjectivity in performance measurement, in which both costs and gains are constructed from subjectively selected value-items. Consequently, it can happen that eco-efficiency increases while environmental quality reduces. Decrease on environmental quality causes depletion on environmental carrying capacity. This shows that increase on environmental performance does not guarantee no depletion on either environmental quality or on environmental carrying capacity. Hence, the existence of a constraint factor is required. This paper presents literature review and analysis of how carrying capacity can be functioned as control factor or dinamic constraint in endeavoring to increase environmental performance of eco-industrial parks. Constrained minimax optimization model is developed to maximize economic gain while minimizing waste in a region within the border where dynamic carrying capacity is maintained stable. By adding in carrying capacity as control factor, all activities to increase environmental performance can be conducted within a boundary or area within which balance of carrying capacity is maintained, in order to increase enviromental performance without reducing quality of environment. Keywords : balance, carrying capacity, control, eco-efficiency, environmental performance
Multiscale Governance Of Industrial Ecosystems In A Complex Globalized World (Abstract #324)
ruud kempener
Globalization is a central feature of industrial ecosystems and affects their performance, resilience, vulnerability, and adaptability on a local scale(Young, Berkhout et al. 2006). Simultaneously, local industrial ecosystems can be barriers or opportunities for sustainability at a global level. Using a complex adaptive systems perspective, this paper examines how governance can be used to align industrial ecosystem practices with global dynamics. The paper explores the role of governance in the context of a case study of the U.S. energy sector. First, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of three dominant approaches towards governance: (1) a bottom-up approach based on “islands of sustainability” perpetuating on a global scale (Wallner, Narodoslawsky et al. 1996), (2) a top-down approach based on global environmental governance translated into local policies (Young, Demko et al. 1996); (3) and, multilevel governance approaches based on government or sectoral structures (Scharpf 1997; Betsill and Bulkeley 2006). Furthermore, we examine how these approaches use the different characteristics, like temporal- and spatial characteristics, material flows, ethics, and agency, to distinguish between different levels of governance. The second part of the paper proposes multiscale governance as an alternative form of governance. Multiscale governance has two central features, which are distinct from different forms of governance: (1) scales are defined by how agents perceive problems, and (2) a system to aggregate and disaggregate information flows between different scales to inform governance decisions. The framework is implemented for the U.S. energy sector.
Quantifying The Anthropogenic Phosphorus Flows In Chao Lake Watershed (Abstract #351)
Zengwei Yuan, Huijun Wu and Jun Bi
Mitigation of the eutrophication of lakes caused by excessive phosphorus (P) from human activities requires understanding of the amounts and linkages of P through inputs and outputs of the different parts of the socioeconomic system. Basing on substance flow analysis (SFA), the study presents challenges in developing a static P flow analysis model in the socioeconomic system of lake watershed. Then identify and quantify the anthropogenic P flows in Chaohu Watershed in 2008. The study also presents and compares the results by using bottom-up approach and top-down approach. The data and parameters, required for the reliable calculation of P flows in the study, are obtained from surveys, published literature, official statistic databases and expert opinion. Main findings include the following: (1) P losses to water of Chaohu Watershed in 2008 are 46730.48 t (based on bottom-up approach) or 62442.03 t (based on top-down approach); (2) Feixi County which mostly impacts the water environment drains 10670.5 t P to surrounding water; (3) both the P losses to water in the crop farming subsystem and large-scale breeding subsystem are larger than other subsystems; (4) the import exceeds export enough in Chaohu Watershed is 71895.62 t P, which is mainly attributed to the huge imports of raw materials for P-chemical industries and feeds for large-scale breeding; (5) the P utilization efficiency of Chaohu Watershed is very low which is only 27.39%. The results of this SFA lay the basis for further analysis, which in turn can offer insight into improving the water quality of the lake and ecological management efficiency.
Life Cycle Assessment Of Water Supply System: Case Study Bangkok Metropolitan Waterworks (Abstract #380)
Chanathip Pharino, Kasidech Setthaporn and Nattapol Suwanwattakul
Industrialization and urban growth cause significant increase in clean water consumption. Consequently, this result increases demand for energy, chemicals and resources used in water supply production, eventually generate wastes and pollution causing environmental impacts. The study aims to analyze degree of environmental impacts through the life cycle of water production process as well as to assess the reduction potentials of the impacts from implementing various management scenarios such as implementing renewable energy technology, process modification and water loss prevention. The Bangkok Metropolitan Waterworks is chosen as a case study. The scope of life cycle was conducted from the point where raw water entered into the water conduit to where treated water is delivered to residents. The result has shown that electricity consumption is the main cause contributing to environmental impacts, global warming in particular. For mitigation measures, high impact reduction is from the production process by incorporating energy-loss prevention technologies and using more renewable energy in the production process. Energy usage inspection within the plant could minimize energy inefficiency such as using power-monitoring system. LCA tool is greatly helpful to analyze the impacts from sub-process by giving clear, systematic and concise information, which could be effectively used in environmental planning and management.
Methodology For Prospective Exposure Assessment Of Engineered Nanoparticles Based On Life Cycle Scenarios (Abstract #383)
Henning Wigger and Arnim von Gleich
The increasing usage of engineered nanoparticles in consumer products increases the probability of exposure to workers, consumers and the environment. Little is known about (eco )toxicological hazards as well as fate and behavior during the life cycle (Borm et al., 2006, Tiede et al., 2008). Risk is a function of exposure and hazard (German Risk Commission 2003). Exposure assessment is of the same relevance as hazard assessment (Butt et al. 2009). Nevertheless current research strategies seem to focus more on possible hazards (Hansen et al. 2008). A reason for this phenomenon may be that conventional exposure assessment is complex and can only take place, when the release of substances has already occurred. The precautionary principle, however, requests prospective approaches in hazard as well as in exposure assessment especially in the case of nanoparticles. The problems of prospective approaches to encounter these challenges are evident, facing the knowledge limits at an early stage of fast developing innovation and the burden of uncertainty. The presented bottom-up approach focuses on the life cycle of current and future consumer products and their applications. This could be a useful alternative to current researches. The presentation is dealing with the challenges of prospective exposure assessment and how to overcome these. The main objective is to develop a feasible approach for prospective quantification of exposure by using life cycle scenarios for products to estimate emission points (single and diffuse) and quantities. This approach is exemplified by nano-Ag and nano-Fe particles, which are studied in the interdisciplinary Graduate School nanoToxCom funded by the Hans-Böckler-Foundation. Moreover, the results of exposure probability, starting points and release quantities contribute to a further assessment of fate and behavior. Finally, it could be possible to estimate a predicted environmental concentration and possibly relate it to a predicted no effect concentration. The derivation of ‘hot spots’ and necessary measures can allow a minimization of exposure by designing processes, materials and products.
Correlation Between Facts And Success Feelings Of An Industrial Symbiosis Consultant And Its Clients (Abstract #393)
Patricia Le Moënner, Cyril Adoue and Florian Julien-Saint-Amand
For five years, Systèmes Durables has been pursuing industrial symbiosis projects, mainly in France. Having first-source information on a pool of over ten different studies, our team decided to analyze our experiences to extract knowledge to improve the success probability of ongoing and new projects. We have decided to examine projects from the success feeling perspective of either Systèmes Durables or its client. These indications are valued from a range zero to ten. We then reported over ten parameters such as need for collect, fieldwork practice, collect delegation, local support, governance aspects, time dimension, etc. Our first analysis exhibits strong correlation between Systèmes Durables satisfaction and two factors which are data quality and local implication. For clients, strong correlation relates to fieldwork practice and achievement of contextual interviews. Among the results, it is also interesting to notice that correlation is weak between available time for study and success feeling for both Systèmes Durables and its client. At this early stage, we asserted ourselves the success feeling of each client based on observations and on what they told us during and after project. To confirm results it would be valuable to precisely ask them their own answer to the question. Also, today some projects are not yet fully completed and new ones are starting. They are bond to feed this analysis data base and potentially confirm or modify the results. We believe this type of success feeling review is important as it nourishes pleasure and motivation. These two are keys for industrial symbiosis consultant and its client. Being able to understand and maximize success feeling of the partners could be useful in promoting industrial symbiosis development.
Industrial Ecology In France: Overview And Perspectives (Abstract #405)
Sabrina Brullot, Melanie Bruneval and Emmanuelle Pannetier
Industrial ecology concept has been introduced in France in 1999 thanks to the first European conference organised by University of technology of Troyes. Then, industrial ecology research started by means of the creation of the centre of research and interdisciplinary studies on sustainable development (CREIDD) at the same university. Our purpose is to relate what has happened during these 12 years in France from research and operational point of view. The 2 more advanced projects on industrial ecology are developed in the North of France near Dunkerque (Ecopal project) and in Aube department (Industrial Ecology Club of Aube project). Some other projects emerged all over the country during the 4 or 5 last years but are not advanced enough to lead to material and energy flow exchange between companies. Firstly, our contribution aims at presenting an overview of industrial ecology projects in France. We can note that types of projects are very heterogeneous (industrial activities involved, type of area, type of project coordination, etc.) and that interest in industrial ecology concept of public and private actors is growing. Some sectorial approaches are also developed (bio-refinery, public construction, etc.). We propose a classification of these projects and a highlighting of decisive factors of success. Secondly, we will present the Industrial Ecology Club of Aube: governance and coordination, purpose and main results. Finally, we will analyse French contextual characteristics relating to regulation, public policies, economic issue and territorial planning stake to emphasize driving factors of industrial ecology implementation in France.
Study Of The Evolution Of An Industrial Area: The Case Of Porto Marghera (Abstract #414)
Ilda Mannino, Eniel Ninka, Margherita Turvani, Lei Shi and Qingling Fu
Porto Marghera, the industrial area of Venice, is one of the main Italian chemical industrial sites. The development of the area started in 1917, aiming to make it an integrated pole for heavy industry, with a high specialization in chemistry. The maximum development of the area was reached in the ‘70s, but since the ‘80s its decline started, due mainly to the global restructuring of the industrial sector and more strict environmental regulation. Despite this, in the late ‘90s Porto Marghera was still alive and running its traditional activities, even if experiencing a general turnover towards logistics and the commercial sector. Moreover in that period the area presented characters that could favour its development as an Eco-Industrial Park, such as existing synergies and dedicated infrastructures. Today, the situation of the area is very different: due not only to the recent financial crisis, but mainly to the crisis of the chemical industry in Italy and to some specific characters of the area, many plants shut down in the last years and the main industrial activities are currently represented by the refinery and cracking plant, coastal oil depots and power plants. This paper aims at studying the recent evolution of the area in terms of material flow, mass balance and environmental impact, in order to estimate the sustainability in relation to the development phases of the area. A systematic collection of data about flow of materials has been compiled for the main firms. Based on these data, the material flows profile was formulated for the whole park, and provided as basis for scenario analysis. As comparison, eco-industrial park scenarios were created by optimizing the existing synergies. Furthermore, based on mass flows profiles, environmental impact analysis was also carried out for the two scenarios, to provide a better understanding about chemicals, especially chlorides.
Quantifying Environmental Performance Of Industrial Symbiosis In The Biofuel Industry (Abstract #419)
Michael Martin, Jorge Fonseca, Niclas Svensson and Anton Helgstrand
In the theories of industrial ecology, industries collaborate to create mutual benefits by the sharing of material and energy in what is called “industrial symbiosis.” These exchanges of by-products and utilities, i.e. synergies, are often assumed to offer many benefits for the environmental and economical performance, though quantification of the performance is rare. In the production of biofuels, i.e. biodiesel, biogas and bioethanol, synergies between the production processes may occur, e.g. between the production of biogas and ethanol. Some of these synergies have been investigated in this study to outline and present the environmental performance of integrated scenarios between a hypothetical biogas and bioethanol facility located in the Östergötland region of Sweden, including 1) a default scenario with two stand-alone facilities, 2) integrated biogas production from all stillage and 3) use of biogas for ethanol processes in place of propane. All calculations and environmental performance results have been computed using given data, and some from the EcoInvent database when necessary, in the life cycle assessment software, SimaPro. The impacts associated with industrial symbiosis activities have been quantified in the biofuel industry through the investigation of different by-product synergies. The results obtained demonstrate that the environmental impacts from the integration of the biogas and ethanol plants through by-product exchanges may have significant environmental improvements as well as risk for problem shifting due to the reduction of fossil energy and less raw material consumption. The use of digestate as biofertilzer leads to significant improvements of the performance of the system since chemical fertilizer is substituted. On the other hand, biogas production from ethanol stillage results in less animal fodder production to replace other fodder sources, e.g. soy meal.
Understanding The Evolution Of Greenports: Agent-Based Model Of Horticulture Innovation And Innovators (Abstract #429)
J. Kasmire, Igor Nikolic and Gerard Dijkema
Horticulture is one of the pillars of the Dutch economy and the Greenport Westland-Oostland, located in the Netherlands, is one of the world's largest horticulture clusters. It features some 4200 hectares of greenhouses run by approximately 200 independent growers, a large auction, as well as technology, engineering, utility and service companies dedicated to the sector. Featuring many symbiotic and synergistic relations in the sector, today's horticulture innovations have already achieved remarkable productivity increases through the use of natural gas for heating, lighting and CO2. Further transitions toward sustainable energy sources, including heat/cold storage and deep-geothermal heat sources, are currently under way. However, there is a need to better understand the processes of technology diffusion in this industrial cluster to aid the stakeholders in retaining their competitive advantage. This paper presents the experimental results of a series of agent based model of the greenhouse horticulture sector in the Netherlands, that simulate the actions of greenhouse growers. The greenhouse grower must learn how to operate their greenhouses by evaluating their repertoire of technologies, exchanging information with other growers about their technological evaluations and purchasing new technologies to augment, expand or replace their existing selection. The interactions of greenhouse growers and the flow of information between them lead to emergent patterns, including diversity, adaption and complexity, in the technologies adopted and developed by the community. These emergent patterns indicate that technological innovations appear, diffuse and develop according to evolutionary mechanisms. As such, technological development is not goal oriented, does not often provide the expected short term benefits, and results in far more "failures" than "successes", although it does provide hard to measure benefits such as increased knowledge availability. As an evolving system, the reality of technology, innovation and transitions may require new approaches to management that work with, rather than against, the properties of evolving systems. Horticulture cluster background, model and results will be presented and implications for regional industrial management are discussed.
Why Has The Gasoline Consumption Decreased In Japan? (Abstract #436)
Yuriko GOTOH, Shigemi KAGAWA, Sangwon SUH, Yuki KUDOH and Keisuke NANSAI
Recently, the replacement of ordinary passenger cars (the engine displacement is 2001cc or more) with Kei passenger cars (660cc or less) and hybrid cars has rapidly increased by the influence of soaring oil prices and economic recessions. Hybrid cars began to be sold in Japan in 1997, and the number of sales for hybrid cars has increased every year. However, The question of how the replacement of ordinary passenger cars by Kei passenger cars and hybrid cars has contributed to reducing CO2 emissions is not clarified. This paper analyzes how the expansion of the market share in Kei passenger cars and hybrid cars in recent years has contributed to the reduction of the gasoline consumptions in Japan. First, we estimated the annual domestic gasoline consumptions for the three types of passenger cars (ordinary passenger cars, Kei passenger cars, and hybrid cars), using the data of fuel economy (10.15 modes), annual driving distance, new sales of passenger cars, market shares of new passenger cars, and stock of old-timer passenger cars. Second, the changes in the estimated gasoline consumptions are decomposed into the changes in five sources; the changes in fuel economy, the changes in the annual driving distance, the changes in the number of new registration, the changes in the share of market, and the changes in the stock situation of old-timer passenger cars. From the results of the factor decomposition analysis, we argue the importance of the sources from the point of view of climate change policy. The empirical results show that although replacing old-timer and fuel inefficient ordinary passenger cars with fuel efficient new Kei passenger cars during the period between 2005 and 2006 especially contributed to reducing the gasoline consumption, its contribution was 0.005% and very small.
Strategies For A 'Balanced Organization' (Abstract #447)
Barbara Seeberg
The presentation will show strategy implications for profit-oriented organizations towards a 'Balanced Organization', which is able to meet economic, social and ecological needs. First the need for such a new organizational form will be shown. Then several attributes will be assigned to it. Those are for example tied to mission and vision of the organization, power balances, funding, etc. The resulting attributes lead to a description of a 'Balanced Organization', which is able to successfully integrate the best practices of Social Enterprises and Profit-Oriented Enterprises. Social Enterprises strive to create economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations without harming anyone or anything, while getting their funding out of their own business activities. This makes them financially more independent than Non-Profit-Organizations like the WWF or the UN and is seen as a the main differentiating feature. Profit-Oriented Enterprises on the other hand often put an emphasis on making profit to satisfy their stockholders by putting much emphasis on growth and expansion strategies. Due to cost pressures they often operate very efficient and present a lot of innovative ideas. But those cost pressure often lead to negative impacts on the environment, on their work force or push them toward legal boundaries. The ideal enterprise for sustainable economic activity, the 'Balanced Organization', is therefore a company that satisfies the needs of all its stakeholders and operates at a triple bottom line. It is able to combine the best of both worlds - of the Social Enterprises and the Profit-Oriented Enterprises. Some examples of successful 'Balanced Organizations' will be given, singled out by using the attributes stated above. Furthermore they will be compared to matching Social and Profit-Oriented Enterprises regarding their economic, social and ecological performance. Finally, strategy implications for Profit-Oriented Organizations will be highlighted how they can transform into a 'Balanced Organization'.
Using Environmentally Extended Input-Output Analysis To Evaluate Economic And Environmental Costs Of Mining: Case Of Australia (Abstract #451)
Reza Memary, Damien Giurco and Gavin Mudd
Mining is an important part of the Australian society since it is a major contributor to national gross product and employment. Furthermore a big portion of environmental impacts in Australia is directly or indirectly coming from mining because mining and energy contributes to 50 percent of Australia’s export. It is also considerable that regarding the remaining economic resources, Australia has the potential to remain among the world's leading mineral nations. A broad understanding of the whole mining system in Australia is necessary to reduce the environmental impacts and to improve performance mining sector. Consequently both advantages and disadvantages of mineral industry in Australia including economical ones and environmental ones in addition to inputs to the system should be quantified clearly to estimate all of the benefits of the system. Using economic and environmental data an extended input–output model is prepared. The model is then used to evaluate economic and environmental costs of mining for different scenarios in mining sector in Australia. Results of the model are regional based for the environment and national based for the economy. This paper shows principles of input-output model development in mineral industry and discusses the applications of environmentally extended input-output analysis in the mining sector. Furthermore, how economy and environment are integrated in order to maximize proper benefit from mining industry is also discussed in this paper.
Planning System Of Eco-Industrial Developments For Low Carbon Urban Districts (Abstract #466)
Tsuyoshi Fujita, Xudong Chen and Satoshi Ohnishi
Environmentally efficient industrial system is considered as crucial components for low carbon cities and society, particularly in Asia where industrial development still provide increasing portions of GHGs emissions of cities and regions. Eco-industrial developments with their symbiotic circulation technologies of energy and resource among industrial and with urban sectors are expected as the key innovation to reduce the carbon emission without renovating industrial structures or gigantic hardware investments. While experiences of eco-industrial developments are accumulated around the world, environmental efficient technologies and circular social systems have been applied coping with the local economic, social and environmental characteristics. Based on the quantitative analysis of Japanese eco-town facilities, planning support system is developed to provide suitable packages of environmental technologies and social systems for developing Asian industrial regions. After reviewing the progress of Asian eco-industrial developments particularly focusing the comparative development in China and Japan, quantitative database are established for recycling and co-generation industrial systems for twenty types of waste categories. Strategic planning system for alternative technology and policy packages are developed with preliminary technology effect assessment and customization process of recycle technologies and policy schemes, which are called as re-engineering. Evaluation systems for the effects of technologies in combination with social policies are established by compiling GIS analysis with LCA methodologies. Finally demonstrative application of the system into Chinese city, Shenyang with eight million populations, is provided as well as the tentative evaluation of eco-industrial development projects.
The Water Footprint Of Wine Production In Portugal: A Case-Study On Vinho Verde (Abstract #473)
Leandro Pina, Ana Dias, Belmira Neto, Luis Arroja and Paula Quinteiro
The water footprint (WF) of a product is the sum of all water consumed along the product life cycle. The calculation of the WF of agro-industrial products is important as they are widely known as having a significant footprint on water resources. The WF is disaggregated into three components: green, blue and grey. The green water is the rainwater consumed through crop evapotranspiration. The blue water is appropriated from surface and groundlevel resources. The grey water is the volume of freshwater needed to assimilate the pollutant load to freshwater quality standards. The objective of this study was to calculate the WF of a specific Portuguese wine: the vinho verde. The WF is calculated for the activities taking place during the viticulture and the wine production process. The data, from 2009, were provided by a Portuguese company (Aveleda) responsible for 16% of the annual wine production. The WF is calculated to be 438 liters of water per 0,75 liters of wine. The green and grey water accounted for the WF with, respectively, 88% and 12%. The green water is exclusively associated with the viticulture and the grey WF is mainly caused during the wine production process.The blue water is negligible, for the system analysed, because currently viticulture is not irrigated.. The viticulture is responsible for about 90% of the WF due mainly to the green water consumption. Therefore the WF of vinho verde depends mainly on the climate and soil conditions and crop properties. These are not controlled by the wine producing company. We conclude that a reduction of the WF may be achieved throughout the reduction of the pollutant load in the wastewater caused during the wine production phase. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is performed to evaluate the effects on the WF of the changes in uncertain and significant data.
Bioenergy And Climate Change: Atmospheric Decay Of Co2 Emissions And The Gwpbio Index (Abstract #501)
Francesco Cherubini, Anders Hammer Strømman and Edgar Hertwich
In most of the primary research studies, there are two predominant ways in which direct CO2 emissions from biomass combustion are accounted for: 1. The majority of case studies ignores the CO2 flux within a biofuel, simply assuming that CO2 in is equal to CO2 out (i.e. GWP = 0). 2. Others, like the EcoInvent database, explicitly account for CO2 emissions (GWP = 1) and removals along the life-cycle, from CO2 atmospheric uptake due to plant growth to the final atmospheric emission from combustion. In both cases, when the biomass system is carbon neutral (i.e. the final CO2 balance is equal to zero, without permanent losses in terrestrial C pools), the system is even assumed to be climate neutral. These accounting methods are so widely adopted that in most of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies on bioenergy systems it is not even mentioned which one of the two is used. This convention overlooks the importance of time boundaries: before it can be captured by vegetation re-growth, biogenic CO2 emissions cause an impact on the Earth climate system and contribute to climate change. The research challenge is to measure this contribution, preferably with yearly unit based indicators to be included in LCA. This work proposes a calculation procedure to estimate this effect: the impulse response function of the Bern CC model is modified to include the biomass management compartment due to bioenergy. The result is a set of atmospheric decay functions for biogenic CO2 as a function of the biomass rotation period. The contribution to climate change is then expressed as Global Warming Potential (GWP). This GWP for biogenic CO2 emissions (called GWPbio) is an equivalency factor between 0 and 1 and can be calculated for all the different biomass species, from annual row crops to boreal forest.
The Influence Of Indicators On The Communication And Use Of Strategic Environmental Assessment In Planning Process (Abstract #519)
Jingjing Gao, Lone Kørnøv and Per Christensen
Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a systematic process for evaluating the environmental consequences of proposed policy, plan or program to ensure they are appropriately addressed at the earliest appropriate stage of decision-making. Indicators can be a useful tool by which the complex impacts arising from a given PPP can be measured and presented more simply. Developing and designing indicators raises the question of participation (experts, the general public and decision makers), how inclusive the indicator system will be in relation to environmental, economic and social indicators, and which aggregation level is appropriate. Selecting the indicators and aggregation level appropriately for SEA, and communication and use them in planning and decision making can be part of ensuring the effective integration of SEA into policy making. How to provide appropriate basis to the practitioners, the public and to decision makers by using indicators during the SEA process can be a crucial factor to ensure its effectiveness and objective. By comparative study, this paper uses SEA statements/reports, questionnaire survey and interviews, review the international practical SEA experience with design and use of indicators from implementation theory perspective. And with one case study from China by deeper interview, it uses planning theory to discuss the effectiveness of SEA by use of indicators in influencing the communication between stakeholders in policy making.
The Carrotmob Shopper: Motivations And Driving Forces (Abstract #546)
Dilani Saverimuthu and Nina Langen
Consumers worldwide are driving changes towards sustainability in business. Though most consumers primarily care about product quality and product price, there is an increasing share of citizens that in addition consider social and environmental attributes such as the emission of CO2 during the production process of the product in their purchase decision. Since 2008, and thus very recently, a new kind of market power is noticeable, especially in large cities of Europe and the US. Engaged consumers organize a so called Carrotmob. Carrotmob can be regarded as a new kind of market power, which enables consumers to force businesses to obey to their demands (e.g. switching from regular electric current to green electricity). Therewith consumer can have a decisive impact on managerial decisions. Consumers not only force business to fulfill their demands but also reward them with higher sales volumes. In this paper we attempt to better understand the relevance and the possible dynamics of this emerging trend. For this reasons we conducted a survey at the first Carrotmob in a fruit and vegetable store in Cologne in April 2010 to investigate whether there exists a ‘typical Carrotmobber’ and what are the motivations for participating in a Carrotmob. Preliminary results show, that the majority of the Cologne Carrotmobbers are young (56% below 30 years) and highly educated (96% are students or still hold a university degree). 64% of Carrotmobbers never bought something in the shop before and 13% are regular shoppers. While only a minority of consumers (13%) indicates that they intend to support the shop in the future (buy at all or more) 82% of the respondents want to join a Carrotmob again. In a further analysis of our survey data we will investigate the driving forces motivating people to get involved in the Carrotmob.
Increasing The Reliability Of Lca Through Process Simulation, With An Application In Lignocellulosic Ethanol Production In Sweden (Abstract #554)
Christin Liptow and Anne-Marie Tillman
One of the prerequisites for LCA is the supply with reliable data, which can be achieved in various manners like for example use of data bases or collection of primary data from industrial operations. However, especially for emerging technologies the already established ways of data procurement do not apply and other options need to be found. One possible choice is the use of process simulation, whose mass and energy balances can deliver reliable data especially on not yet industrialized processes. This makes the integration of process simulation a valuable extension of the current LCA methodology. Implementing the knowledge from a recent literature review of ours, we demonstrate the usefulness of process simulation for LCA purposes using the example of lignocellulosic ethanol production in Sweden. This process is currently not established in an industrial scale and therefore the study also serves as an environmental assessment of an emerging technology. With this we also demonstrate that LCA can be extended to the reliable assessment of new and not yet industrialized processes.
Long-Term Household Travel Patterns And The Adoption Potential Of Compact And Electric Vehicles (Abstract #562)
Kevin Bolon and Greg Keoleian
With the introduction of a number of small and electric-powered vehicles into the marketplace, the variety of energy efficient choices available for meeting household transportation needs has increased dramatically. However, due to the variability inherent in household travel, an efficient vehicle with reduced capability may not be able to meet the requirements of every trip in terms of range, or passenger and cargo capacities. In order to understand the potential for these new vehicles to contribute to actual energy savings, it is necessary to consider the travel requirements of households over a period spanning months or years. This presentation describes a method for collecting long-term household travel requirement data, and presents the results of a pilot test involving several households in the vicinity of Ann Arbor, Michigan. Traditional travel surveys collect details about individual trips, which is not practical for a period of more than a few days. GPS instrumentation can be used over longer time periods, but it is difficult to discern important information such as trip purpose, or the number of passengers. For this research, an online survey was developed which asks respondents to report their typical travel according to the purpose of the activity being conducted. For each activity, “fuzzy” descriptions are then collected, such as the range of possible activity times, or the likelihood that it will be conducted on a certain day, or at a certain location. It was hypothesized that for long time periods, respondents will be able to probabilistically report typical travel more accurately than they can recall individual trip details. Based on the pilot survey results, a travel scheduling model was used to simulate whether various fleets of efficient vehicles could be adopted by the household. In cases where a vehicle could not satisfy every travel requirement, a reliability factor is reported.
The Concept Of Guiding Orientations And Their Contribution To Govern Complex Innovation Processes (Abstract #575)
Urte Brand and Arnim von Gleich
Guiding principles (Leitbilder) played an important role in past innovation processes. Among the most successful guiding principles were ‘organic agriculture’, ‘solar economy’ and ‘closed loop economy’. But it is still controversial, whether guiding principles can be purposely applied to give innovation processes a certain (more sustainable) direction. We are aiming at an integrated concept to support and direct complex innovation processes and technological path changes by the help of guiding principles. It consists of four phases from assimilating the guiding idea up to the assembly of design concepts. Looking at the mechanisms of impact we distinguish between three levels of guiding orientations: World views, guiding concepts and guiding design concepts. Successful guiding concepts (like the above mentioned) often gain their public impact by inducing ‘resonance’ at the basic level of ‘world views’ (e. g. learning from nature). The approach may contribute to the solution of several main problems, that innovation and especially directed innovation is facing: 1. To overcome lock-ins and path dependencies 2. To coordinate and synchronize multiple actors in innovation systems 3. To cope with complexity (eg. structuring perception) and uncertainties regarding success and side effects. It may also contribute answers to some main questions: • What exactly must be done to influence complex innovation processes by the help of guiding orientations? • Which actor constellations are able to successfully initiate guiding orientations? And which actors are to be addressed in the process? We will present: • The characteristics of and requirements for ‘socially successful’ guiding orientations. • A practical phase concept and a three-level model of guiding orientations. • An outlook at the application of this approach in the context of a large R&D-Project about adaptation to climate change in Germanys North-West with the aim of building more ‘resilient energy supply systems’.
A Gis Based National Assessment Of Algal Biofuel Production Potential Through Flue-Gas And Wastewater Coutilization (Abstract #591)
Nolan Orfield, Greg Keoleian and Nancy Love
The high theoretical productivity of microalgae makes it a promising energy crop, but economically viable large-scale production facilities have yet to emerge. Furthermore, life-cycle studies indicate biofuel from algae produced with current technology has a lower net energy ratio (NER) than other biofuels. These drawbacks are due partly to the carbon dioxide and fertilizer input requirements. Therefore, coupling algae cultivation ponds with flue gas emissions from power utilities to provide carbon dioxide and municipal wastewater to provide nutrients has been recommended. This flue-gas and wastewater coutilization (FWC) strategy not only reduces the upstream impacts and costs associated with providing inputs, but also provides a credit for wastewater treatment, a service currently required to reduce production costs to a viable level. This study provides the first national assessment of the potential for producing algal biofuel in the United States in a manner that is cost-competitive with fossil fuel. A spatial-temporal algae growth simulation incorporating solar radiation and temperature data is built to calculate the average annual algae yield for any location, which is used to establish the required pond size, the predominant economic hurdle. The results of this model are then integrated into a geospatial overlay analysis which establishes the economic viability and biofuel production potential of FWC at any location by considering the relative abundance of the input resources as well as their proximity. It was found that less than 200 million gallons of biofuel could be produced annually, less than half of the transport fuel consumed daily, due to the limited amount of nutrients present in wastewater and the unfavorable climatic conditions at most locations. This presentation will also explore strategies for increasing algal biofuel production, including nutrient recycling and utilization of nutrients from livestock waste.
Measuring The Sustainability Performance Of Infrastructure In An Eco-Industrial Park: A Real World Case Study (Abstract #596)
Emilie Ouellet and Tracy Casavant
The development of an eco-industrial park (EIP) involves much of the same process as a conventional industrial park: planning, infrastructure design, infrastructure construction, lot sales / leasing, business construction, business operation. To make an EIP, industrial ecology (IE) should be embedded throughout. A challenge then becomes measuring the depth to which IE was applied and sustainable industrial development was achieved. This paper presents the important findings of the first attempt in North America to quantify the sustainability performance of infrastructure systems in an EIP, specifically the Innovista EIP in Hinton, AB. Infrastructure systems included: stormwater; water; roads; parks & trails; and energy. The impact of EIP buildings was also considered. These systems were considered from a project life cycle perspective, from planning through to operation. Indicators related to energy consumption, renewable energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, land protection / restoration, waste diversion, waste production, water consumption, and materials consumption were considered. A benchmark “business as usual” baseline was created, representing how the land would have been developed without an eco-industrial approach. The preparation of a baseline considered information from local engineering standards, alternate bids, feasibility studies, industry research, common practices, and other regulatory guidelines. It was observed that benchmark data for industrial land development is not commonly available, making it challenging to quantify the performance improvement offered by an EIP. In addition, the nature of construction tendering made data collection a challenge. Nonetheless, several performance benefits were quantifiable, including a one time greenhouse gas emission avoidance of 44,700 tonnes eCO2 and an annual projected greenhouse gas emission avoidance of 59,200 tonnes eCO2 per year. This work was completed as part of the Town of Hinton’s 5.5 Million CAD funding from the Government of Canada Green Municipal Funds.
Industrial Waste In Italy: A First Provincial Analysis (Abstract #602)
Alessandro Stanchi, Carlo Carraro and Enrica Croda
The objective of the paper is to test an econometric model of industrial waste production for the Italian economy. We investigate the empirical evidence using 1998-2004 provincial data for the 103 provinces of Italy, using industrial waste data as dependent variable, and a large array of other socio-economic indicators as independent variables. Urban waste has also been considered in the analysis, and it has been used as an independent variable, whose management can affect the production of waste created by the productive sector of the society. In order to study the relationship between wealth and environmental impact using a newly available kind of data for Italy, industrial waste, we perform a panel analysis with quadratic and linear relationships in added value, using logarithmic specifications. Finally, we investigate the relationship between a province's clean industrial sector and the tendency to show EKC patterns. Our panel analyses show evidence of delinking for the Italian provinces in the specified period: the richer the provincial economy grows, the "greener" it becomes. Such a result is kind of new one, mostly because this is one of the first papers in which highly disaggregated (provincial level) data have been used. The proposed model allows us to analyse the future dynamics of industrial waste production in the different Italian provinces.
The Water-Energy Nexus; A Case Study Of Zero-Net Water At West Village In Davis, California (Abstract #610)
Kendra Olmos and Frank Loge
Can a community achieve a goal of zero-net water usage, in which the annual amount of water used is no greater than the amount of water that falls on-site, and if so, what are the associated savings in energy and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions? The University of California Davis is currently in the process of planning, design, and construction of a 3,000 person mixed-use zero-net energy community. The feasibility of achieving zero-net water usage was assessed as part of the planning and design process. The study evaluated the percent water reduction for various water efficiency improvements within individual single family residences, multifamily community apartments, and the entire development’s site landscaping. Water efficiency improvements were analyzed based on different efficiency scenarios for both indoor and landscaping water use. Indoor efficiency focused on improving plumbing fixtures and appliances water use efficiency while landscaping improvements focused on increasing irrigation efficiency and implementing drought tolerant grass. Reusing graywater and rainwater to supplement or replace potable water for irrigation was also investigated. Achieving zero-net water is possible at a community level and at the scale of a single-family residence using commercially available and cost-effective technologies. Results indicate the ability to decrease the community’s water use by a maximum of 43% totaling 65 million gallons of water per year. The water savings resulted in a 45% reduction in energy associated with water use and an equal reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.
Sourcemap.Org : First Application Of Linked And Open Lca Data To Support Sustainability Projects (Abstract #632)
Leonardo Bonanni, Hannes Ebner, Matthew Hockenberry, Bianca Sayan, Nils Brandt, Chris Csikszentmihàlyi, Hiroshi Ishii, Marko Turpeinen, Steven Young and Jorge Zapico
Sourcemap.org is a open “platform for researching, optimizing and sharing supply chains” with a wide range of users. As Sourcemap.org's focus is to inform sustainable decision-making for supply chains, they require a wealth of environmental data on inputs and outputs. They, like many other sustainability-related projects, need a robust, large, and reliable database to draw from. Members of the team have formed an independent, multi-institutional project to develop an open and linked LCA catalog for public use, called Opensustainability.info (OSI). Sourcemap.org now relies on OSI to describe their supply chain maps in terms of environmental impacts. We'll show how Sourcemap.org has incorporated OSI into their application and the improvements in data reliability and transparency that have arisen. We will also show how this can be extended to other applications. Projects can then avoid the research, retrieval, and maintenance of multiple separate collections of environmental impact data. Sourcemap.org is illustrative of OSI's far-reaching potential to support and enhance many existing and future sustainability projects in environmental education, research, public outreach, and policy development. They will gain increasing legitimacy and transparency as they can base their output on an open database.
Achieving Optimal Deployment Of Renewable Energy Technologies In The Battlefield (Abstract #636)
Valentina Prado
The Department of Defense (DOD) consumes over 127 million barrels of fuel annually - enough for five million cars to drive around the equator. Fuel consumed by Forward Operating Bases (FOB) in Iraq and Afghanistan represent 15% of the total DOD fuel consumption. Nearly half of the FOB’s fuel is used in diesel generators for electricity production. Since these bases are in locations with no power grids, they must satisfy all their energy needs using fossil fuels. In practice, fuel delivery to these remote locations requires significant resources. The challenge is to move large volumes of fuel over unpaved roads through rough terrain. Fuel cost is further increased because additional vehicles and personnel are needed to protect oil in transit. Thus, even in the best case scenario, fuel delivery has a significant resource and logistical footprint. Also, there is a direct correlation between fuel transported and casualties. Given the availability of sunlight in FOBs in Iraq and Afghanistan, solar technologies can be implemented in the battlefield in order to reduce the generators run time, fuel consumption and delivery. However, optimal deployment of renewable energy (RE) technologies is impeded by a lack of knowledge about how these technologies will perform and under what conditions they are superior to traditional generators. This study addresses these knowledge gaps by combining a thermodynamic model and Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). First, the thermodynamic model forecasts the performance of commercially available RE technologies as a function of geographic location, season, specific battlefield conditions and previous experimental data. Then, the MCDA component weighs different factors along the fuel supply chain (overall fuel efficiency, cost and energy security) to guide army planners into selecting the most suitable RE technology for a given mission. The goal of this study is to help the DOD achieve an optimal deployment of RE technologies.
Panorama Of Brazilian Exporting Products In More Sustainable Markets (Abstract #647)
Silvia Palma Rojas, Jorge Madeira Nogueira and Armando Caldeira-Pires
Sustainable development has been in the core of academic and politic debates for more than two decades. Any chosen initiative for attaining a sustainable development requires methods and tools that quantify and compare the environmental, social and economic impacts made by human activities, as well policies designed to encourage these initiatives. Since Rio Summit in 1992 there has been interest in promoting the integration of environmental issues into production and consumption patterns. Therefore, methods where producers can show the environmental performance of their products and services, and consumers can know the “green” level of their chosen products have been developed and implemented by eco-label schemes. The European Union established in 1992 a voluntary Eco-label scheme, which is based on Type I that is a multi-attribute label owned and operated by third parties and focused on life cycle product approach. In Brazil there are many public and private institutions interested in implementing an eco-label scheme that helps to increase the competitiveness of Brazilian products in more environmentally demanding markets. Despite the diverging National debate on this topic, the Secretariat of Foreign Trade of the Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade started a cooperating project with EU and UNEP denominated “Enabling developing countries to seize eco-label opportunities". Therefore, it is arose a question about which have been the effects of the EU eco-label scheme into Brazilian exporting products toward EU region. It is important to highlight that European Union is one of the more important destinations for Brazilian exporting products. This paper aims to answer the former question by an econometrics analysis based in a panel data. The model has a sample formed by different exporting products from Brazil to the UE region and considers three time periods of analysis, where the first period is taking before EU eco-label scheme implementation.
Corporate Supply Chain Ghg Estimation Using Financial Hybrid Analysis (Abstract #653)
Corinne Reich-Weiser and Devon Lake
Corporations are increasingly interested in their supply chain greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and are looking for efficient and effective methods of estimation. We will present the iterative financial hybrid lifecycle assessment (FH LCA) method, which successfully merges financial information with environmental information and can be used to quickly estimate environmental impacts across any organization’s supply chain. FH LCA utilizes an organization’s financial information, typically their general ledger trial balance, procurement data, or budgetary data, to capture all flows of materials and services into the organization. These expenditures are mapped to an input-output LCA database to obtain an overview of supply chain GHG. The input-output (IO) database is based on government economic and environmental flows that enable the calculation of the complete supply chain GHG emissions associated with every dollar a company spends. For example, if an organization spends $100 on office furniture in a given month, this is mapped to the “office furniture” sector in the IO database and the resulting GHG emissions across the office furniture supply chain are calculated. The FH LCA method is iterative. Initial assessments of supply chain GHG emissions allow for hot spot analysis on which vendors and services to target for additional data refinement through tiered hybrid LCA. Furthermore, this method is compliant with the emerging World Resources Institute standard on Scope 3 Carbon Accounting. The FH-LCA method provides a comprehensive baseline of a companies’ emissions which may lead to a myriad of new opportunities and insights, including: identification of products to either promote or redesign, identification of business units with the highest GHG per dollar of spend, and targeting of key suppliers to engage in further conversation. We will discuss the FH-LCA method as well as four case studies on how the resulting data can be used for prioritizing actions for GHG reduction.
Marine Debris End-Of-Life Options: Noaa’S Perspectives (Abstract #654)
Nir Barnea, Sherry Lippiatt, Kris McElwee and Peter Murphy
NOAA’s Marine Debris Program, established in 2005, has partnered with and funded over 170 projects to research, prevent, reduce, and remove marine debris. While focused on derelict fishing gear, the program also supports projects to survey and remove debris on land for prevention at the source. Our motto, “Marine Debris is Everyone’s Problem,” means that the impacts of marine debris on the environment, navigation, and economies affect us all, but through our behavior we are also empowered to address this huge problem, with efforts big and small. A major element of the program is the fate of recovered marine debris. In the past, marine debris was dumped at landfills in enormous quantities. For example, an estimated 10,000 tons of marine debris were landfilled in Dutch Harbor alone. This remote town in Alaska, unable to sustain the practice, stopped accepting marine debris, forcing disposal via shipping to other landfills. To facilitate best end-of-life process for marine debris, the program and its partners have in recent years implemented a number of initiatives to reuse, recycle, and redirect marine debris from landfills to better uses. In Oregon, 98% of lost crab pots recovered by removal efforts are returned to their owners for reuse. The rest, too dilapidated, go to metal recycling. In Washington, nets are collected and sent to plastic recyclers to be made into new products. In Hawaii, the multi-partner Nets to Energy program has generated electricity through combustion of over 900 tons of derelict fishing gear since 2001; a similar program, Fishing for Energy, provides bins in over 20 ports on the both coasts to collect derelict fishing gear for the same purpose. This presentation will highlight NOAA’s and its partner’s efforts to reduce the impacts of marine debris through several end-of-life options and will discuss future alternatives.
An Empirical Method For Examining The Value Of Passenger Vehicle Lightweighting (Abstract #658)
Elisa Alonso, Theresa Lee, Richard Roth and Randolph Kirchain
Higher fuel economy passenger vehicles are desired to reduce oil consumption and its associated environmental impacts as studies have shown that the fuel consumption during the use phase is the largest contributor to a vehicle carbon footprint. Vehicle lightweighting is one method, among many, for improving fuel economy. Unfortunately, many approaches to reduce vehicle mass come at a cost, which must be considered by manufacturers. To select a lightweighting strategy, manufacturers must decide which vehicles to lightweight, which vehicle parts to lightweight, and which lightweighting materials and technologies to implement. Across this large set of alternatives, manufacturers must evaluate both the costs and the potential mass savings. Because of the interrelated nature of these issues, assessing these can be challenging. Implementation of lightweighting technologies can lead to secondary mass savings, which may also reduce costs of supporting vehicle parts and warrantee costs. Manufacturers must also consider which performance characteristics to improve in order to meet consumer needs while still meeting fuel economy standards. In addition to all the variables that need to be considered, each decision involves uncertainty. For this work, a method is developed to screen vehicles and determine the conditions for which the cost-to-benefit ratio of lightweighting is lower. Parameters such as vehicle class, size, mass, fuel economy, and price are used in the screening process. Uncertainty in variables that affect the cost-value tradeoff, such as the cost of new lightweighting technologies, the mass decompounding potential and the price of materials, are stated based on literature and historical values. Uncertainty is then incorporated into the screening tool and cost-to-benefit ratios are assessed using simulation. Results indicate that while the costs of lightweighting are generally borne by manufacturers, maximizing secondary mass savings, especially where material costs may be high, can result in higher value of lightweighting.
Should Alberta Upgrade Oil Sands Bitumen? (Abstract #663)
Nicolas Choquette-Levy, Jessica Abella and Joule A. Bergerson
Alberta’s oil sands comprise a significant portion of North America’s energy supply, accounting for over 10% of all U.S. crude oil imports. However, existing and potential climate policies are complicating the decisions being made by oil sands stakeholders, due to the relatively high carbon footprints of their products. One of these decisions includes whether to upgrade bitumen into higher-quality synthetic crude oil (SCO) and send it to a conventional refinery, or mix it with diluent into lower-quality diluted bitumen (dilbit) and send it to a refinery that accepts heavier feedstocks. Although initial studies suggest that upgrading pathways lead to higher well-to-wheel GHG emissions, upgrading facilities are still being planned. There is therefore a need to explore the environmental and economic tradeoffs associated with the full range of upgrading and refining scenarios available to oil sands producers. We seek to inform this decision by conducting a process-based life cycle assessment (LCA) of two bitumen production pathways: one in which bitumen is upgraded into SCO and the other in which it is diluted to produce dilbit, before being transported via pipeline to US refineries. We build a comprehensive spreadsheet model that estimates the energy flows and GHG emissions (per MJ of gasoline) associated with the extraction, upgrading/dilution, transportation, refining, and gasoline combustion stages. One of our preliminary results is that pipeline transportation of dilbit is approximately 2.5 times more GHG-intensive than SCO transportation, whereas previous studies have assumed equivalent transportation intensities. We analyze the factors that drive the LCA results through a sensitivity analysis and explore the impacts of different climate policy options on the decision of whether to upgrade. Finally, lifecycle costing is used in conjunction with the policy options in order to identify conditions under which a company would be incented to upgrade bitumen, even with a higher GHG footprint.
Beyond Recycling: A Model For A Regenerative Economy (Abstract #669)
Aleix Altimiras Martin
Beyond Recycling: a model for a regenerative economy Natural resource depletion together with pollutant emissions are the two sides of the same problem. They represent a main challenge to modern societies, particularly in the long-term. Those problems are the result of the established consumption-production structure. Natural resources are extracted as raw materials and energy, and processed, used and discarded emitting pollutants and waste. This can be characterised as an open material loop economic system. The main objective of this research is to develop a regenerative economy, which is based on a fully recycling or closed material loop economy. This research will show that recycling or closing the consumption-production loop is not enough to achieve a materially self-sustained economy. Materials need to be “regenerated”, i.e. processed so as to reacquire the same initial properties so that they can be reused for the same industrial purposes. In such a system, material supplies become formally unlimited, and waste and pollution are suppressed. Thus, the limiting factors are the available energy (i.e. exergy) and land. The feasibility and implication of such a system are studied through the fund-flow model devised by Georgescu-Roegen (1979). The contribution of this research is to expand the previous model by disaggregating the material flows and industrial activity. Materials will be classified according to their “regenerative” ability and requirements, and their environmental effects. The industrial activity is also disaggregated to reflect the new recycling structure. The results of this new model display the required reorganisation and choice of material and energy flows to achieve a regenerative economy. Reference: Georgescu-Roegen, N., 1979. Energy analysis and economic valuation. South. Econ. J., 95–105
Design For The Environment – Life Cycle Approach Using A Newsvendor Model (Abstract #672)
Gal Raz, Cheryl Druehl and Vered Doctori Blass
Introducing innovations into product and process design that aim to reduce environmental impact is becoming increasingly common. Changes in design may affect the environmental performance in the various stages of the product life cycle, from manufacturing, via usage, and all the way to product disposal. These changes in design have the potential to affect the cost and the demand, as well as the overall environmental impact. For example, innovation can improve the eco-efficiency of the manufacturing process, and therefore reduce the cost of manufacturing. It can also affect the energy consumption of the product during usage, which reduces the cost to the consumer, thus increasing the demand for the product. Since innovation can be applied in different design stages, we aim to understand where these changes can be most effective both economically and environmentally. We use greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as an example of an environmental impact category and apply the changes in emissions to the profit model using the carbon price associated with GHG emissions. We study a profit maximizing firm (Newsvendor) deciding on both the order quantity to produce as well as the environmental design efforts that affect the different stages of the product life cycle. Using our model, we find the optimal design efforts for each of the life cycle stages; we gain insight into the innovation and design options and how they affect the overall economic and environmental impact. Using numerical examples of different product categories, we conduct sensitivity analysis on the results derived from the model.
Human And Embodied Energy Comparison Of Water Source Protection And Household Water Treatment Interventions Used In The Developing World (Abstract #677)
Brendan Held, Qiong Zhang and James Mihelcic
As water quality interventions are scaled up to meet the Millennium Development Goal of halving the proportion of the population without access to safe drinking water by 2015, there has been much discussion on the merits of household- and source-level interventions. This study furthers the discussion by examining specific interventions through the use of embodied human and material energy. Embodied energy quantifies the total energy required to produce and use an intervention, including all upstream energy transactions. It is a measure of aggregate environmental impacts of the interventions. Human energy quantifies the caloric expenditure associated with the installation and operation of an intervention. It is a measure of aggregate social impacts of an intervention. A total of four household treatment interventions and four water source-level interventions are evaluated in the context of Mali (West Africa) where we devoted over one year of in country data collection. Our model uses material quantities and prices to calculate embodied energy using available and most appropriate national economic input/output-based models from Mali, China, and the United States. Human energy is calculated using physical activity ratios (PARs) and basal metabolic rates (BMRs). Source-level interventions slightly out-perform household-level interventions in terms of having less total embodied energy. Human energy, typically assumed to be a negligible portion of total embodied energy, is shown to be significant to all eight interventions, contributing over half of total embodied energy in four interventions. Traditional gender roles in Mali dictate the types of work performed by men and women. When the human energy is disaggregated by gender, it is seen that women perform over 99% of the work associated with seven of the eight interventions. This has profound implications for gender equality in the context of water quality interventions, and may justify investment in interventions that reduce human energy burdens.
The Environmental Impacts Of Media: A Review Of Comparative Lcas Of Digital And Paper Media (Abstract #684)
Justin Gabriel Bull and Robert Kozak
The consumption of the written word is changing. Society is in the midst of a dynamic and uneven transition from paper media to digital media. We reviewed the comparative research literature that attempted to measure the environmental implications of this transition, with a focus on peer-reviewed research employing life cycle assessment (LCA) methodologies. We conducted our review according to a framework developed by Reap (2008) that identified key problems in LCA methodologies. We found that between LCAs there were large variations in the described environmental impacts, although digital media was generally deemed more environmentally benign. We also found that inside individual LCAs large variations exist when certain assumptions were adjusted. There were several drivers of these variations. A lack of contemporaneous and high-resolution data was an acute problem when modeling the lifecycle of digital media. This reflects the ever-evolving and complex supply chains of the IT sector. Further, digital media is typically consumed on products that offer dozens of alternative functions: coping with these multifunctional products required methodological creativity that resulted in understating the environmental impacts of digital media. The modeling of consumer behavior was also a major source of variation: for example, the impact of driving a vehicle to a retail outlet contributed significantly to a paper product’s footprint. We conclude that comparative LCAs of digital and paper media demonstrate the limits of the LCA methodology. Assumptions and low-resolution data drove study findings, but authors did not identify this trend. We suggest that the LCA methodology does not produce high-confidence claims about the environmental trade-offs between paper and digital media. It does, however, successfully identify the gaps in data availability and data quality that impact extant comparative LCAs.
Optimal Insulation Thicknesses According To Variable Indicators For The Eu25 Countries (Abstract #686)
York Ostermeyer, An De Schryver and Holger Wallbaum
Studies on the life cycle of buildings show that energy consumption during the use phase (running energy consumption) is in most cases the dominating source of their overall air emissions. Insulation is used to reduce the running energy consumption by reducing heath transmission losses. However, producing insulation also results in environmental impacts. Several studies have been conducted on assessing the most cost effective insulation thickness, considering the balance between the buying & installation costs and the lower energy costs during the use of the building. However, there is a strong need in assessing the optimal insulation thickness taking an environmental point of view. In this study, the optimal insulation thickness for residential buildings is calculated by taking an environmental point of view and comparing the most environmental effective insulation thickness with the most cost effective one. The environmental impacts during insulation production and environmental gains during the use phase of the house are taken into account using country specific conditions such as heating and cooling degree days and region specific energy mixes used by the buildings. Several environmental indicators are used, such as CO2-equivalents for climate change and a single weighted damage score using ReCiPe2008. The results of the study indicate that the optimal insulation thickness depends on the country and chosen indicator. For example, the cost effective insulation thickness is often lower compared to the optimal insulation thickness using climate change as environmental indicator. This is due to the labor intensive installation costs which are not considered when taking an environmental point of view. Finally, recommendations are given on how to derive the optimal insulation thickness considering both environmental and cost effective indicators.
Measuring Energy And Material Flows And Costs Of Innovative Technology Adoption In Ductile Iron Foundry Production (Abstract #689)
R. M. Torielli, T. J. Considine, F. S. Cannon, J. Goudzwaard, J. C. Furness, J. T. Fox, H. Huang and R. C. Voigt
This paper provides an overview of the approach and findings of a sub-task under the NSF MUSES project to measure energy and material flows and to estimate the production costs of innovative iron foundry production processes. These innovative technologies involve techniques to improve the efficiency of green sand recycling employing the advanced oxidation process, to replace coke with anthracite fines bonded by silicon and collagen, and to reduce emissions of volatile organic compounds using collagen based sand core binders or using lignite for coke and seacoal replacement. The economic and environmental merits of these new process technology options are measured in this study by first carefully estimating energy, material, emissions, and costs for a representative ductile iron foundry. Physical flows of inputs and outputs and operating costs by stage of production are carefully tracked in the baseline scenario. These flows are then measured under each of seven process options, one widely adopted by industry and six innovative technologies. Overall, the analysis finds that substantial reductions in energy and material consumption as well as environmental emissions can be achieved for most of the innovative technology process options. Moreover, operating costs are lower and the associated capital investment requirements imply very short payback periods, between three months to two years. For example, the environmental and economic impacts of a combination of 50 percent coke replacement with anthracite with collagen binders, Pneu-ColTM with sand reclamation, and collagen-based binders results in particulates and volatile organic compounds emissions more than 50 percent lower and overall operating costs are 6.6 percent lower. Clearly, this illustrates that at least in the case of employing innovative processing technology in the metals castings industry, cutting environmental emissions can lead to substantial cost reductions.
Establishing Eco-Industrial Parks : The Role Of Coordingating Bodies And Local Champions In Kick Starting An Eip Is Busan, South Korea (Abstract #715)
Ha Na Yu, Ji Won Kim, Yong Woo Kim, Jeong Hoon Im, Chang Won Kim and Gea Jae Joo
Eco-industrial parks(EIP) can be viewed as practical applications of industrial ecology, in which businesses are connected to each other through a physical exchange of materials, energy, water, and by-products, thus giving them a competitive advantage over traditional business enterprioses(Chertow, 2000). Examples include the archetypal industrial symbiotic network at kalunborg, Denmark, or those found in co-located industrial parks such as the Burnside Industrial Park, Nova Scotia or the Ulsan Eco-industrial Park, South Korea. EIPs may take numerous forms to suit the specific needs of the regions in which they are located and the characteristics of businesses within the parks. Likewise, the conditions under which these EIPs are established are equally various and may be influenced by a number of factors, including support from national regional, or local governments, presence and involvement of a coordinating body, industry regulations, and the willingness of companies to participate in such a project. This paper discusses some of these factors within the context of the Shinpyung-Changlim Industrial Park in Busan, South Korea. Due largely to the role played by a local coordinating body and the support of a local champion this park has been able continue with sustainable industry initiative despite the retraction of financial and institutional support following an unsuccessful bid to become a member of the Korean Nationa EIP pilot program. In this case, the Busan EIP feasibility study team played a key role in identifying potential symbiotic connections between industries in the industrial park and introducing industrial ecology concepts to companies in the area. Following the withdrawal of institutional and research support from this coordinating body a local champion of the EIP initiative was integral in continuing the development of the project and ultimately establishing resource connections between industries. This paper analyzes the circumstances that allowed this EIP initiative to continue despite difficult circumstances and discusses the importance of these in EIP establishment more broadly.
Central Vs. On-Site Wastewater Treatment In A High-Rise Building: A Life-Cycle Assessment Case Study In The Northeastern Us (Abstract #731)
Francis Jordan and Uta Krogmann
Due to economy of scale, on-site membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment facilities with water reuse generally consume more energy than central wastewater treatment facilities. However, if not only the operational energy consumption is considered, the environmental impacts might be less dominated by it and if water resources are scarce, water reuse might be favorable. The objective of this case study was to conduct a comparative life-cycle assessment of an existing residential green high-rise building in the northeastern United States with on-site wastewater treatment and water reuse and a hypothetical green building with the same water conservation and efficiency measures but discharge of all wastewater to the municipal sewer and no water reuse. The on-site wastewater treatment facility in the existing building includes a three-stage biomembrane reactor with an anoxic stage, an aerobic stage and filtration stage with ultrafiltration membrane followed by ozonation and ultraviolet radiation; the treated water is reused for toilet flushing, cooling water and irrigation. Upstream water and downstream wastewater collection and treatment infrastructure and biosolids disposal are included in the boundary. Energy and major nutrient related environmental impacts are focus of the comparative life-cycle assessment. A sensitivity analysis is performed.
Embodied Carbon Flows In Global Supply Chains: A Study Drawing On Bilateral Trade Data (Abstract #743)
Misato Sato
Significant recent attention has been paid to quantifying the carbon emissions embodied in international trade. Most previous studies use aggregated models and highlight the growth of exports of embodied emissions from developing countries such as China to the industrialised world. This study combines the UN Commodity Trade Statistics and product carbon intensity factors to provide a detailed quantitative description of embodied carbon flows in global trade. Covering all countries and 970 products, for the first time, it disaggregates estimates of embodied emissions in trade (EET) by product and bilateral trade flows. It finds that EET flows are particularly concentrated in upstream industrial products in sectors such as iron & steel, non ferrous metals, primary plastics, cement & lime, organic and non-organic chemicals and fertilisers, as well as mid- or down-steam products such as metal-manufactures, paper and pharmaceuticals. Agricultural and energy products also account for non-trivial volumes of EET. Contrary to the simplified picture portrayed by studies using aggregated models where flows from developing to industrialised countries are dominant, the granular approach reveals a complex mapping of global EET flows.
Policy Issues To Develop An Energy Efficient Industrial Park Using Renewable Energy Sources In Korea (Abstract #747)
Yong Un Ban, Hurnkun Jeong, Taeho Lee, Kyungmin Han and Hyungsuk Ko
Renewable energy promotion projects in Korea have not comprised industrial park level yet, focusing on individual public building, school, houses, factory, and so on. However, newly developing industrial park can offer better opportunities to promote to introduce renewable energy sources into industrial field than existing industrial park. This study has intended to explore a possibility to combine existing renewable energy promotion policy and the developing process of industrial park, and to find new approach to promote to introduce renewable energy sources at industrial park level, specially newly developing Kimhae industrial park, which is expected to have developed in the beginning of 2012. To clarify the possible scale of renewable energy facilities that could introduce in Kimhae Industrial Park, the Kimhae Industrial Park Developing Plan was reveiwed and energy use of 63 expected tenant companies of the industrial park was investigated. Also executives of these companies have been interviewed on introducing renewable energy facilities into their future factories. At last, existing renewable energy promotion policies in Korea were reviewed in terms of possibility of their application to the newly developing industrial park. The result of this study indicated that the RPS(Renewable Portfolio Standard) is the most suitable means to help expected tenant companies introduce renewable energy source on the Kimhae Industrial Park level. Also, it is clarified that other promotion policies are necessary to be improved in terms of implement process, and the scale of fund should be increased to cover the industrial park level.
Integrated Probabilistic Life Cycle Assessment And Durability Design For Sustainable Infrastructure Design (Abstract #748)
Michael Lepech, Mette Geiker and Henrik Stang
The construction and operation of reinforced concrete infrastructure, in particular transportation infrastructure, lies at the nexus of two major sources of our global sustainability challenge; large amounts of emissions from both transportation activities and construction materials production. Therefore, significant opportunities exist in the reduction of environmental impacts associated with concrete infrastructure construction and use. Within this paper, the application of existing and newly developed probabilistic service life models for analytically determining the time-to-repair or time-to-failure of reinforced concrete infrastructure are discussed. Existing models are based on commonly accepted porous media transport phenomena (Fickian diffusion, poro-mechanical models, etc.) while newly proposed methods are based on thermodynamic considerations of steel corrosion in concrete. Additionally, probabilistic, process-based life cycle assessment models are developed to quantify the impacts of all life cycle phases of concrete construction including raw material acquisition, material production, transport, construction, use, and end of life. In particular, improved use phase models and impact assessments are considered to better account for the disproportionately large use phase impacts, mainly vehicle-related fuel consumption, emissions, and user costs, that are associated with reinforced concrete infrastructure. The two probabilistic models are then orthogonally integrated over time to construct an associated time-dependent impact envelope for a reinforced concrete structure or facility. When combined with policy-derived targets for reductions in mid-point environmental indicators, the framework can be used to rationally consider the sustainability benefits of innovative infrastructure concrete materials, construction methods, and structural designs in engineering planning and design decisions. Unique within this approach is the ability for quantitative consideration of risks associated with not meeting proposed emission reduction policy goals (i.e. IPCC scenario reductions) balanced against the higher economic cost of “more sustainable” infrastructure construction practices.
Biomass Energy Development At The Catawba County North Carolina Ecocomplex, A County Led Approach To Eco-Industrial Park Implementation (Abstract #752)
Jeremy Ferrell and Barry Edwards
The Catawba County North Carolina EcoComplex is an ecological-industrial park whose mission is synergistic waste and resource management, renewable energy production, and local economic development through public and private partnerships. The EcoComplex is an 805 acre site centered on the Blackburn Landfill which serves the 150,000 county residents and receives 452 tons/day of municipal and 88 tons of construction waste daily. The site hosts a grid-tied 3MW landfill gas to energy project using GE-Jenbacher spark-ignition engines. The EcoComplex concept was created in response to state waste reduction mandates of 33% of 1990 levels by 2020. Industrial ecology was chosen as a long term strategy. A partnership with Jenbacher in 1999 established the EcoComplex as a testing site for direct combustion of landfill gas to energy and has produced over 125,000 MWhrs and provides the county an annual revenue stream of $600,000. Landfill operations are self-sustaining, needing no tax-based support. This has created a favorable environment for continued EIP development, attracting firms, and University research. Impending biomass energy components include: biodiesel manufacturing, wood gasification, and a multi-feed anaerobic digestion. Buffering the landfill are agricultural lands that are used to double-crop rapeseed and sunflower to provide vegetable oil for the 100,000 gallon per year biodiesel research and production facility with partner, Appalachian State University. Wood waste from partners Gregory Wood Products and Pallet One will be gasified to produce 1.9MW of electricity, and 6.7 MMBtus for kiln drying lumber. Biosolids from municipal waste water treatment plants, animal manures, mixed paper, and food wastes will be anaerobically digested to produce 1.1MW of electricity, and 3.8 MMBtus for commercial greenhouse heating. Total biomass energy potential is 5.3MWe, capable of energizing 3,744 homes, providing 100,000 gallons of liquid transportation fuel, and eliminating 28,709 metric tons of CO2 annually.
Outlook Of Consequential Environmental Impacts Of Cellulosic Ethanol Expansion In The U.S. (Abstract #757)
Junghan Bae, Scott Yee and Sangwon Suh
In the revised Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2), the lessened volume requirement of corn ethanol production results in increased cellulosic ethanol production with cellulosic feedstocks by 2022. The majority of feedstocks are projected to come from dedicated energy crops such as switchgrass, with smaller volumes from agricultural residues, forestry biomass, and urban waste. Studies indicate that the increase in cellulosic ethanol is almost entirely through switchgrass (nearly 8 Billion gallons out of the total 16 Billion gallon requirement). Switchgrass will be the main contributor to these goals because of its large CO2 sequestration benefit and minimal chemical inputs for cultivation. Other than the benefits, future biofuel production will be highly dependent on acquiring relatively cost-effective feedstocks in sufficient quantities. For the cost-effectiveness and relative abundance, corn stover is expected to be used more extensively than any other agricultural residue, such as wheat, barley, and rice, which are regularly harvested currently. While corn stover and switchgrass have gained significant attention so far, few studies have assessed the quantity of environmental impacts induced by each feedstock in 2022 using a consequential approach. The objective of the study is to quantify the consequential impacts of cellulosic feedstocks by 2022. With consequential approach, our study focuses on the changes induced by the production of switchgrass and corn stover for cellulosic ethanol expansion. The study also aims to examine and identify the key drivers of land use changes necessary to meet the cellulosic ethanol demand. This study will employ Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to assess the environmental impacts of future biofuel goals. This study will be based on historical analysis of land use changes, future demand on land use, fertilizer, and water use. This study’s results will help guide decision making regarding which feedstock is more viable and environmentally benign pathway for cellulosic ethanol expansion.
Succession And Adaption In Eco-Industrial Networks: From Case Studies To Agent-Based Models (Abstract #759)
Weslynne Ashton and Moira Zellner
Industrial symbiosis engages traditionally separate firms in a collective approach to competitive advantage involving the physical exchange of materials, energy, water and byproducts. Many of these communities of firms, or eco- industrial networks (EINs), have spontaneously self-organized for reasons of economic efficiency or as an indirect response to regulation or resource scarcity. In some cases, these networks dynamically evolve, maintaining physical exchanges and developing cooperation in other areas as well. In other cases, there has been partial or complete collapse of symbiotic activities. Previous work has suggested that these networks may have successional patterns analogous to Holling’s complex adaptive system cycle with systems going through stages of rapid resource exploitation, slow conservation, rapid release following major perturbations and reorganization of resources. Starting with a comparative study of twelve EINs, at various stages of development from around the world, we explore what drives succession in these networks, why some symbiotic networks have collapsed and evaluate the characteristics that are necessary to maintain complex, resilient industrial ecosystems. We hypothesize that symbiotic activities emerge when the economics and/or regulations are favorable and, if, the companies do not realize advantages beyond the pure economic or regulatory drivers, the symbioses are more likely to collapse when hit with major disturbances. We find further hypothesize that consciousness about environmental advantages, recognition of belonging to an “industrial ecosystem” and institutionalization of the concept among participating companies are key to developing resilience. We then use the results of these case comparisons to develop rules for agent behavior and systems operations in an agent-based model. We further test the hypotheses by re-constructing network development and imposing a variety of perturbation scenarios.
Lca Of Deep Lake Water Cooling In Toronto (Abstract #762)
David Rulff, Christopher Kennedy and Graham Harding
Using deep lake water to supply a district cooling network has the potential to significantly decrease the energy requirements for space cooling in urban areas. Enwave Energy Corporation maintains a district Deep Lake Water Cooling (DLWC) system for the downtown Toronto core. This study involved the development of a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) of the DLWC system that includes emissions, wastes, and resource use. To address concerns unique to the DLWC system, heat gain effects on the lake and on the local atmosphere were also included. The data collected on operations and utilities were in disaggregated daily and hourly bases, facilitating the analysis of differing operational modes for different loads. This is vital to understanding air-conditioning systems, as cooling load profiles are characterized by huge spikes in demand at intermittent periods, which in turn affects marginal electricity generation and system robustness. A conventional configuration of individual building systems was used a baseline for comparison. DLWC was found to provide a reduction in plant electrical requirements of approximately 81%, as well as a 74% reduction in GHG emissions from the conventional configuration. However, under mode 1 plant operation (where no chillers are scheduled), an even greater reduction of 86% from the baseline GHG emissions is possible. Overall, the DLWC system discharges 38% less thermal energy as waste than the equivalent conventional configuration. The water-borne component of this thermal discharge from the DLWC system was 4.7 times greater than that of the conventional baseline, which expels most of its heat to the atmosphere; however, this discharge is largely mitigated by then having to pass through the potable water system.
Pairing Lca & Gis To Assess Land Use Impacts Of Sugarcane Expansion In The Brazilian Cerrado (Abstract #785)
Briana Niblick and Amy Landis
This study examines direct and indirect land use impacts of sugarcane growth in the cerrado of São Paulo, Brazil. The cerrado is the savannah expanse that covers 20 percent of Brazil and which is considered to be one of the most biodiverse regions of the world (FLORELOS 2005). Experts have long warned of the dangers of expanding sugarcane crops in the cerrado because of the tendency to displace other crops and cattle into the Amazon rainforest. Based on current agricultural, political, and economic trends, however, this expansion is likely to continue. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and other environmental impact studies of sugarcane exist in the literature. However, these studies often use generalized methods and omit impacts to specific geographic regions. Furthermore, very few have been able to quantify direct and indirect land use impacts in any consistent, reproducible manner. Since land use impacts vary across geographical locations, there is currently an effort to pair LCA with geographic information systems (GIS) to better assess these variations (Geyer, Lindner et al. 2009; Geyer, Stoms et al. 2010). Using LCA data from the literature and satellite images from Brazil’s CANASAT and the global Landsat, this presentation focuses on two issues: system fragility and LCA metrics used to quantify this fragility. Based on GIS data, which parts of the cerrado are more fragile than others? Which are more resilient? In addition to biodiversity and various measures of soil quality, what metrics could best aid the regional land use evaluation of the Brazilian cerrado and its potential for sustained sugarcane growth? This presentation offers some recommendations in response to these questions and further illustrates how GIS-based LCAs can help convey locally pertinent information to policymakers.
Life Cycle Assessment Supporting Policy Regarding Urban Agriculture (Abstract #788)
Stephen Fisher
We know intuitively that a local food supply for urbanites may reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and simply be more efficient for some crops. But little is known about the degree to which urban agriculture can accomplish these reductions and efficiencies. Urban agriculture is wildly popular in some urban areas (for example, Havana, Cuba where up to 90% of fresh vegetable consumption is urban grown), yet its popularity is not tied to a quantitative sense of reducing GHG emissions or growing efficiency. Instead, its popularity has been tied to food justice, food quality, and food safety. We might find that policy makers take on urban agriculture to make it even more popular, if not profitable, as a significant tool to reach their sustainability goals – if the data would support it. The foundation for exploring these metrics is a life cycle assessment of the fresh fruits and vegetables that can be grown in a given urban area. For this paper, tomatoes grown in Denver, Colorado will be compared to tomatoes purchased at a typical large supermarket chain in Denver. The material flows and impacts assessed will be water, energy, and GHG emissions. These foundational data and other metrics may give the necessary backing to policy makers that wish to answer the question, “should we promote urban agriculture,” and then act upon it. Three policies at the local level that could have a significant impact are conversion of a small percentage of urban park land to food production; zoning convertibility for interim agricultural land use; and tax convertibility for owners of commercial or industrial lots who wish to lease or operate an urban gardening business. These three policies address, in part, water use, food access, urban blight, underutilized properties, and employment (urban farmer businesses).
Infrastructure Ecology: The Water-Energy-Transportation-Land Use-Socioeconomic Nexus In Urban Infrastructure (Abstract #789)
Arka Pandit, Elizabeth A Minne, John C Crittenden, Hyunju Jeong, Jean-Ann C James, Ming Xu, Steve French, Muthukumar Subrahmanyam, Douglas Noonan, Lin-Han Chiang Hsieh, Marilyn Brown, Joy Wang, Bert Bras, Jeff Yen, Miroslav Begovic, Insu Kim, Ke Li, Preethi Rao and Reginald DesRoches
With the global urban population increasing steadily, provision of sustainable urban infrastructure is one of the primary focus areas to attain the goal of sustainability. Urban infrastructure functions as a complex ecological system with the different components being interconnected across spatial and temporal boundaries, with the four major components being the water infrastructure, the energy infrastructure, the transportation infrastructure and the land-use pattern or the urban form. When the infrastructure components are not analyzed individually but as an interlinked system, the concept of ecology can be extended to the urban infrastructure as well and can be termed as ‘infrastructure ecology’. While two of the more prominent interactions are between water and energy, popularized as the ‘Water-Energy Nexus’ and that between energy and transportation, inter-relations do exist between all individual infrastructure components. Economy and policy being the two major driving forces behind the process of decision making, the socio-economic component plays a crucial part in the planning of urban centers. A system level integrative approach towards urban infrastructure often reveals more sustainable options which are not apparent when each component is approached on an individual basis. A holistic system level approach is required to attain sustainability since a comprehension of these interrelations lead to better design and assessment of the urban infrastructure system. In addition, resiliency is an important attribute of sustainability and hence needs to be addressed in every façade of urban infrastructure planning and design. The goal of the Sustainable Infrastructure for Energy and Water Systems (SINEWS) research team is to develop a framework for sustainable and resilient infrastructure that incorporates the water-energy-land use-transportation-socioeconomic nexus. The framework is initially being developed for the test-bed cities of Atlanta and Phoenix, and will then be extended to other cities as well.
An Optimization Approach To Greenhouse Gas Emissions Scenarios (Abstract #793)
Soheil Shayegh and Valerie Thomas
Future emissions result from complex dynamic processes, including demographic and socio-economic development and technological change. To model this complex system we will utilize a system dynamics approach, drawing on the discipline of industrial engineering, in which the active structure or dominant feedback loops can change endogenously. This will provide a contribution to the mainstream emissions models in which technological progress is exogenous. We will draw on existing research that includes technological development explicitly, ranging from the US National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), for which Georgia Tech is one of the few universities with operating experience and capability, the MARKAL energy modeling system, with which members of my research group have experience, and REXS in which the total production function is a linear-exponential function and incorporates energy (exergy) explicitly. Building on these modeling approaches, an optimization problem will be defined to find the minimum required investment in reducing greenhouse gas emission in each period of time given constraints on global temperature increase and global economic growth rate. The optimal solution for this highly nonlinear problem is subject to uncertainty from randomness in estimating parameters and also the interdependencies between constraints. We will further develop a Bayesian Monte-Carlo analysis of GHG emissions to evaluate the robustness of the optimal solution under different emissions scenarios. Validation and verification of the model, sensitivity analysis and model calibration will be done afterwards.
Probabilistic Development Of A Life Cycle Inventory (Lci) Dataset For Pultruded Fiber Reinforced Polymer (Frp) Composites (Abstract #809)
Subhan Ali and Michael Lepech
The sustainability of the built environment is increasingly coming to the forefront of many building designs and infrastructure plans incorporating pultruded FRP composites. However, the metrics used to quantify the environmental impacts of pultruded FRPs are not fully understood by manufacturers or engineers. In this work, the probabilistic development of a life cycle inventory (LCI) dataset for pultruded FRPs is presented. Although the built environment comprises the most widespread application of FRPs with the industry having produced 3.1 billion pounds of composites in 1997, the underlying datasets necessary for determining the full life cycle impacts of pultruded sections have not been developed for the United States. A survey of US pultruders was conducted to measure the industry-wide material and energy inputs into the FRP pultrusion process, and these were statistically analysed to construct predictive models for material and energy consumption. Coupling existing literature on component material impacts with results from this study, an LCI model was developed for pultruded sections including structural shapes and lineals. Furthermore, probabilistic models were developed for material inputs to the pultrusion process. Monte Carlo simulation was then performed incorporating the outputs from these probabilistic models to develop impact distributions for the constitutive inputs and industry wide impact distributions were created that reflect aggregate impacts of pultruded FRPs. A comparative LCA was then performed on a pultruded structural composite profile compared to a structurally equivalent reinforced concrete beam. Preliminary results indicate total impacts that are approximately 35% lower for FRPs.
Incubating Sustainability Through Community-Oriented Industrial Ecology (Abstract #866)
Felix Modelsee, Daniel J. Lang, Arnim Wiek and Beatrice John
The concepts of sustainability and industrial ecology converge in common key principles such as intended closed material cycles or a moderate rate of extraction and use of the planet’s natural resources. Yet, different societal actors still struggle with implementing these principles into every-day decision making and practice. We present an ongoing study that scrutinizes possibilities to apply these principles in an innovative incubator project on the local and regional level. This envisioned sustainability incubator aims at realizing synergies between small businesses in order to increase the proportion of “closed” material cycles (resources, products, services) whilst it aspires to decrease the rate of input-output flows. All generated products and services shall be community-oriented to enhance (i), economically, the region’s internal value creation; and (ii), socially, local community life and thereby the overall quality of life. The overall research project addresses the question of how to most effectively realize small-scale sustainability transition, i.e., ensuring the local system’s viability and integrity over the long term by putting the goals of small businesses − economic profit and improving public welfare − into a well-balanced state. Applying principles of industrial ecology on the regional material flow systems as well as fostering sustainable economic management on the local business level are designated main factors for ‘incubating’ regional/local sustainability. Apart from these hypothetical carriers for sustainability transition the study seeks to find out other prospective factors of success for sustainable systems as well as their possible causes of failure. For that purpose it uses in an initial stage a structured analysis of gathered experiences from and empirical data about existing sustainability incubators and transition initiatives. The results from this research provide insights and material for implementing local sustainability incubators in general, and in particular for the aspired sustainability transition initiatives in Lüneburg as well as in Phoenix, Arizona.